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of Dainty Devices 












"She was a little miracle while she lived, 
and so she died." 






THE PARADISE 1576-1606 between xiv and xv 










BY MY LUCK Is Loss 5 












WOOD 14 










BE. BY F. K 22 











BY F. M 29 




















BY M. K 41 





Is Loss 48 

C viii ] 





47. THINK TO DIE. BY D. S 51 

































BY E. S 75 



75. A LOVER'S JOY. BY F. K 76 



BY E. 78 



















J-H 93 







DEVICES 1578 97 























VAUX 112 


DEVICES 1580 113 











DEVICES 1585 125 












NOTES 177 











TITLE-PAGE OF THE 1600 EDITION (//) xxviii 





THE Paradise of Dainty Devices, the most popular miscellany printed 
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, first appeared in 1576, and by 
1606 had reached at least a tenth edition. Copies of nine of these editions 
are extant; all copies of the 1577 edition seem to have been lost. 

Compiled by Richard Edwards, a distinguished lyricist and play- 
wright, sometime before his death on October 31, 1566, the Paradise was 
perhaps inspired by the collections of "songs and sonnets" now known as 
Tottel's Miscellany (1557) and A Handful of Pleasant Delights (1566, 
1584). But the custom of compiling manuscripts of lyrics poetical 
commonplace-books, as it were began long before Edwards and con- 
tinued long after 1566. Edwards may have made his collection solely for 
his own satisfaction, with no thought at all of publication. When the 
manuscript fell into the hands of Henry Disle, however, that enterprising 
publisher was astute enough to see its commercial value and to rush it 
into print. Before doing so, he may possibly have added several poems: in 
later editions poems were added or subtracted, evidently at the caprice of 
the printers. 

In the course of its ten editions the Paradise published one hundred 
twenty-five poems; two of these 1 were so enlarged after the first edition 
as to be practically new, a fact which explains the apparent total of one 
hundred twenty-seven reproduced in the present volume. In addition to 
the anonymous authors among whom various professional ballad- 
writers must have been included the total number of contributors was 
about twenty-nine. No exact statement is feasible, since there is a dis- 
tinct probability that M. D. and R. D., for example, or M. S. and D. S., 
are the same author; while in two editions the initials W. R. seem to have 
been added to a poem by a mere typographical error. In round numbers, 
there are one hundred twenty-five poems written by thirty poets. 

No critical edition of the Paradise has heretofore been made. The pres- 
ent edition, based upon nine of the ten Elizabethan editions, is the only 
one in existence which reprints every line of these nine and enumerates 
every change. It is, furthermore, the only edition with a critical apparatus 
of introduction, collations, notes, and glossary. 

1 Nos. 23,72 (= 101, 109). 



Of the ten Elizabethan editions of the Paradise, nine are described be- 
low from personal study and one is described at second hand. The changes 
in the nine editions are so difficult to keep in mind that, for the conven- 
ience of students, I have provided a "Table of the Variations in Contents 
and Authorship of the Paradise, 1576-1606," which is inserted between 
pages xiv and xv. It should be borne in mind that the lost 1577 edition 
(X] was almost certainly identical with the edition of 1578 (E). The 
letters A to I are used throughout this book in referring to the original 
extant editions. 

A. The Paradvse/of daynty deuises, /aptly furnished, with sundry pithie 
and learned inuentionsi/deuised and written for the most part, by M. Ed- 
wards,/sometimes of her Maiesties Chappel: the rest, by /sundry learned 
Gentlemen, both of honor, /and woorshippe./viz./S. Barnarde. lasper Hey- 
vvood./E. O. F. K./L.Vaux. M. Bevve./D.S. R. Hill. /M. Yloop, with 
others. /[Device. 1 ] /Imprinted at Lon-/don by Henry Disle, dwellyng in/ 
Paules Churchyard, at the South west doore /of Saint Paules Church, and are 
there/to be solde./i576./ 

On the verso of the title-page appears the elaborate coat of arms of 
Lord Compton, and on the opposite page and its verso is the dedication to 
him (see pages 2-4, below). 

The colophon, on signature L4 V , reads: "^[ Imprinted at London by 
Henry Disle, dwellyng at the/Southwest doore of S. Paules Churche. / 


Collation: 4*-, sigs. A 4 , A (repeated)-L 4 . 

Two copies of A are known. 2 One, formerly in the possession of Colonel 
L. G. Phillipps of Dublin, was sold at Sotheby's on February 14, 1889 (lot 
659), for 220, and is now in the J. P. Morgan Library of New York City. 
It lacks the second signature A4. The other (the Farmer-Ellis-Heber 
copy) was sold at the Christie-Miller sale in December, 1919 (lot 70), for 
1700, as compared with the 16 it brought in Heber's sale (part iv) in 
1834, and is now in the Henry E. Huntington Library at San Marino, 
California. The Huntington copy is the text which I have reprinted. 

A contains 99 poems, all of which are reprinted in my text, and 13 of 
which are omitted in subsequent editions (B-JT). In the following list of 

1 See R. B. McKerrow, Printers' fc? Publishers' Devices (1913), device 172. 
a A manuscript copy made by W. T. Rodd is now in the Library of Congress. 




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these thirteen poems the initial numbers are those of my own, not of 
the original, edition; but the signature-letters are, of course, those of 
the original. For convenience of reference I have here, as in all similar 
cases, given the first line rather than the title, have modernized the spell- 
ing and the punctuation, and have added the name or the initials of the 

36. We read what pains the powers divine. By R. H. D3~D3 V . 

38. The hidden woes that swelleth in my heart. By E. S. D^. 

49. I would to God I were Actaeon, that Diana did disguise. By M. B. 
F 3 *. 

58. When sage Ulysses sailed by. By M. Bew. G^-G^. 

61. When first mine eyes did view and mark thy beauty fair for to be- 
hold. ByW. H. H-H V . 

68. The saint I serve and have besought full oft. By Richard Hill. H3 V 

70. What watch, what woe^ what want, what wrack. By W. H. H4~H4 V . 

76. The lively lark did stretch her wing. By E. O. I3~l3 v . 

78. Lo here the man that must of love complain. Anon. 14. 

80. What doom is this, I fain would know. By L. V. I4 V -K. 

86. My meaning is to work what wonders love hath wrought. By E. O. 
'K 3 *. 

92. Mistrust misdeems amiss, whereby displeasure grows. By L. V. 
L V -L2. 

97. In wretched state, alas, I rue my life. By R. H. L3 V -L4. 

The remaining 86 poems reappear in J5; 83 of them appear in C (Nos. 39, 
56, and 8 1 being omitted); and 82 are included in all later editions, D-I 
(Nos. 39, 56, 81, and 85 being omitted). A includes also ten lines (page 43, 
line 5, and page 48, lines 4-12) that do not appear elsewhere. 

Beginning with leaf 5 (marked Ai), A has a number at the top of every 
page, and the numbers run consecutively except on the four leaves of 
signature E and the one leaf of signature 62, where they are confused. 
Forty-seven of the poems (Nos. 1-4, 49, 50, 58, 60-99) are not numbered; 
in twenty-six of them there are paragraph-signs instead. Six poems (Nos. 
49, 5> 58, 65-67) are without titles, ten (Nos. 6, 23, 39, 42, 51-53, 55, 64, 
78) without names of authors, eleven (Nos. 7, 39, 42, 46, 59-62, 65, 68, 69) 
without the usual "Finis/' and four pages (viz., 7, 8, 13, 48) are without 
key-words. In A the key-word in only two cases (see pages 38, 40) in- 
cludes the number, paragraph-mark, or other sign that may accompany 



the word pointed to on the following page, whereas in the later editions 
such signs are uniformly retained with the key-words. Six key-words 
(see pages 29, 33, 60, 62, 66, 72) are incorrect, and three (pages 61, 79, 
86) are in a wrong font of type. 

Furthermore, exactly in the middle of A, at signature F (page 49, be- 
low), there is a curious change in typography. At this point the second 
half of the running headline drops abruptly into a smaller font, and the 
entire headline continues thus throughout the rest of the book, with the 
word dayntie henceforth spelled daintie. In addition, the page-numbers 
and the poem-numbers shift from roman type to italic of a still smaller 
size than that of the headlines ; and in the last half of the book the type of 
the text itself appears, though less noticeably, to be of a different font 
from that of the first half. Fully half of the remaining initial-letters, too, 
expand from two-line to three-line size. Whatever the cause of this sharp 
change in the middle of A, it is interesting to observe that a similar one 
occurs just as abruptly in B, at signature H, but not in any edition later 
than B. 

X. The Paradyse of daynty deuises. Conteyning sundry pithy precepts, 
learned Counsels, and excellent inuentions, right pleasant and profitable for all 
estates. Deuised and written for the most part by M. Edwards, sometimes of 
her Majesties Chappell: the rest, by sundry learned gentlemen, both of honor 
and woorship, whose names hereafter folowe. [Device.] If Jmprinted at Lon- 
don, by Henry Disle, dwellyng in Paules Churchyard, at the Southwest doore 
of Saint Paules Churche, and are there to be solde. 1577. 

This title-page is given in William Herbert's edition of Ames's Typo- 
graphical Antiquities, ii (1786), 685, with the note that the book was "in 
the collection of Sir John Hawkins," the historian of music. Herbert had 
undoubtedly seen a copy of the 1 577 edition, which is the only one he dis- 
cussed. He did not know of the 1576 edition, though he did casually refer 
to that of 1 578. Describing Hawkins's copy, he goes on to say: 

On the next leaf [meaning the next page, the verso of the title-page] is the 
coat armour in 12 escutcheons, with crest, supporters and motto of the right 
honourable Sir Henry Compton, knight, Lord Compton of Compton, to whom 
the book is dedicated by H. D. the printer. Under this coat of arms are the 
names referred to in the title-page, viz. Saint Barnard; E. O; Lord Vaux, the 
elder; W. Hunis; Jasper Hey wood; F. Kindlemarsh; D. Sand; M. Yloop; but 
there are several other names and signatures under the several poems, as W. R; 
R. Hill; R. D; M. T; D. S; T. H. C. H; M. D; F. M; M. S; F. G; Lodowick 

C xvi ] 

V' .'$& V/. *' 

. *A*** ^*^ v P"-4; w 

: i *5?y^*Wt:tifc 



Lloyd; E. S; M. K; M. Thorn; L. V; E. Oxf; W. H; R. L; T. Marshall; M. Ed- 
wardes; and one who subscribes with this anagram, "My lucke is losse." 

Herbert's title and list of contributors show beyond reasonable doubt 
that the 1577 and 1578 editions were identical, or, more accurately, that 
B was simply a reprint of X. Sir John Hawkins's copy may still be in 
existence, but apparently no scholar or bibliographer since Herbert has 
seen either it or any other copy of X. T. F. Dibdin evidently had not. In 
his edition of the Typographical Antiquities (iv [1819], 187-189) he re- 
produces the title-pages of A and X; but the latter he seems to have bor- 
rowed from Herbert, 1 though he adds the information that X had forty- 
six leaves. 2 B also has forty-six leaves, A forty-eight. Dibdin goes on to 
say of B that "the title and colophon are the same as those of the preced- 
ing edition" (X} y and he quotes with approval Haslewood's remark 3 that 
B " appears to vary from all the editions . . . and to contain a poem by 
George Whetstone, no where else to be met with." It is practically certain 
that the contents of X and B were identical, that Whetstone's poem first 
appeared in X, and hence that Dibdin, like Haslewood, had never seen a 
copy of X. 

Every other reference to X, so far as I have observed, is probably 
based upon Herbert. A 1577 edition is referred to by George Ellis, 4 Sir 
Egerton Brydges, 5 J. P. Collier, 6 Thomas Corser, 7 and W. C. Hazlitt; but 
there is nothing to show that any of them unless possibly Ellis had 
ever seen a copy. In his Hand-book (1867), page 437, Hazlitt gives in ab- 
breviated form the title-page of X y and remarks, "This edition appears to 
be a reprint of the preceding," that is, of A? But that he was repeating 
second-hand information becomes certain from his comment in the Sup- 
plements to the Third and Final Series of Bibliographical Collections and 
Notes (1889), page 158: "Herbert, in his edition of Ames, describes 'the 

1 Two slight variations in the title Councels for Counsels, and Chappell; for Chap- 
pell: are evidently due to mere oversight. 

3 Lowndes, T'he Bibliographer s Manual, ed. Bohn, iv, 1772, has the entry: "Lond. 
by Henry Disle, 1577, 4to. This edition consists of 40 leaves." 

3 In Brydges's Paradise, p. xxvii. The remark is repeated by Lowndes, he. cit. 

4 Specimens of the Early English Poets, jd edition, u (1803), 92, 151, 154. 
s In his edition of the Paradise, p. xxiv, note. 

6 A Bibliographical and Critical Account of the Rarest Books, i (1865), 241-245. 

? Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, in (1877), 325. 

8 Such seems to have been Collier's opinion too: see his Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers' Company, u (1849), 171-173, and his Introduction to Seven English Poeti- 
cal Miscellanies (1867), pp. v-vi. 

[xvii ] 


next earliest edition/ I that of 1577, from, a copy then belonging to Sir 
John Hawkins; but that impression, so far as I know, is not in the British 
Museum." Thomas Park, in a note to Warton's History of English Poetry? 
observes that Haslewood has shown that "the first edition appeared in 
1576, and a second in 1577"; but evidently he himself did not know the 
second edition. Later students have been no more successful in locating a 
copy. Mrs. S topes 3 says explicitly that she has seen none; Mr. De Ricci 4 
enumerates the edition solely on the authority of Herbert, as does Mc- 
Kerrow; 5 while Miss Henrietta C. Bartlett 6 is frankly skeptical that it 
ever existed, as is indicated by her entry, "B. 1577 (?). No copy known." 
That Hawkins had a copy and that Herbert saw it can hardly be doubted; 
but of its present whereabouts I have found no trace. 

B. The Paradyse/of daynty deuises./ Conteyning sundry pithy preceptes, 
learned/Counsels, and excellent inuentions, right pleasant/and profitable for 
all estates./ Deuised and written for the most part, by M. Ed wardes, /some- 
times of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest,/by sundry learned Gentlemen, both 
of honor,/and worship, whose names here-/after folowe./(.*.) /[Device. 7 ]/ 
Ifjmprinted at London, by Henry Disle, /dwelling in Paules Churchyard, at the 
Southwest/ doore of Saint Paules Church, and are /there to be solde./i578./ 

On the verso of the title-page appears the coat of arms of Lord Comp- 
ton, beneath which, arranged in two parallel columns (each column being 
enclosed in large brackets), are the following names: 

( Saint Barnard "| ( lasper Heyvvod. "| 

IE. O. R Kindlemarsh. 

I Lord Vaux, the elder. I I D. Sand. [ 

IVV. Hunis. J IM. Yloop. J 

On the opposite page is the dedication, printed in very small type and 
tapering to a sort of inverted apex before the signature, which is fol- 
lowed by a narrow horizontal ornament. 

1 This is not a quotation, for Herbert describes X only, with no reference to A. 

2 iv (1824), no f., note. In the Huntington copy of A (80.27) some modern hand 
has added, "R. Hill Edit. 1577," a note perhaps made from an actual familiarity 
with X. 

3 Mrs. C. C. Stopes, Shakespeare's Industry (1916), p. 278. 

Seymour de Ricci, The Book Collector's Guide (1921), p. 211. 

5 Printers' . . . Devices, p. 64. 

6 Mr. William Shakespeare (1922), p. 104. 

7 The same as in A. 



On signature M2 V , at the end of the last poem, the date 1578 is 

Collation: 4', sigs. A-L 4 , M a . 

Three copies of B are known, (i) The Heber-Collier-Ouvry-Rowfant 
copy, which sold in Heber's sale (part iv, no. 726) for 7, was bought by 
the British Museum on October 12, 1909, for 150. Though it lacks six 
leaves, Collier reprinted it in 1867, filling in the gaps from a copy of A. 1 

(2) The Christie-Miller copy, which was sold in December, 1919 (lot 71), 
for 250, lacked twenty-two leaves. I do not know who owns it now. 

(3) The Bodleian copy, which is followed in my edition, lacks four pages, 
or two leaves (signatures Kj-KLj.), but is otherwise perfect. I have sup- 
plied these leaves from (i). 

B contains 86 poems that are in A, plus 14 new poems, counting as 
new, for the sake of convenience, No. 101, to which two stanzas and 
Churchyard's signature are added, and No. 109, which has two new lines 
and Edwards's signature, making a total of 100 (strictly 98) poems. 
The new pieces are: 

100. Amid the vale the slender shrub is hid from all mishap. By Jasper 

Heywood. A3 V -A4. 

101. Why art thou bound and mayst go free. [Two new stanzas added.] 

By Thomas Churchyard. D v . 

102. I read a Maying rime of late delighted much my ear. By M. S. Dj. 

103. You Muses, wear your mourning weeds, strike on the fatal drum. By 

Lodowick Lloyd. D4 V -E V . 

104. A trusty friend is rare to find, a fawning foe may soon be got. By M. 

Edwards. E4 V . 

105. If thou delight in quietness of life. By M. Hunnis. 63. 

106. My eye, why didst thou light on that which was not thine. By M. 

Hunnis. H3- 

107. Like as the doleful dove delights alone to be. By W. Hunnis. 12. 

108. Alack, when I look back upon my youth that's past. By M. Hunnis. 

I2-I2 V . 

109. In choice of friends what hap had I. [Two new lines added by M. Ed- 

wards.] I2 v -l3. 
no. Old friendship binds (though fain I would refuse). By G. Whetstone. 

K 3 -K4'. 
in. In search of things that secret are, my mated muse began. By W. 

Hunnis. L. 

1 See p. xxxvii, below. 



112. In wealth we see some wealthy men abound in wealth most wealthily. 

ByW. Hunnis. L. 

113. When I behold the bier, my last and posting horse. By L. Vaux. 

L 3 -L 3 V . 

Of these 14 new poems, No. 1 10 appears only in B y * while the remain- 
ing 13 are reprinted in every later edition. In B the 98 poems are arranged 
in the following order :Nos. 1,5, 100,3,48, 2,6-11,4, 12-22, 1 01 (= 23), 
24-27, 102, 28, 29, 103, 30-35, 104, 37, 40-43, 45, 44, 46, 47, 105, 50-55, 
57, 106, 59, 60, 62-65, 75> 66 > 6 7> 69, 107, 108, 71, 109 (= 72), 73, 74, 77, 
79, 81-85, no, 56, in, 112, 87-91, 113, 93-96, 39, 98, 99. For the signa- 
tures on which these poems, as well as all others in C-/,are printed see the 
notes to the individual poems. 

B lacks four lines on pages 99-100 that were added in later editions, 
and also lacks line 5 on page 43 and lines 4-12 on page 48; its bad reading 
of Trusty on page 105, line 8, is followed by CDE, but the other editions 
have Faithful; and its typographical errors are numerous. Yet it makes 
many more or less authoritative changes in the readings of A. 

Up to signature K, B has the same pagination as C. Beginning with the 
fourth leaf, marked signature A4, it carries (on the recto of the leaves) 
folio-numbers from i to 25, with only one error (the first "Fol. 5 " should 
be "Fol. 4"); but, with the abrupt change in type at signature H, 
corresponding to the change that occurs at signature F in A? the folio- 
numbering becomes decidedly erratic, the figures are much smaller, and the 
abbreviation "Fol." is dropped. The headlines have daynty in signatures 
A-G4, and daintie in the remainder of the book; in the four pages 
(K3-K4) which I have inserted from another copy of B the spelling is 
daynty. Except for the first poem in the volume, B numbers its poems 
more or less consecutively up to 64 (No. 59 in this reprint), the point at 
which numbering ceases in every other edition. All the poems in B have 
titles, but three are without names of authors, four without " Finis/' and 
three without key-words. B and all subsequent editions retain in the key- 
words whatever characters may accompany the words pointed to; but B 
itself uses no paragraph-signs. 

C. The Paradyse/of daintie Deuises./ Contayning sundrie pithie pre- 
ceptes, learned/Counsels, and excellent Inuentions: right pleasaunt/and pro- 
fitable for all estates./ Deuised and written for the most part, by M. Edwards, 

1 But, presumably, also in X. * See page xvi, above. 



some times /of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by sundrye lear-/ned Gentle- 
men, both of Honour, and Wor-/ship, whose names hereafter/followe. / [De- 
vice.^/Imprinted at London, by Henrye Dizle, /dwelling in Pater noster 
rowe, and are to be solde at/his Shoppe, in Cannons lane, neare the great/ 
North Dore of S. Paules/Church./i58o./ 

On the verso of the title-page appears the coat of arms of Lord 
Compton, beneath which is the following statement arranged in three 
parallel columns: 

The names of 
those who 
wrote these 

Saint Barnard. 
E. O. 

Lord Vaux, the elder. 
W. Hunis. 

! Jasper Hey wood. 
F. Kindlemarsh. 
D. Sand. 
M. Yloop. 

On the opposite page the dedication is printed in the same general style as 
in By but without ornament. 

On signature IVLj., at the end of the last poem, appears the colophon, 
"Finis. 1580." 

Collation: 4% sigs. A-M 4 . 

Only one copy of C is known. Lowndes 2 notes that it brought 55 13^. 
at the Roxburghe sale (lot 3169). In the Christie-Miller sale, December, 
1919 (lot 72), it was sold for 400, and passed (through the agency of 
Bernard Quaritch, Ltd.) into the possession of Sir R. L. Harmsworth, 
Bart., Moray Lodge, Campden Hill, London. Both Mr. De Ricci 3 and 
Miss Bartlett 4 state that another copy is in the Bodleian Library; but the 
copy to which they refer, as I show below, belongs to an altogether differ- 
ent edition, dating circa 1 590. The Harmsworth copy is perfect as to text, 
though its title-page and various margins are badly torn. 

C contains 103 poems, which are made up as follows: 83 poems that 
appear in both A and B; 13 poems s that first appear in B; and 7 new 
pieces. These last are: 

114. Mine own good father, thou art gone. ByH.D. K. 

115. In loathsome race pursued by slippery life. By Candish. Kj. 

1 The same as in A and B. 

2 Bibliographers Manual, ed. Bohn, iv, 1772. 

3 The Book Collector s Guide (1921), p. 211. 

4 Mr. William Shakespeare (1922), p. 104. 

s It will be recalled that, strictly speaking, there are only 11 poems (Nos. 101 and 
109 being merely enlarged in ), and that No. no occurs in B only. 



1 1 6. If Cressid in her gadding mood. Anon. K3 V -K4. 

117. No gadding mood, but forced strife. Anon. K4-K4 V . 

1 1 8. What is this world? a net to snare the soul. By G. G. M V -M2. 

119. My haught desire too high that seeketh rest. By M. Edwards. M2* 

1 20. In place where wants Apollo with his lute. By Barnabe Rich. 


Of these seven poems, four (Nos. 1 16, 1 17, 1 19, 1 20) appear only in C, 
the other three in all later editions (Z)-/). In C the poems are printed in 
the following order: I, 5, 100, 3, 48, 2, 6-n, 4, 12-22, 101 (= 23), 24-27, 
102, 28, 29, 103, 30-35, 104, 37, 40-43, 45, 44, 46, 47, 105, 50-55, 57, 106, 
59, 60, 62-65, 75> 66 > 6 7> 69, 107, 108, 71, 109 (= 72), 73, 74, 77, 79, 114, 
82-85, 115-1173 in, 112, 87-91, 113, 93-96, 118, 119, 98, 99, 120. C 
also supplies to No. 100 (see pages 99-100) four lines that were omitted 
in B. 

C has the same pagination as B up to signature K, where its new 
poems enter. Beginning with the leaf marked A4, C has (on the recto 
only) a confused folio-numbering, with eight numbers duplicated and two 
triplicated. The numbering of poems shows less confusion, but two num- 
bers are duplicated and three that in the normal sequence should appear 
are omitted altogether. Five poems are without authors' names (the same 
three as in B and two new poems), three without " Finis " (the same three 
are in J9), and one page has no key-word. Occasionally a headline has 
Paradice for Paradise, but in general there is uniformity in spelling. C 
uses only one paragraph-mark, and that occurs before the very last title 
in the book. 

D. The /Paradise /Of Daintie Devises./ Containyng sundrie pithie pre- 
ceptes, learned / Counsailes and excellent Inuentions: right/pleasant and 
profitable for al estates. / Deuised and written for the most parte, by M. 
Edwardes,/sometime of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by sun-/dry learned 
Gentlemen, both of Honor and/Worship, whose names here-/after followe./ 
[Ornament.] /At London,/Printed by Robert Walde-graue, for Ed-/ward 
White, dwelling neere the little North-doore/of Paules Church, at the signe of 
the Gun. /Anno. I585-/ 

On the verso of the title-page appears a statement arranged as fol- 
lows between two horizontal rectangular ornaments of a conventional 

[ xxii ] 

rove, mductohe 



1f The names of those who wrote 
these Deuises. 

f Sainct Barnard. ] f lasper Heiwood. 

JE. O. I IF. Kindlemarshe. 

I Lorde Vaux, the elder. [ ] D. Sande. 

[ W. Hunis. J I M. Yloop. 

On the opposite page the dedication is printed in the same general style as 
in BC y with a narrow horizontal ornament above it. 

On signature M4 V , at the bottom of the page, is an ornament, but no 

Collation: 4 to , sigs. A-M 4 . 

Three copies of D are known, (i) The Park-Jolley-Corser copy was sold 
at the Huth sale in July, 1917 (lot 5558), for 40. It was imperfect, lack- 
ing the title-page and the last four pages, but having " at the end eighteen 
leaves of additional matter from the editions of 1576, 1580, and 1600." ' 
Its present owner is untraced. (2) The copy owned by Mr. H. C. Folger, of 
New York, may be identical with lot 2875 recorded in the sale-catalogue 
of the Hibbert Library (1829) as having sold for 10 IQJ. (3) The Hasle- 
wood copy, which I have used in my edition, was sold at the Christie- 
Miller sale in December, 1919 (lot 73), for 760 and passed into the li- 
brary of Mr. Huntington. 

D contains 105 poems, made up as follows: 82 poems that appear in A, 
B, and C; 13 that first appear in 5; 2 3 (Nos. 114, 115, 11 8) that first ap- 
pear in C; and 7 new poems. These seven are: 

121. Perhaps you think me bold that dare presume to teach. Anon. 

B-D V . 

122. The deep turmoiled wight that lives devoid of ease. Anon. D V -D2. 

123. Who seeks the way to win renown. Anon. K4~K4 V . 

124. What fond delight, what fancies strange. By J. H. M2-M2\ 

125. In May by kind Dame Nature wills all earthly wights to sing. [By 

M.Edwards.] M 3 -M3 V . 

126. O sovereign salve of sin, who dost my soul behold. By J. Hey wood. 

M3 V -M4. 

127. The wand'ring youth whose race so rashly run. By J. Hey wood. 

1 See the description given in Thomas Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, in (1877), 

-33 2 - 

a See p. xxi, n. 5. 

[ xxiii ] 


The 105 poems in D are arranged in the following order: i, 5, 100, 3, 
48,2,6-11,4,12-21,121,122,22,101 (= 23), 24-27, 102,28,29, 103, 30- 
35> I0 4> 37> 40-433 45> 44> 46, 47. 105, 50-55, 57, 106, 59, 60, 62-65, 75, 66, 
67, 69, 107, 108, 71, 109 ( = 72), 73, 74, 77, 79, 114, 82-84, 123, 115, in, 
112, 87-91, 113, 93-96, 118, 124, 98, 99, 125-127. 

Every later edition (-/) has exactly the same contents and order as 
D, except that E is the last to print the dedication; they all follow D, too, 
in dispensing with folio-numbers, but the pagination of D is in general un- 
like that of any other edition. In its headlines D follows the spelling of the 
title-page consistently, though in one case (E2 V -E3) it inadvertently re- 
verses the two parts of the title; but more than two-thirds of the capital 
5T's in the headlines are either broken or in a wrong font. Among the 
poem-numbers there are four pairs of duplicates and eight cases in which 
an expected number does not appear at all. Forty-six poems are not num- 
bered, six have no authors' names, two no "Finis/' All the key-words are 
in their proper places, and the paragraph-sign is used eleven times. 

E. The Paradise of Dainty Devices, circa 1590. 

Collation: 4% sigs. A-L 4 . 

The copy of E followed in my edition, and the only copy I have been 
able to find, is in the Bodleian Library. It lacks the title-page (signature 
A) and the last four leaves (signatures L-L4). Edmond Malone, its for- 
mer owner, inserted these missing pages in manuscript and capriciously 
dated his title-page 1580." This date, accepted by the Bodleian catalogue, 
has misled all bibliographers, like Miss Bartlett and Mr. De Ricci. In 
reality, the book is entirely different from the edition of 1580. Since it 
contains the dedication to Lord Compton, who died on December 10, 
1589, it can be no later than 1590. 

1 His title-page runs : " The /Paradice /of Daintie Devises /Contay ning many pithy 
precepts, learned Coun-/sayles and excellent inventions: right pleasant and /profitable 
for all estates. /Deuised and written for the most parte by/M. Edwards, sometime of 
her Majesties Chapell: the rest /by sundry Gentlemen both of Honour and Wor-/ship, 
whose Names hereafter /followe. /Whereunto i s added new inuentions, /very pleasant 
and delightful. /At London, /i 580. /" Although this title differs in several particulars 
from that of any other extant edition, it was, as Malone explains in a note at the end of 
the volume, intended to reproduce, except for the date, the title-page of the 1600 edi- 
tion (//). It has no connection with the title of the 1580 edition (C), which in this same 
note Malone again, in so many words, identifies with E. After his written title-page he 
inserted a sheet bearing " the Names of those who wrote these Deuises," with a few 
notes about them. 

[ xxiv ] 



A fl V*r JL** ; : | 

-, U^FS^fl 

7^,^,1 ; ; \;r;? '":;' ;'H 

Dcuifcd and written for the moft par tc,by M.ED WAR DII, ' 
ibmptimcofhcrMaicfticsChappcll: the reft by fun- 
dry learned Gchdeinen, both ofHonor and 
Worihip ^ whole names here- 
after fbllowe. 


^Printed by R obcrt WaWe-graoe, for E& 

ward White, dwelling ncerc the lit&NolHlooie 

I J 8,J 



E has the same number and order of poems as have the editions from 
1585 to 1606 (DF-I). It should be observed, however, that throughout 
the first three signatures BCD agree, on the whole, in arrangement and 
pagination, as do E-I; 1 whereas A has a different pagination from either 
group. Hence there are, as it were, three series of editions. The readings 
of E are in general more nearly related to the early than to the later edi- 
tions. Thus, at signature I4 V (see below, page 84, line 28) reads, "I am 
not as seem to be," as do A and B; while CDF-I have the correct reading, 
"I am not as I seem to be." At 4 (page 105, line 8, below) it has "A 
trusty friend," as have B-D; whereas F-I have the proper phrasing, " A 
faithful friend." Again, at p4 v (page 50, line 10) it has "In going to my 
naked bed," and at H4 (page 70, line 26) "The fire," agreeing in both 
cases with A-D; but in FG the word bed is dropped and T^he is misprinted 
TThe. E agrees more closely with D (1585) than with FG (1596), which 
are very carelessly printed. For these reasons I have dated it about 1590. 

Although E has the same contents and order as DF-I, it agrees with 
F-I rather than with D in printing many poems without spaces between 
stanzas. In the spelling of its headlines it keeps vibrating back and forth 
between Daintie Denises and Dainty e T)euices\ and in the number- 
ing of poems, though it apparently attempts to correct the blunders of D, 
it falls into mistakes of its own, for it has four new sets of duplicate num- 
bers and a few other errors. All the key-words seem originally to have 
been in place, but many are now worn off at the ragged corners of the bat- 
tered pages. No use is made of the paragraph-sign except at the beginning 
of the dedication. 

The dedication, which appears for the last time in E y is printed in the 
same general form as in D; but at the top of the page is a broad, elaborate 
ornament instead of a narrow, conventional one like that in D. The colo- 
phon is of course missing with the remainder of signature 1,4. 

F. The/Paradice/of Dainty Deuises./ Containing sundry pithie pre- 
cepts, learned /Counsailes and exellent [j/V] Inuentions: right/pleasant and 
profitable for all estates/Deuised and written for the most parte by/M. Ed- 
wardes, sometime of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by /sundry learned 
Gentlemen both of Honor and/Worship, whose names heer-/after followe./ 
Whereunto is added sundry new Inuenti-/ons, very pleasant and delightfull./ 

1 So far as the arrangement of the text itself is concerned, the pagination of E is the 
same as that of F-I; but because E contains the dedication, which the others lack, its 
text begins one page later than theirs, on signature A2 V instead of on Ai. 


[Device.']/At London /Printed by Edward Allde for Edward White/dwell- 
ing at the little North doore of Saint Paules/Church, at the signe of the 
Gunne./Anno. 1596.7 

On the verso of the title-page appears a statement arranged thus, be- 
tween two horizontal rectangular ornaments: 

The names of those who wrote 
these deuises. 

' Sa nt 2 Barnard. 
E. \ O. 

Load 3 Vaux the Elder. 
W. Hunnis. 

lasper Haywood. 
F. Kindlemarshe. 
D. Sande. 
M. Ylope. 

The colophon, on signature L4, arranged between two ornaments pre- 
cisely like those on the verso of the title-page, reads: "At London./ 
Printed by E. A. for Edwarde /White., [sic] dwelling at the little North/ 
doore of Paules Church, at the/Signe of the Gunne./Anno. 1596. /" 

Collation: 4*, sigs. A-L 4 . 

Three copies of F are known, (i) The British Museum copy was for- 
merly owned by George Steevens, whose autograph is on the title-page 
and at whose sale (lot 996) in 1 800 the book brought 4 6s. (2) An imper- 
fect copy is in the Capell collection at Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. 
H. M. Adams, the librarian, informs me that it "lacks the last leaf (L4) 
containing the end of the text and the colophon. Also the signature A2 is 
cut away at the bottom of the second leaf. Otherwise the copy is com- 
plete." (3) The Lamport-Christie-Miller copy, which sold at Sotheby's 
in December, 1919 (lot 74), for 680, is now owned by Mr. Henry E. 
Huntington. I have followed (i) in my edition. 

Except for the absence of the dedication (which stops with ), F has 
the same contents and order as DEGHI, and, apart from the slight dif- 
ference in the signature-marks of , 4 the same pagination as EGHI. In 
signatures A2-A3 V the headlines are badly cut, and on the other pages 
they constantly vary in spelling. In numbering the poems /^corrects sev- 
eral blunders made in E y but makes new mistakes of its own. It lacks 
three key-words and uses no paragraph-signs. 

1 See McKerrow's Printers' . . . Devices^ device 290. 

2 The / of Saint has dropped to the next line, between E. and 0. 

3 The r of Lord is printed upside down. 

4 See above, p. xxv, n. 

[ xxvi ] 

appccc reft by 

learned Gentlemen boih of Honor and 
<> W0rQup>fiofenames hccr- 
* atcwfollowct 

Whereunto is added fundry new Inuenti- 

oflSjVcr/plcalaQtanddclightfulJ,, '' 




G. The/Paradice/of Dainty Deuises./ Containing sundry pithie precepts, 
learned /Counsailes and exellent [w] Inuentions: right/pleasant and profit- 
able for all estates/ Deuised and written for the most parte by/M. Edwardes, 
sometime of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by /sundry learned Gentlemen 
both of Honor and/Worship, whose names heer-/after followe./ Whereunto is 
added sundry new Inuenti-/ons, very pleasant and delightfull./ [Device. 1 ] 
At London /Printed by Edward Allde for Edward W[hite] 2 /dwelling at the 
little North doore of Saint Paules/Church, at the signe of the Gunne./ 

On the verso of the title-page, between ornaments identical with those 
in F y appears a statement arranged thus: 

The names of those who wrote 
these deuises. 

Saint Barnard. 

E. O. 

Load 3 Vaux the Elder. 

W. Hunnis. 

lasper Hay wood. 
F. Kindlemarshe. 
D. Sande. 
M. Ylope. 

The colophon, on signature L4, under an ornament like that in F 
but with no ornament beneath it, reads: "At London. /Printed by E. A. 
for Edward /White., [sic] dwelling at the lit tie North /doore of Paules 
Church, at the/Sign[e of the Gun]ne. 4 / " 

Collation: 4% sigs. A-L 4 . 

One copy of G is known, the Brand-North-Heber-Utterson-Corser- 
Sewall-Harris copy, which is now in the possession of Mr. W. A. White, of 
Brooklyn, It lacks signature H4 (though Brand supplied this missing leaf 
in manuscript) ; the margins are closely trimmed, and in one case (equiva- 
lent to page 6, line 6, below) almost an entire line has been cut off. Corser 
describes this copy fully in his Collectanea Anglo-Poetical He says that it 
brought 8 i8j. 6d. at Brand's sale (no. 7511); 4 $s. at North's (part 
iii, no. 765); 2 7j. at Heber's (part iv, no. 1779); ^ 2 3 s - at Utterson's 
(part i, no. 692). It has been variously dated; for example, by Hazlitt 6 
and by De Ricci as "about 1590," by Miss Bartlett as "about 1600." 
Nevertheless, it is merely another impression of the 1596 edition (F), 
with which it is almost exactly identical. Both F and G were printed by 

1 The same as in F. 

2 The kite dropped from the form in printing. 

3 The r of Lord is printed upside down, as it is in F. 

4 The letters in brackets evidently dropped from the form in printing, 
s m (i 877), 333-334. 

6 Hand-book (1867), p. 438. 

[ xxvii ] 


Edward Allde for Edward White, and the two editions agree word for 
word, line for line, page for page. It seems likely that G was first printed 
without a dated title-page, and that, after a few misprints had been de- 
tected and corrected, 1 a new title-page dated 1596 was set up and further 
copies were struck off; but, if so, in the dated edition (F) several errors 
that are not in G were made. 2 Nearly every letter and mark of punctua- 
tion in the two are identical; and that F and G belong to the same edition, 
although they represent different impressions, is proved by some remark- 
able misprints that they have in common. 3 

Except for the absence of the dedication, G has the same contents and 
order as DEFHI, and, apart from the slight difference in the signature- 
marks of E, 4 the same pagination as EFHL It follows F in its changeable 
spelling of headlines, in its omission of the same three key-words, in its 
non-use of paragraph-signs, and in general in its misnumbering of titles. 

H. The /Paradice /of Daintie Deuises. / Contayning many pithy precepts, 
learned Coun-/sayles and excellent inuentions: right pleasant and /profitable 
for all estates. / Deuised and written for the most parte by /M. Edwards, 
sometime of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by /sundry Gentlemen both o" 
Honour and VVor-/ship, whose Names heereafter /followe. / Whereunto is 
added sundry new inuentions, /very pleasant and delightfull. / [Ornament.]/ 
At London, /Printed for Edward White, and are to be /sold at his shop at the 
little North doore /of Paules Church, at the signe of /the Gunne. / 

On the verso of the title-page, between two horizontal rectangular 
ornaments different from any that had appeared in previous editions, is a 
statement arranged thus: 

The Names of those who wrote 
these Deuises. 

( Saint Barnard. 


I Lord Vaux the elder. 
I VV. Hunnis. 

lasper Haywoode. 
F. Kindlemarsh. 
D. Sand. 
M. Yloope. 

1 E. g., at sig. B 4 (16.16) G has ticekle and F has tickle; at sig. G2 (55.26) G has the 
author-signature "E," which in F is correctly printed "E. S."; at sig. Gi v (57.6) G has 
Echone and F has Eche one. 

2 E. g., at sig. D2 (29,1 8) G has wherein and Ifinde; F has whereiu and / ifnde (with 
the //upside down). 

3 See, e. g., the list of misprints below, at 9.7, 15.23, 16.34, 22.12, 70.4, etc. Note 
also that the wrong signature-mark at Da in F is repeated in G, but is corrected in HI. 

* See above, p. xxv, n. 

[ xxviii ] 


ofDawtie T>tuifit. 
(ontaynirtg m^nj pithy precept* 

faylcsind excellent inucntions: right plctfant and ' 
profitable for ill dbto. 

Dcuifcd and written for the moft partc 

M. Edwards, fomctiraeofhcr MaicflicsChapptn: the 
fundry Gentlemen both of Honour and VVor- 
(hip, whofc Names becteaftec 

Whcreunto is added fundry new indentions, 


Printed for Edward Wbite,and are to be 

(bid at his (hop at the little Northdoorc fef 
of Paula Church, at tbcfigiwof 
the Gunnc. 



The colophon, on signature LJ., runs: "At London, /Printed for Ed- 
ward White, dwelling at the / little North doore of Paules Church, at the 
signe / of the Gunne. / 1600. /" There is no accompanying ornament. 

Collation: 4*, sigs. A-L 4 . 

The only known copy of //, formerly in the Farmer, Roxburghe, and 
Christie-Miller libraries, was sold at Sotheby's in December, 1919 (lot 
75), for 460, and is now owned by Mr. Huntington. It had belonged to 
George Steevens, whose autograph appears on the verso of the last leaf 
(L4 V ). In his handwriting, too, there are three pages at the beginning of 
the volume devoted to a list of the "Contents of the Paradise of Daintie 
Deuises. Edit. 1600,'* which also enumerates the variations between the 
contents of A and H. These notes were reproduced by Sir Egerton 
Brydges in the first volume of Censura Literaria? At the end of//, also in 
Steevens's handwriting, there is an "Alphabetical Index/' with some 
notes on "the known Editions" of the Paradise. 

Except for the absence of the dedication, H has the same contents and 
order as DEFGI y and, apart from the slight difference in the signature- 
marks of , 2 the same pagination as EFGL It was no doubt set up from 
For G, though it has many changes in spelling and punctuation, usually 
in the direction of modernization. Its headlines are spelled properly 
throughout, and except in one instance all its key-words are present; but 
in the numbering of poems it is still erratic, repeating some of the blunders 
of F and G, besides adding several of its own. It makes no use of para- 

7. The/Paradise /of Daintie Deuises./ Contayning many pithy precepts, 
learned Coun/sailes aud [sic] excellent inuentions: right pleasant and/profit- 
able for al estates./ Deuised and written for the most parte by/ M. Edwardes 
soetime of her Maiesties Chappell: the rest by /sundry Gentlemen both of 
Honour and Wor-/ship whose Names hereafter /folio we./ Whereunto is added 
sundry new inuentions/ very pleasant and delightfull./ [Device. 3 ] At Lon- 
don./ Printed for Edward White dwel-/ling at the little North doore of 
Paules/Church at the signe of the Gun. /i 606. / 

' i (1805), 255-266. 

2 See above, p. xxv, n. 

3 See McKerrow's Printers' . . . Devices, device 282. 

C xx * x 


On the verso of the title-page, between two horizontal rectangular or- 
naments unlike any that had appeared before, is a statement arranged 


The Names of those who wrote 
these Deuises. 

( Saint Barnard. 

[ Lord Vaux the elder. j 

( lasper Haywoode. 
< F. Kindlemarsh. 
D. Sand. 

[W.Hunnis. J I M. Yloope. J 

There is no colophon and no ornamentation. 

Collation: 4*, sigs. A-L 4 . 

The only traceable copy of / was sold in the Christie-Miller sale in 
December, 1919 (lot 76), for 390, and belongs to Mr. Huntington. 
Lowndes, 1 Hazlitt, 2 and De Ricci 3 note that a copy sold in the Nassau 
sale (part ii, lot 590) in 1824 for i us. 

Except for the absence of the dedication, / has the same contents and 
order as D-H, and, apart from the slight difference in the signature- 
marks of , 4 the same pagination as EFGH. It was undoubtedly set up 
from //, from which it varies only in minute particulars. For example, 
Queen Elizabeth died after H was printed, and cognizance of that fact is 
taken in I. Thus, in one poem (equivalent to page 104, line 21, below) 
Queene was changed to King, to the detriment of chronology, context, and 
sense; but the change in another poem (cf. page 31, line u) from Queenes 
to late^ueenes is sensible, /has both the merits and the demerits ofH: it 
spells headlines in one way throughout, apparently misses no key-words 
(and corrects some wrongly printed in //), uses no paragraph-signs, and 
even retains all the blunders made by H in numbering poems. 

Perhaps there were other editions of the Paradise that have failed to 
come down to the present time or that I have not found. A few others of 
various dates have, on doubtful authority, been mentioned. No weight, 
for instance, can be attached to the reference by Thomas Warton s to an 

1 Bibliographer's Manual, ed. Bohn, iv, 1772. 

2 Hand-book (1867), p. 438. 

* Book Collector's Guide, p. 212. 
See p. xxv, n., above. 

5 The History of English Poetry, in (1781), 388. But see pages 44 and 28511. in the 
same volume, where Warton says that the Paradise was published in 1578. 




Dcuifed and written for fa moil partc 

MEdwardes ioetimeofhecMaiefties Cfapgell thc^cft 
fliipwhofcNaracshorcaftcr " 

/ . foQowc. ' 

- ^*, . * * V %. 

Printed for E 
ling at the little North d 
at tbtjtgntof 



edition of 1573, or to that by Theophilus Gibber I to an edition of 1574. It 
is possible, however, that Timothy Rider brought out an edition in 1582 
or 1 583, after the copyright had been assigned to him; 2 for in 1583, among 
the publications which the London bookseller Thomas Chard forwarded 
to Cambridge by Hobson the carrier, were "25 Paradice of Devises. 4. . . 
8 o." 3 Whether this item means that the twenty-five copies belonged to 
a new edition of 1582 or 1583, or to the old edition of 1580, is problemati- 
cal. The sum of eight shillings, by the way, shows that the price of the 
Paradise "to the trade " was about fourpence a copy. To the public, 
copies were no doubt sold at the customary price of sixpence. On the 
title-page of Mr. Huntington's copy of the first edition "6d." is written 
in an Elizabethan hand. 

Dubious, too, is the edition of 1592, from which Francis G. Waldron 
claimed to be quoting in his Literary Museum of 1792; 4 and altogether 
unintelligible is the assertion made by Brydges, 5 in discussing Edward 
White's 1596 edition (F), that "Edward Allde also put forth an edition in 
1596, 4to. to which the device is a flowerpot." Both F and G were printed 
by Allde for White, and both bear Allde's flower-pot device. More impor- 
tant is the fact that the Paradise was entered in the Stationers' Register 
in 1620, 1626, 1634, and 1655; but each of these entries was a mere trans- 
fer of ownership, an assignment of rights, probably made with no idea at 
all of printing a new edition. 


Issued in 1576, the Paradise gained instantaneous popularity, and, 
with new editions called for in each of the two succeeding years, it was of 
course only natural that other poetical miscellanies should be published 
in imitation of it. The first imitator was A Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant In- 

1 'The Lives of the Poets, i (1753), 107. 

2 See p. xli, below. 

3 Robert Jahn, "Letters and Booklists of Thomas Chard (or Chare) of London, 
1583-4," The Library ', Bibliographical Society, 4th series, iv (1923), 232. 

4 Page 23. Waldron may have confused the date with that of his own book (1792). 
He apparently quotes from the 1580 Paradise. Lowndes (Bibliographer's Manual, ed. 
Bohn, iv, 1772) calls Waldron's alleged source "a doubtful edition," and W. C. Hazlitt 
(The Complete Poems oj George Gascoigne, n [1870], 334) says that he is "unacquainted" 
with it. In referring to Waldron's Literary Museum, Hazlitt assigns to it the incorrect 
date of 1789. Cf. the note on 1 19.27, below. 

* Ccnsura Literaria, i (1805), 256. 


ventions, 1 a miscellany compiled, with a none too scrupulous regard for 
originality, by Owen Roydon and Thomas Proctor, and printed in 1578. 
Its title-page shows an obvious attempt to mimic that of the Paradise; 2 
for it announces "gallant inventions . . . decked with divers dainty de- 
vices, right delicate and delightful, to recreate each modest mind withal. 
First framed and fashioned in sundry forms by divers worthy workmen of 
late days"* Furthermore, it lifts three poems 4 bodily from the Paradise. 
Possibly Proctor, himself a young printer, had Disk's permission to do 
this; probably, however, he borrowed and imitated, as Shakespeare did, 
with no thought of apology. Plagiarism, as we now call it, was not a crime 
in the days of Elizabeth, and to acknowledge borrowings from another 
work was practically unheard of. 5 The Gallery, however, did not prosper; 
in striking contrast to the Paradise, it did not, so far as is known, reach 
even a second edition. 

Soon other miscellanies were published, A Handful of Pleasant De- 
lights (1584), The Phoenix Nest (1593), England's Helicon (1600), A Poeti- 
cal Rhapsody (1602), but none attained to anything even remotely re- 
sembling the popularity of the Paradise. The only rival it had (for the 
Mirror for Magistrates is not a genuine miscellany) was Tottel's Miscel- 
lany, which by 1587 had reached its eighth edition. Towards the end of 
the century, however, taste had changed, as the decay of the sonnet- 
sequences proves; and, though new editions of the Paradise were issued 
in 1600 and 1606, it began to be displaced by Francis Davison's Poetical 
Rhapsody, which was published in 1602, 1608, 1611, and 1621. 

Elizabethan references and allusions to the Paradise are not infre- 
quent, some complimentary, others uncomplimentary. In 1586 William 
Webbe, the rhetorician, 6 declared that English poetry had found few 
friends to prevent it from relapsing into barbarism, "those that can re- 
seruing theyr skyll to themselues, those that cannot running headlong 
vppon it, thinking to garnish it with their deuises, but more corrupting it 

1 Edited by the present writer in 1926 (Harvard University Press). 

3 Cf. also W. A.'s title: A Speciall Remedie against the furious force of lawlesse 
Loue. . . . With other delightful! deuices of daintie delightes to -passe away idle time, with 
pleasure and profit (1579). One section of this book is called "Delightfull and daintie 
deuises," and has extensive borrowings from the Paradise. 

s The italics are mine. 4 Nos. 37, 49, 95. 

s For liberties taken by Brian Melbancke see the Notes, 16. 6-8. 

6 A Discourse of English Poetrie, 1586 (Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, 
i, 227). 

[ xxxii ] 


with fantasticall errours," a remark interpreted by Sir Egerton 
Brydges ' as a direct slur at the Paradise. But that both Webbe and his 
follower Puttenham a profoundly admired that miscellany, their quota- 
tions from it or their praises of its authors conclusively prove. 3 

Perhaps Thomas Nashe had the title-page of X or some later edition 
in mind when, in his Anatomy of Absurdity (i589), 4 he sarcastically in- 
quired: "Are they [i. e., authors] not ashamed in their prefixed posies, to 
adorne a pretence of profit mixt with pleasure, when as in their bookes 
there is scarce to be found one precept pertaining to vertue, but whole 
quires fraught with amorous discourses, kindling Venus flame in Vulcans 
forge ?" But Nashe was a young man who was presumptuously trying to 
lay down laws for the writers of the day. He was " showing off" ; and, if he 
actually was slurring the Paradise, then undoubtedly he had read nothing 
but the title-page, for a casual glance at the poems would have revealed 
comparatively few amorous discourses, whole quires of moral precepts. 

A few other Elizabethan allusions deserve mention. Abraham Fraunce, 
in The Countess e of Pembroke 's Yvy church (1591), D3, writes: 

Twoo faire eyes teach mee my lesson: 

And what I read in those, I doe write in a barck of a beech-tree, 
Beech-tree better booke, than a thousand Dainty deuises. 5 

In his Polimanteia, Or, The meanes lawfull and vnlawfult, to Ivdge of the 
Fall of a Common-Wealth (1595),* William Covell represents England as 
speaking to her three daughters, the Inns of Court and the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge, and as calling upon Campion, Breton, 
Lodge, Drayton, and other poets to sing. If they will sing, says England, 
"then should not the Paradise of daintie deuises bee a packet of balde 
rimes : then should not Zepheria, Cephalus and Procris (workes I dispraise 
not) like waterme pluck euery passinger by the sleeue: then euery brainles 
toy should not vsurpe the name of Poetrie." The poem "In Commenda- 

J In his edition of the Paradise, p. xxiv. 

2 According to a brilliant essay by B. M. Ward (The Review of English Studies, 
i [1925], 284-308), John, Lord Lumley, rather than Puttenham, was probably the 
author of The Arte of English Poeiie. 

3 See, for example, the references in section V, below, under M.B., M.D., Richard 
Hill, Francis Kindlemarsh, the Earl of Oxford, etc.; and the notes on page 105, line 21. 

* R. B. McKerrow's Nashe, i, 10. 

5 Quoted also in Brydges 's edition of the Paradise (1810), p. xxiv. There was a 
copy of Fraunce's book in Mr. J. L. Clawson's library (Catalogue, item 295). 

6 Edited by A. B. Grosart, Elizabethan England (1881), pp. 38-39. 

[ xxxiii ] 


tlon of Music" (No. 57) was quoted by Thomas DekktrmOldFortunatus 
(1600) some four years after it had been immortalized by Shakespeare's 
good-natured ridicule in Romeo and Juliet* 

After 1606, two hundred years passed, so far as is known, before an- 
other edition was prepared. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, 
however, students began to pay some attention to the Paradise. Bishop 
Percy referred to it several times in his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry 
(1765) 2 and reprinted one of its most celebrated songs; 3 Thomas Warton 
included an elaborate discussion of Edwards in his History of English 
Poetry (1781), and mentioned the Paradise a number of times elsewhere 
in the work, besides quoting from some of its poems; while George Ellis 
printed eight of the poems in the three editions of his Specimens of the 
Early English Poets (1790, 1801, 1803). The most earnest student was 
George Steevens, the Shakespearean scholar, whose notes 4 formed the 
basis of a lengthy essay on the Paradise which Sir Egerton Brydges con- 
tributed in 1805 to Censura Literaria. 5 

In more recent days the Paradise has met with its due meed of praise. 
It is mentioned, though without any particular enthusiasm, by all his- 
torians of Elizabethan poetry, such as Courthope, Seccombe, H. H. Child, 
and Schelling. Perhaps the sincerest compliment paid to it, however, has 
come from the Charles Pratt Company, of New York, which in 1882 is- 
sued for Christmas gifts a pamphlet called A Paradise of Daintie Devices. 
A Collection of 'Poems , Songs, Ballads. By Various Hands. The pamphlet 
contained selections from British and American poets, old and modern, 
as well as ballads from broadside and traditional sources. But this para- 
dise of poetry served only as an enticement to the purchase of Pratt's 
Astral Oil and Pratt's Prepared Gasolene! 


The article which Brydges contributed to Censura Literaria led him to 
a further study of the Paradise y with the result that a few years later he 
got out the first modern edition. It had the following title-page: 

1 See the Notes (63.3). 

2 Edited by H. B. Wheatley, i, 187; n, 51 n., 185. 

3 No. 57. See Reliques, i, 188-189. 

4 See the description of the 1600 edition (H), above. 

s i > 255-266. A book called The New Paradise of Dainty Devices was issued at Lon- 
don in 1777. 

[ xxxiv 3 


The/Paradise/Of/Dainty Deuices /Reprinted from/A Transcript of the 
First Edition, 1576, /In the hand writing of the late/George Steevens, Esq./ 
With an Appendix -./Containing Additional Pieces from the Editions of/i58o 
& i6oo./ And Introductory Remarks, Biographical and Critical./ By Sir 
Egerton Brydges, K. J./ London: /Printed for Robert Triphook, 37, St. 
James's Street, /And William Sancho, at the Mews Gate./i8io./ 

In the "Advertisement," signed "Samuel Egerton Brydges. Denton, 
Nov. 26, 1809," we are informed that " the additional pieces from the sub- 
sequent editions of 1580 and 1600, were kindly communicated by Mr. 
[Thomas] Park, from copies made by George Ellis/' and that Joseph 
Haslewood saw the book through the press. The Preface (page xxiii) ends 
with some Elizabethan references to the Paradise that were contributed 
by Park and Haslewood; and at page 120 the latter added a note apolo- 
gizing for the errors which a reliance on Steevens's copy and a faulty 
proof-reading had introduced into the text. The 1810 edition, then, repre- 
sents the composite work of five distinguished scholars, Brydges, Ellis, 
Steevens, Park, and Haslewood; but for convenience it will be referred to 
by Brydges's name only. 

According to the Advertisement, 120 copies were issued separately in 
quarto form, 1 and 250 copies in octavo were "attached to the British Bib- 
liographer'' Perhaps no book was ever published in a more puzzling man- 
ner. In most copies of the British Bibliographer (4 volumes, 1810-1814), 
in those, for example, at the British Museum, the Library of Congress, 
and the Harvard College Library, the Paradise is included in volume 
in. Henry Bohn's edition of Lowndes's Bibliographer s Manual* how- 
ever, says that it should be in volume iv, where in various sets (like that 
in the New York Public Library) it does appear. Furthermore, the octavo 
issue, no less than the quarto, often occurs in separate form, sometimes 
with, sometimes without, the 1810 title-page; while in many cases 3 an oc- 
tavo copy, to which is added a reprint of Ludus Scacchice: Chesse-Play 
(1597), has a title-page indicating that it belongs to the fourth volume of 
Miscellanea Poetica Anglicana Antiqua, a series of reprints issued without 
date (1810-1812?) and sold by John Booker. Still more confusion was 
created by Brydges's reissue of 1812, in which (at least in all the copies I 

1 One of these, formerly owned by J. P. Collier and containing his notes collating A 
and B y is in the Huntington Library. 

' i (i 864), 297. 

3 E. g., in the copies at Columbia University and the Library of Congress, as well as 
in my own copy. 



have seen) were included the Elizabethan title-page and two modern 
title-pages. Sometimes one of the latter is identical with that of 1810 
given above, while the other runs as follows: 

The/Paradise of Dainty Devices, /Reprinted/From the First Edition 
1576.7 With an/Appendix,/Containing/Additional Pieces from the Editions 
of 1580 & i6oo./ And/Introductory Remarks,/Biographical and Critical,/ 
By Sir Egerton Brydges, K. J. /[Device.]/ London: /Printed by T. Bensley, 
Bolt Court, Fleet Street, /For Robert Triphook, 37, St. James's Street./ 


In the Harvard copy neither of the two is identical with the 1810 title- 
page. One is like that just quoted, and the other reads: 

The/Paradise of Dainty Devises, /Reprinted /From the Editions of/ 
1576, 1580, & i6oo./ And/England's Helicon,/From the Editions of/i6oo & 
i6i4./ With / Introductory Remarks, / Biographical and Critical, / By Sir 
Egerton Brydges, K. J./[Same device as in the title above.]/ London:/ 
Printed by T. Bensley, Bolt Court, Fleet Street, /For Robert Triphook, 37, St. 
James's Street./ 1 8 12. / 

In spite of its faults, Brydges's work deserves praise. He reprints A en- 
tire, and in an appendix includes eighteen poems from C which are not in 
A and seven poems from H which are not in A or C. Evidently he had 
made a study of the editions of 1576, 1580, and 1600 only; but he enum- 
erates others of the dates 1577, 1578, 1585, 1596; and Haslewood adds 
(pages xxvii, 1 16) the title-pages of the 1578, 1596 (G), and 1600 editions. 
Brydges deserves, and no doubt has received, the gratitude of scholars. 
Although his text is so unreliable * that I have included none of his read- 
ings in my collations, yet in the course of more than three centuries his has 
been the only edition in which all the poems except No. no and parts 
of Nos. 101, 109, 123 of the various Elizabethan editions could be read. 
Moreover, until the present book appeared, Brydges's edition was the 
only one generally accessible. His indexes and his biographical sketches, 
too, are valuable. The defects of his editing must be passed over in charity 
and gratitude. After all, to have produced a scholarly work that has lasted 
undisturbed for more than a century is an achievement so remarkable as 
to arouse one's envy. 

1 One outstanding instance relates to No. 40, which Brydges prints without either 
number or title. At this very point, too, there is temporary confusion in his pagination. 
But most of his lapses from the 1576 text, so far as I have noticed them, involve single 

[ xxxvi ] 


John Payne Collier included the Paradise in his "Blue Series" of 
Seven English Poetical Miscellanies, Printed between 7557 and 1602 (1867). 
His reprint, which follows neither the mechanical arrangement nor the 
typography of the original, is based upon the imperfect Rowfant copy of 
B 9 with the twelve missing pages filled in from A? The results of sand- 
wiching two entirely distinct editions are, to put it mildly, misleading. 
The first gap extends from signature D2 through signature D3 V ; and Col- 
lier fills it from A with part of No. 24, all of Nos. 25, 26, 27, and part of 
No. 28, but of course omits No. 102, which in B comes between Nos. 27 
and 28. The second gap, H2-H3 V , he bridges with Nos. 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 
61, and part of 62; but Nos. 58 and 61 occur in A only, while No. 106 is 
added to B; furthermore, in B No. 57 is anonymous not assigned to 
Edwards. To stop the third gap, M-M2 V , Collier prints part of No. 95 and 
all of Nos. 96, 97, 98, 99; but No. 97 appears in A only, and No. 39 (which 
is on signature D4~D4 V in A and signature M V -M2 in B) he omits. It 
would be impossible to find elsewhere a reprint that, however innocently, 
gives a falser notion of its original. 

Collier reproduces the original title-page of B (though for the device he 
substitutes a little sprig of three leaves), but he gives no modern title- 
page or date of publication and no annotation of any kind. Such com- 
ments as he saw fit to make on the Paradise are to be found on pages iv- 
vii of the "General Introduction " to the Blue Series, which is prefixed 
first to one, then to another, of the seven reprints, at the whim of the 
binder. These comments he supplemented, as a sort of afterthought, with 
a small slip (bound into the Harvard copy) containing a "Notice'* in re- 
gard to the editions he followed. As usual, Collier was not altogether suc- 
cessful in reproducing his text; but, since his variants from A and B have 
no authority, it has seemed unnecessary to give a list of them. As the 
Blue Series was limited to fifty copies, Collier's reprint is now hard to 
find, and, when found, costs more than it is worth. It is less valuable for 
students than is the edition of Sir Egerton Brydges. 

The present edition is the first to be based upon a study of the nine 
Elizabethan editions, 2 and the first in which every line of their poems is 

1 These gaps, which Collier indicates sparingly with square brackets, are at pp. 37- 
43, 86-95, 134-138, of his reprint. 

a Mrs. C. C. Stopes had examined several of them before writing her paper on 
"The Paradyse of Daynty Deuises" (Shakespeare s Industry^ 1916, pp. 277-290). 


reprinted. It is, furthermore, the only critical edition; for neither Brydges 
nor Collier collated the texts or supplied annotations or illustrations. The 
trouble and expense involved in seeing the original texts have long been 
an effectual bar to editors. I have taken as my basic text the first edition 
(A)y and have reprinted it entire, wit^ the new poems of the later editions 
appended. In the Misprints and Variant Readings A is fully collated with 
every other edition, the new poems of E are collated with C-7, the new 
poems of C with D-I, and so on. Each edition, then, is in effect collated 
with every other. 

A represents the manuscript collection of songs as Richard Edwards 
compiled it; hence, since it also contains thirteen poems, as well as ten 
lines (one on page 43 and nine on page 48) that appear in no later edition, 
to reprint it was imperative. After the publication of A y it seems likely, 
protests arose against certain lines that Edwards had, advertently or in- 
advertently, miscopied, and against certain false attributions of author- 
ship. As a result, the printer Disle, we may suppose, made various 
changes in the edition of 1 577 (JQ, now lost, and retained them in the edi- 
tion of 1 578 (5), The changes so introduced, especially those that concern 
the authorship of the poems, deserve careful consideration, and, repre- 
senting as they do a genuine effort at revision, should in nearly every case 
be accepted. They are enumerated in the Misprints and Variant Read- 
ings, as well as in the Notes. The evidence of editions later than B is sel- 
dom of weight: occasionally they offer a plausible emendation of a word 
here or a word there, but, except for the new texts added, they have no 
real authority. Each subsequent edition, it will be observed, repeats 
errors from its predecessor or, not understanding them, gives readings 
that have no justification. 

On the whole, A is carefully printed. Comparatively few misprints 
occur, and those few are usually inverted letters, especially n and u, which 
were more difficult to detect in black-letter than in roman type. The num- 
bering of pages and poems, however, is somewhat confused. The first four 
poems seem to have been overlooked until the remainder of the text had 
already been set up: they have no numbers, and the pages on which they 
are printed bear neither pagination nor signature-marks. Page 9 of my 
edition is in the original marked " Fol. i "; it has the signature Ai, and the 
poems printed on it are numbered i and 2 respectively. From that point 
page-numbers are given consecutively as far as 32 (covering signatures 
A-D), and poem-numbers with one exception, due to a misprint only 

[ xxxviii ] 


run without break to 44. The numbering of the eight pages comprising 
signature E is disturbed, but from signature F onward the last forty- 
eight pages are, with one slight break, numbered consecutively. The sig- 
nature-marks themselves are correct throughout. The last forty poems in 
the volume (Nos. 60-99 * n m Y reprint), with three just preceding (Nos. 
49, 50, 58), have no numbers at all; six poems have no titles, and on four 
pages there are no key-words. 1 I have renumbered the poems from be- 
ginning to end, as the brackets enclosing the figures and the entries in 
the Misprints and Variant Readings indicate. The original page-num- 
bers, however, are kept at the top of the pages; my own are drop-folios 
enclosed in brackets. In the very middle of the book (at signature F) 
occurs a sharp change in typography which it was found impracticable to 
reproduce in the new text and which has already been described. 1 

In the text of the poems I have retained the italics of the original, but 
the black-letter type (with the key-words relating to it) is represented by 
roman and the roman by black-letter. Everywhere else (that is, in the 
title-page, dedication, headlines, titles of poems and the key-words relat- 
ing to them, initial-letters, " finises," and signature-marks) the typog- 
raphy of the original is followed as closely as modern types permit; but 
except in the facsimile title-page the long /is always printed s. 

A is reprinted line for line, page for page, as in the original; but in re- 
producing the additional poems from j9, C, and D it has of course been 
impossible to keep either the numbering or the pagination of the originals. 
The poems themselves, however, are followed line for line, and are num- 
bered continuously from the last poem in A. The order in which they oc- 
cur in their respective editions, and the signatures on which they are 
printed, are indicated elsewhere in this Introduction and in the Notes. 

The one hundred twenty-seven poems 2 reprinted from A-D are in 
every essential particular exactly reproduced. I have allowed all errors 
except such unmistakable typographical blunders as inverted letters or 
faulty spacing between letters or words to stand in the text, but have 
either included them in the Misprints and Variant Readings or corrected 
them (when I could) in the Notes. The original punctuation is retained, 
and, save in rare cases where it obscures the meaning, no attention is paid 
to it in the Notes. Square brackets, wherever they occur in my reprint, 
enclose editorial insertions; a glance at the Misprints or the Notes will 

1 Cf. the description of A on pp. xv f., above. 

2 Strictly, one hundred twenty-five: see p. xiii. 

[ xxxix ] 


show the reading of the Elizabethan text and the reason for emendation. 
This nearly literal reproduction of the originals seems all the more im- 
perative when it is recalled that, after long searching, I have been able to 
find only sixteen copies of the nine Elizabethan editions, and that these 
sixteen are distributed about equally between England and America. 
Since apparently no other student has seen and compared these editions, 
an almost exact reproduction of the texts is the only editorial method 
that can be justified. Line-numbers are inserted for convenience of refer- 
ence; they are, of course, not in the originals. 


Henry Disle, 1 or Disley, son of a London draper, John Disle, was ap- 
prenticed to the bookseller William Jones in midsummer, 1563, for a 
period of thirteen years. At the expiration of the apprenticeship, in 1576, 
he established himself in a shop at the Southwest Door of Saint Paul's 
Church, and signalized his freedom by the publication of The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices. In the epistle to Lord Compton which he prefixed to the 
book Disle explains that he had read the poems as assembled in manu- 
script by Richard Edwards and had found them worthy of printing. 
Friends also, he said, to whom he had shown the manuscript had urged 
him to publish it as a pious memorial to the dead English poets. Few pub- 
lishers are either lucky or shrewd enough to begin their lists with a book 
so popular and so worth-while. 

The Stationers' Register that covers the years from 1571 to July 17, 
1576, is unhappily lost. Perhaps Disle's first edition was entered and li- 
censed at Stationers' Hall before July 17, for it seems unlikely that he 
would have taken the risk of publishing so important a volume without 
permission. On December 3, 1576, he secured a license for printing a 
broadside epitaph on Sir Edward Saunders, and this he afterwards in- 
cluded in X and B. A poem which he himself wrote (No. 114) first ap- 
peared in C and was included in every later edition. Disle's imprint occurs 
on the editions of 1577, 1578, and 1580; but none of these volumes are en- 
tered in the Stationers' Register. On June 20, 1577, he was fined twenty 

1 The Bodleian copy of B bears on its title-page the following note, in an 
Elizabethan hand, on the etymology of the name: "Hen. Disle (de insula)." For Disle 
and the other printers mentioned in this section see R. B. McKerrow's Dictionary of 
Printers and Booksellers, Bibliographical Society, 1910. 



shillings for printing a book 'unlawfully and unallowed/ possibly the 
edition of 1577. When he reissued the Paradise in 1580 he had moved his 
shop into Cannon Lane, near the Great North Door of Saint Paul's 
Church. His last license for a book was entered in the Register on January 
26, 1580; and he must have died shortly afterward, for on July 26, 1582, 
the following record was made by the Stationers' clerk: 

Timothie Rider. Graunted vnto him by ye Assistantes A copie which per- 
teined to Henry Disley Deceased: Intitled A Paradyce of Dainfie Devises. . . . 
vi d 

Timothy Rider had been apprenticed to Richard Lynnell for seven 
years from February 2, 1564. He was made free of the Stationers' Com- 
pany on March 21, 1571 ; on July 26, 1582, as just noticed, the copyright 
of the Paradise was transferred to him. No edition of it, so far as is 
known, 1 was published by him; and, though he lived till at least 1588, he 
had four years earlier, on April 1 1, 1584, assigned his rights in the book to 
Edward White. Rider was an unimportant bookseller who appears to 
have had no shop of his own. 

Edward White, after serving for seven years as apprentice to William 
Lobley, made his first entry in the Stationers' Register on January 21, 
1577, and was admitted to the livery of the Company on June 29, 1588. 
On April 6, 1584, Timothy Rider entered in the Register "A copie yat 
was henry disleys called the widowes treasorer. Provyded that he shall not 
alienate this copie without licence of the master wardens and assistantes. 
and that Robert walgraue shall printe it for him." These stipulations 
were binding also in the case of the Paradise., as is indicated by the entry 
in which Rider transferred his rights to White on April 1 1 : 

Edward white. Receaued of him for ij copies thone the widowes treasoure. 
thother the paradice of Dainfie Devises, putt over vnto him from Tymothie 
Ryder. This is entred by the commaundement of master warden watkins in 
wryting vnder his hand. . . . xij d . 

Accordingly, in 1585 White's first edition (D) was printed for him by 
Robert Waldegrave. His next edition () appeared about 1590, and may 
also have been printed by Waldegrave, although the missing title-page 
prevents our knowing certainly. His edition of 1596 (FG) was printed by 
Edward Allde. No printer's name is given in White's editions of 1600 and 
1606. In all the editions his book-shop is said to be at the Little North 

1 But see p. xxxi, above. 



Door of St. Paul's Church, at the sign of the Gun. White died about 
January, 1613, and his business was continued by his widow Sarah. Her 
rights in the Paradise were handed down to her son Edward, who on De- 
cember 13, 1620, assigned them to Thomas Paviei and John Wright. Mrs. 
Thomas Pavier delegated the share of "her late husband" in the Para- 
dise to Edward Brewster and Robert Bird on August 4, 1626; and on April 
29, 1634, Bird's share was transferred to John Wright, who now became 
the sole owner. At his death the ownership of the Paradise passed to his 
son, Edward Wright, by whom, on April 5, 1655, it was assigned to Wil- 
liam Gilbertson. Presumably, however, the last edition printed was that 
of 1606. 


The contributors to the earliest editions of the Paradise included most 
of the leading poets of the day, among them Edwards, Hunnis, Lord 
Vaux, the Earl of Oxford, Churchyard, Jasper Hey wood, Francis Kinwel- 
marsh, and Whetstone. Certain poets now enveloped in obscurity were 
also represented, as Richard Hill, D. S., E. S., Master Bewe, Candish, 
Master Yloop, and R. D. The most noteworthy omissions are Turbervile, 
Thomas Howell, Gascoigne, Sidney, and Spenser. Later editions, being 
for the most part simply reprints, ceased to be representative of the poets. 
After 1585 the omission of such names as Peele, Greene, Lodge, Raleigh, 
and Shakespeare to mention no others must have attracted some 
attention, though it had no effect on the popularity and sale of the an- 
thology. An alphabetical list of the authors, with an account of the poems 
attributed to them, follows. Where possible, brief biographical sketches, 
which make no claim to completeness or to originality, are added. 


Seven poems are anonymous in all the editions of the Paradise in 
which they appear: Nos. 42 and 55 in A-I; 78 in A; 1 16 and 1 17 in C; 122 
and 123 in D-I. The nine poems that follow are anonymous in one or 
more of the editions, but in others are assigned to various authors: 

Nos. 6, 51, 52, 53 in A, assigned to Edwards in B-L 
No. 23 in A y assigned to Churchyard in B-L 
No. 39 in A, assigned to Marshall in B. 
No. 57 in 5-7, assigned to Edwards in A . 



No. 64 in A> assigned to Hunnis in 5-7. 
No. 121 in DE y assigned to Bourchier in F-I. 


This name was put among the authors on the title-page of A by the 
printer because the first poem in the book was entitled "The Translation 
of the blessed Saint Barnards Verses"; and from A it was repeated on the 
verso of every subsequent title-page. On the original Latin poem and its 
authorship see the Notes. In the Paradise the English translation is 
signed "My Luck is Loss/' a pseudonym discussed later in this section. 


Nos. 49 and 58, which appear in no edition later than A, are the only 
poems that with any degree of safety may be assigned to Master Bewe. 
Nos. 67, 73, and 82, which are given to him in A, are undoubtedly by 
Hunnis, Edwards, and Lord Oxford respectively, to whom they are at- 
tributed in B-L 

Mrs. Stopes has several times suggested as in Shakespeare's Indus- 
try > page 283 that Bewe is an anagram of Webbe; but this suggestion is 
not particularly helpful, for Webbe is as much of an obscurity as Bewe. 
William Webbe, the author of A Discourse of English Poetrie (i 586), is out 
of the question: he himself mentions * as a distinguished Elizabethan poet 
one G. B. (George Bewe?), who may have been the Bewe of the Paradise. 
Bewe is not an unknown name. A William Bew, for example, contributed 
a few lines to Jonsonus Virbius in 1638. 


Only one poem is assigned to him, No. 121 in F-I; and even this is 
anonymous in DE. 

Bourchier was a ballad-writer of whom little is known. One of his bal- 
lads has been preserved: "A worthy Myrrour, wherin ye may marke, 
An excellent discourse of a breeding Larke." It seems to have been regis- 
tered for publication on January 25, I577, 2 and is reprinted in the Rox- 

1 Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, i, 245. 

a Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 1772. See Robert Lemon's Catalogue of a Co/lection 
of Printed Broadsides in the Possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London (1866), p. 




burghe Ballads * and in J. P. Collier's Old Ballads from Early Printed 
Copies. 2 In these two reprints the author's name is abbreviated to "Ar- 
thur Bour." Another copy, which has no signature but which bears the 
date 1589 in its colophon, is reprinted in H. L. Collmann's Ballads and 
Broadsides. 3 A third copy, dating from the seventeenth century, is pre- 
served in the British Museum. 4 

Joseph Ritson 5 long ago pointed out that Bourchier contributed a pref- 
atory poem to Geoffrey Whitney's A Choice of Emblemes (i586). 6 It 
runs thus: 



PERFECTION needes no other foyles, suche helpes comme out of place: 
For where it selfe, can grace it selfe, there needes no other grace. 
Why should I then my fruiteles praise on WHITNEYS worke bestowe, 
Where wisdome, learninge, and deuise, so perfectly doe flowe. 
Yet gentle Reader by thy leaue, thus muche I mente to wrighte, 
As one that honours these his giftes, but seekes them not findighte. 
No longe discourse, no tedious tale y I purpos'de am to tell: 
Lest thou shouldst saye, where is the nutte, youfeede me with the shell. 
Goeforwarde then in happie time, and thou shalt surely finde, 
With coste, and labour well set out, a banquet for thy minde. 
A storehouse for thy wise conceiptes, a whetstone for thy witte: 
Where, eache man maye with daintie choice his fancies finely fitte. 
Giue WHITNEY then thy good report, since hee deserues the same: 
Lest that the wise that see thee coye, thy follie iustly blame. 

Furtheimore, though Ritson failed to observe it, one of Whitney's em- 
blems, 7 " Auaritia huius sceculi y " is addressed "70 ARTHVRE BOVRCHIER 

1 in, 87. 

2 Page 92 (Percy Society, 1840). 
s No. 10. 

Cf. Roxburghe Ballads, in, 86. 

s Bibliographia Poetica (1802), p. 137. 

6 Henry Green, editing the book in 1866, remarked (p. 386): "The name [Bour- 
chier] was one of renown, for Thomas Bourchier, cardinal-archbishop of Canterbury, 
is said to have introduced printing into England, and John Bourchier, who was chan- 
cellor of the exchequer to Henry VIII., translated La Chronique of Froissart." 

7 Page 204. 




One poem, No. 1 15, is assigned to Candish in every edition in which it 
appears (C-7). 

Nothing is known of this author. I see no reason for identifying him 
as Brydges tries to do in his edition of the Paradise, page xviii with 
Richard Cavendish the mathematician, or, as Farr does, with Thomas 
Cavendish the navigator. 1 


One poem, No. 23 (= No. 101), which is anonymous in A, is in B-I 
lengthened by two stanzas and attributed to Churchyard. 

Churchyard was born at Shrewsbury about 1520. As a youth he served 
in the* household of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, from whom he de- 
rived most of his poetical inspiration. Beginning to write in the reign of 
Edward VI, he continued until his death in 1604, thus setting a record for 
sustained poetical powers (such as they were) that in English literature is 
perhaps surpassed only by that of Walter Savage Landor. His earliest ex- 
tant work, A Mirror for Man, was printed in Edward's reign, as were also 
the ballads that carried on his flyting with Thomas Camell and that are 
reprinted in H. L. Collmann's Ballads and Broadsides. 2 Churchyard him- 
self collected these ballads, and printed them in pamphlet form in 1560 as 
'The Contention betwyxte Churchyeard and Camell. The pamphlet was re- 
issued in 1565. 

Churchyard also contributed to the 1563 edition of t\iz Mirror for Mag- 
istrates the tragedy of Shore's Wife (written in Edward VFs reign), which 
found many admirers among his contemporaries. His contributions to 
Totters Miscellany cannot now be identified, but one poem in A Gorgeous 
Gallery of Gallant Inventions is known to be from his pen. 3 He was also the 
author of numerous books, the best known of which are, to give brief 
titles, Churchyard's Chips (1575), Churchyard's Choice (1579), Church- 
yard's Chance (1580), Churchyard's Charge (1580), and The Worthiness of 
Wales (1587). His last work, Churchyard's Good W ill y appeared in 1604, 
and is reprinted in the second series of Henry Huth's Fugitive Tracts. 

1 Edward Farr, Select Poetry ', i (1845), xxvii: "Candish. Probably Thomas Caven- 
dish, Esq. the celebrated navigator/' 

2 Nos. 19-25. 

3 Ed. Rollins, pp. 57, 172. 



For many years Churchyard served in the army, at home as well as in 
Scotland, Ireland, France, and the Low Countries. He was buried at St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, on April 4, i6o4. r There is a sketch of him in 
the Dictionary of National Biography, but the best account of his life and 
works is that given by Henry W. Adnitt in Transactions of the Shropshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, in (1880), 1-68. His poems are 
always smooth and pleasant-sounding, although they abound in rhetori- 
cal devices and frigid conceits. See the discussion in W. J. Courthope's 
History of English Poetry, n (1897), 165-167. 


One poem, No. 114, is assigned to H. D. in every edition in which it 
occurs (C-7). Beyond much question, H. D. are the initials of Henry 
Disle, the printer of the early editions of the Paradise. He is discussed on 
page xl, above. 


One poem, No. 26, is assigned to M. D. in every edition (A-I). M. D. 
is mentioned along with Edwards, Churchyard, Hunnis, Jasper Heywood, 
Sand, Hill, and S. Y. (Yloop?) in William Webbe's Discourse of English 
Poetrie (1586); 2 but Webbe was obviously writing with his eye on the 
Paradise and probably did not know the identity of M. D. The initials 
could be those of Master (afterwards Sir Edward) Dyer, 3 who by 1580 
had attained considerable prominence as a poet; but in my opinion it is 
safer to identify M. D. with the R. D. who is discussed below. 


One poem, No. 15, is assigned to R. D. in every edition (A-I}. 

R. D. is perhaps identical with M. D. (Master D ), who is dis- 

1 The following bit of gossip about Churchyard (as told in Letters of Philip Gawdy, 
ed. I. H. Jeayes, pp. 144-145, Roxburghe Club, 1906) seems to have been overlooked 
by his biographers: 

M r Churchyarde the poett is lately deade, and not paste a fortnight before his cleathe 
being in a payre of loose gascougnes [ = galligaskins], being harde by the maydes of honor he 
shott of his peece, and all the powder rann downe vppon his stockings, dryue away the maydes 
and all the company, and was faynt [fain] to be carryed out. 

Gawdy's letter is dated April 6, 1604. 

2 Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, i, 242. 

s No. 26 is reprinted among the works of Dyer in Grosart's Miscellanies of the Ful- 
ler Worthies' Library, iv, 286-287. 



cussed above. No satisfactory explanation of these initials is possible, but 
a ballad-writer who signed himself "R. D." is known. One of his produc- 
tions, dated 1584, is reprinted in my Old English Ballads , page 245; an- 
other, "An Epitaph vpon the death of Richard Price Esquier" (1586), in 
H. L. Collmann's Ballads and Broadsides , No. 34. With the same initials, 
Collmann notes, are signed two poetical pamphlets, An Exhortation to 
England^ to ioine for defense of true Religion and their natiue Countrie 
(1568), and A true Report of the general! Imbarrement of all the English 
ShippeS) vnder the dominion of the kinge of Spaine (1585). Brydges, in his 
edition of the Paradise (pages xvii, xviii), suggests that R. D. was " per- 
haps Robert Dillington, who has commendatory verses prefixed to Lew- 
kenor's Resolved Gentleman, 1599"; but it seems wiser to attempt no 


Thirteen poems are assigned to Edwards (sometimes under the initials 
R. E. or M. E.) in all the editions in which they appear: Nos. 7, 24, 31, 32, 
33, 46, 62, 66, and 69 in A-I; Nos. 104 and 109 in B-I; No. 1 19 in C; and 
No. 125 in D-L Seven other poems are attributed to him in one or more 
of the editions: 

Nos. 6, 51, 52, 53 in 5-7, anonymous in A. 
No. 54 in B-I) assigned to F.M. in A. 
No. 57 in A y anonymous in B-I. 
No. 73 in 5-7, assigned to M.B. in A. 

All of these seven were very probably written by Edwards. Even No. 57, 
the only one about which there can be dispute, seems on the evidence of 
style to belong to him. 

Richard Edwards, the original compiler of the Paradise and one of its 
leading contributors, was born in Somersetshire about 1523. He entered 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on May 1 1, 1540, was elected to a fellow- 
ship there after he had taken his B.A. degree in 1544, and in 1547 became 
Senior Student at Christ Church College. At Oxford he studied music un- 
der George Etheridge. 

As "a slender tall young man" in the phrase of No. 7, below 
Edwards departed with his father's blessing to seek his fortune at the 
Court. Evidently he succeeded at once, for under King Edward VI he had 


a fee or annuity of 6 13^. 4^. x At the coronation of Queen Mary in 1553 
he received his livery as gentleman of the Chapel Royal; 2 and in that 
capacity, on January i, 1556/7, he made her a New Year's gift of "cer- 
tain verses." 3 By royal patent, dated May 27, 1560, he was confirmed in 
office; and about a year later, on October 27, 1561, he received a patent 
appointing him successor to Richard Bower as Master of the Children of 
the Chapel Royal. 4 

Under Edwards's direction the children performed various plays at 
Court, among them his Damon and Pythias > which they acted before the 
Queen at Whitehall on Christmas Day, 1564. Other performances by the 
children are recorded at Lincoln's Inn in February, 1565, and February, 
1566, a matter of some interest, since on November 25, 1564, Edwards 
had been admitted to membership in that Inn. In 1566 Edwards attended 
the Queen on her progress to Oxford, where for her entertainment his play 
of Palawan and Ar cite ^ now lost, was performed in Christ Church Hall. 5 
He died on October 31, 1566, and was succeeded in the Chapel Royal by 
William Hunnis. 6 

Damon and Pythias > his only extant drama and the first English tragi- 
comedy, gave him among his contemporaries a gieat reputation as a play- 
wright. "This fine old tale out of Syracusan history," says Professor Wal- 
lace, 7 "with its tragic and comic elements happily mingled in a rising tide 
of suspense to the climax, as presented by Edwards, formed the high- 
water mark of English drama up to that time." As late as 1598 Francis 
Meres, in Palladis 'famia* named "Maister Edwardes one of her Males- 
ties Chappell," along with the Earl of Oxford, Shakespeare, and others, 
as " the best for Comedy amongst vs." Furthermore, in A Poor Knight his 

1 Mrs. Stopes, William Hunnis (1910), p. 147. 

a W. H. Grattan Flood, Early Tudor Composers (1925), p. 114. 

3 John Nichols, The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth, i (1823), 
xxxv, note. 

4 C. W. Wallace, The Evolution of the English Drama up to Shakespeare (1912), 
p. 106; The Children of the Chapel at Blackfriars, 1597-1603 (1908), pp. 64-65. 

s Wallace, Evolution of 'the English Drama, pp. 1 10 ff.; Richard Stephens's Brief Re- 
hearsall, in Elizabethan Oxford, ed. C. Plummer, pp. 200 ff. (Oxford Historical Society, 

6 The Old Cheque-Book, or Book of Remembrance, of the Chapel Royal, ed. E. F. Rim- 
bault, pp. 1-2, 5 (Camden Society, 1872). 

7 Evolution of the English Drama, p. no. 

8 Shakspere Allusion-Books, i, 161 (New Shakspere Society, 1874). Cf. Puttenham, 
as cited on p. lix, below. 

xlviii ] 


Palace of Private Pleasures, 1579, Cj v , the author tells of a dream in 
which he saw various poets serving a banquet to the gods, and his list in- 
cludes Homer, Hesiod, Euripides, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Gower, Skelton, 
"And Edwards hee, who while hee liude, did sit in chaire of fame/' 
Equally flattering were the eulogy by Barnabe Googe in his Eglogs 
(1563), and the elegies by George Turbervile and Thomas Twyne that 
appeared in Turbervile's Epitaphes, Epigrams, Songs and Sonets (1567). 
A long passage about him occurs in 'Claudius HollybandV Frenche 
Schoole-maister (1573),' where one speaker remarks of Edwards's death, 
"Truelie it is pi tie: he was a man of a good wit, and a good poete: and a 
great player of playes." 

The lyrics of Edwards are far from contemptible, as those in the Para- 
dise show. Four other poems attributed to him are preserved in Cotton 
MS. Titus A. xxiv; one of them, "The Soul Knell," 2 is reprinted in Mod- 
ern Language Notes; 3 another, "The prayse of eight Ladyes of Queen 
Elizabeth's Court," in Thomas Park's Nuga Antiques* 

For a further discussion of Edwards's life and works Thomas Warton's 
History of English Poetry s and the Dictionary of National Biography 
should be consulted; but the most valuable accounts are in two articles by 
W. Y. Durand 6 and in Professoi Wallace's Evolution of the English Stage? 

In his dedicatory letter to Lord Compton, Henry Disle says that the 
first edition of the Paradise represents a manuscript compilation made by 
Edwards. If his remark be interpreted literally, then none of the poems in 
the 1576 edition can be later in date than 1566. Whether or not Edwards, 
instead of the printei, was responsible for the signatures to the various 
poems it is difficult to determine; in any case, publication served to bring 
to light the real names or initials of their authors, so that in later editions 
many changes of attribution were made. 

1 M. St. Clare Byrne, The Elizabethan Home (1925), pp. 37-38. 

3 "What!" exclaims George Gascoigne, in The Posies , 1575 (Complete Poems, ed. 
Hazlitt, i, 9), "should I stand much in rehersall how the L. Vaux his dittie (beginning 
thus: I loth that I did hue) was thought by some to be made vpo his death bed? and that 
the Soulknill of M. Edwards was also written in extremitie of sicknesse?" 

3 xxm (1908), 130. 

4 ii (1804), 392-394. 

5 III (l78l),283-297. 

6 "Notes on Richard Edwards," Journal of Germanic Philology, iv (1902), 348- 
369; "Some Errors concerning Richard Edwards," Modern Language Notes, xxm 
(1908), 129-131. 

7 Pages 106-115. 

[ xlix ] 



One poem, No. 98, is in the titles ofF-I said to be "sung by " the Earl 
of Essex; in D the title says the same thing, but at the end the poem is as- 
signed to Francis Kinwelmarsh; in A-C it is signed Kinwelmarsh but has 
nothing about Essex in the title. That Kinwelmarsh, and not Essex, wrote 
the poem is my opinion, as is sufficiently indicated in the notes to No. 98. 


One poem, No. 28, is attiibuted to F. G. in every edition (A-I). Per- 
haps these initials were intended to represent Sir Fulke Greville, first 
Lord Brooke (1554-1628), the friend and biographer of Sir Philip Sidney; 
but there is no evidence to support such an identification. 1 

G. G. (G. CASK, or GASKE) 

One poem, No. 1 18, is attributed to G. G., or G. Gask(e), in every edi- 
tion in which it appears (C-7). These signatures were no doubt intended 
to represent George Gascoigne. No. 1 18 was, however, written by George 
Whetstone; and, as the discussion at page Ivi below will prove, there is no 
good reason for identifying the signature of " My Luck is Loss " with Gas- 
coigne. Apparently, then, Gascoigne has no authentic poems in the Para- 
dise, a striking fact when it is recalled that in 1 576, and even later, he was 
one of the most important poets in England. 


Harington's name does not appear in the Paradise. Just possibly he 
may have been the author of Nos. 17 and 47, which in A-I are assigned 
respectively to Lord Vaux and D. S. See the notes on these poems. 

The dates of Harington's birth and death are unknown. He served 
Henry VIII in some capacity, and in 1546 married Henry's natural 
daughter, Ethelreda Dyngley (or Dobson). In a short time she died, leav- 
ing him her dower-lands, whereupon he married Isabella Markham 
(1554), one of the Princess Elizabeth's gentlewomen. For their loyal 
services to Elizabeth he and his wife were sent to the Tower when the 

1 Morris W. Croll, The Works of Fulke Greville (1903), p. 4, declares: "The poem be- 
ginning ' In youth when I at large did leade/ published in The Paradise of Dainty De- 
vices (1578) and signed 'F. G.,' is certainly not by Greville." 



princess was imprisoned, and some of his verses were written during his 
incarceration. His poems are preserved in Nugce Antiques, edited by 
Henry Harington in 1769, 1779, 1792, and by Thomas Park in 1804. 


Eight poems are attributed to Heywood in all the editions in which 
they appear: Nos. 10, 12, 95, and 96 in A-I; No. 100 in B-I; and Nos. 
124, 126, and 127 in D-I. He is, then, one of the very few contributors to 
the Paradise whose authorship is unchallenged. 

Son of John Heywood, the celebrated writer of proverbs and inter- 
ludes, Jasper was born at London in 1535. During his early childhood 
he served as a page to the Princess Elizabeth, but at the age of twelve en- 
tered the University of Oxford, where he proceeded to the degrees of B.A. 
in 15^3, M.A. in 1558. In 1554 he was elected to a probationary fellow- 
ship in Merton College, but resigned it in April, 1558. In the following 
November he became fellow of All Souls' College, but in consequence of 
his refusal to abjure the Roman Catholic religion he was soon forced to re- 
sign. Shortly afterwards Heywood went to Rome, where in 1562 he was 
admitted to the Society of Jesus. For seventeen years he was professor of 
moral theology and controversy in the Jesuit College at Dillingen, Ba- 
varia; in 1570 he became a professed father of the Jesuit order. 

In 1581 Heywood returned to England at the head of a Jesuit mis- 
sion. Late in 1583 he was arrested, imprisoned, and several times ex- 
amined by the Privy Council, which, it was reported, offered him a 
bishopric if he would conform to the Established Church. On Feb- 
ruary 5, 1584, he with five other priests was arraigned in Westminster 
Hall. The five priests were condemned for high tieason and executed; 
but Heywood was withdrawn, taken to the Tower, and held prisoner for 
over a year. In January, 1585, he was deported to France and ordered 
not to reenter England on penalty of death. He found a refuge in the 
Jesuit college at Dole, whence in 1589 he was sent to Rome and even- 
tually to Naples, where he died on January 9, 1598. 

Heywood is now best known for his translations of Seneca's ^roas 
(1559), Thyestes (1560), and Hercules Furens (1561), which, with an ex- 
haustive account of Heywood himself, were edited in 1913 by H. de 
Vocht in Willy Bang's Materialien zur Kunde des alter en Englischen 
Dramas, volume XLI. Except for the original verses that accompany these 
translations, in way of dedication, preface, or additions to the text itself, 


Heywood's contributions to the Paradise seem to be the only poems of his 
own composition that have survived. 


Seven poems are attributed to Richard Hill in all the editions in which 
they appear: Nos. 36, 68, and 97 in A; Nos. 14, 34, 35, and 79 in A-L 
Like Heywood's contributions, then, Hill's are undisputed; but, as the 
notes to No. 79 will show, in several editions either his name is mis- 
spelled or else the wrong initial is given him. 

Nothing is known of this author, apart from the fact that he is men- 
tioned in Webbe's Discourse of English Poetrie (1586) r in good company, 
Lord Surrey, Lord Vaux, "Norton of Bristow y Edwardes, Tusser, 
Churchyard, Wyl. Hunnis, Haiwood^ Sand, Hyll, S.Y., M.D., and many 
others." It would be pleasant if some connection could be proved between 
him and the Richard Hill whose commonplace-book (Balliol MS. 354) of 
ballads and other poems, dating about 1 536, was edited by Roman Dy- 
boski for the Early English Text Society in 1907. 


Fourteen poems are assigned to Hunnis in all the editions in which 
they appear: Nos. 61 and 70 in A; Nos. 59, 60, 63, 65, and 72 in A-I; 
Nos. 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, in, and 112 in B-L No. 61, as a matter of 
fact, was written by Sir Thomas Wyatt; but, even when it is deducted, 
Hunnis's total number of poems is greater than that of any other con- 
tributor to the Paradise except Edwards. Seven additional poems are as- 
signed to him in one or more of the editions, but in other editions are at- 
tributed to different authors: 

No. 4 in D-I, assigned to E. S. in A, to W. R. in BC. 

No. 5 in 5-7, assigned to D. S. in A. 

No. 48 in 5-7, assigned to Lord Vaux in A. 

No. 64 in 5-7, anonymous in A. 

No. 67 in 5-7, assigned to M.B. in A. 

No. 88 in 5-G, assigned to Lord Vaux in A, anonymous in HI. 

No. 94 in 5-7, assigned to T. M(arshall). in A. 

Probably all seven of these poems were actually the work of Hunnis. 

1 Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, I, 242. 


When William Hunnis was born is unknown; but he was described in 
Thomas Newton's lines prefixed to A Hive Full of Honey (1578), two 
years after the first edition of the Paradise had appeared, as " in winter of 
thine age." On the title-page of his first publication, Certayne Psalmes 
(1550), he is called " servant " to Sir William Herbert, afterwards the 
Earl of Pembroke. Some three years later he appears among the Gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal; and in 1556, for conspiracy against Queen 
Mary, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Through this calamity 
his position in the Chapel Royal was, of course, lost; but it was probably 
restored to him soon after the accession of Elizabeth, for his name occurs 
in the Cheque Book of the Chapel in 1561. Meanwhile, in 1559, he had 
married Margaret, the widow of his old friend Nicholas Brigham, Teller 
of the Exchequer and so-called founder of the Poets' Corner in the Abbey, 
thus acquiring a life-interest in the almonry at Westminster. His wife 
died before October 12, 1559, and about 1560 Hunnis married again, this 
time Agnes Blanck, the widow of a grocer. He took up his freedom in the 
Company of Grocers, conducted a shop in Southwark, and was elected to 
the livery of the company in May, 1567; but by 1586 his name had disap- 
peared from its records. He had at least one son, Robin (or Robert), who 
served as page to Walter Devereux, first Earl of Essex, in Ireland, and 
who is said to have tasted the poison with which, it was alleged, Essex 
was killed in 1576.' In consequence Robin himself was "like to have lost 
his lyfe, but escaped in the end (being yong) wyth the losse only of his 
heare." Whatever be the truth of this tale, he served under the Earl of 
Leicester from 1579 to 1583 as Rider of the Stable, and in other capa- 
cities until 1593. 

In 1562 William Hunnis was appointed Keeper of the Orchard and 
Gardens at Greenwich, an office which he held until his death. On No- 
vember 15, 1566, he succeeded Richard Edwards, his celebrated fellow- 
contributor to the Paradise, as Master of the Children of the Chapel 
Royal. In 1570 the Queen recommended to the City of London that he be 
appointed Taker of Tolls and Dues on London Bridge, and his claim 
was bought off for 40. 

Among other publications, Hunnis was the author of A Hive Full of 
Honey (1578), A Handful of Honeysuckles (1578), Seven Sobs of a Sorrow- 
Jul Soul for Sin (1583), and Hunnies Recreations (1588). Mrs. Stopes at- 

1 See the notes to No. 98 (95. 13). 


tributes to him the play of Jacob and Esau, and perhaps that of Godly 
$>ueen Hester, as well as one poem in A Handful of Pleasant Delights (i 584) 
and two poems in England's Helicon (1600). In 1583 Hunnis called the at- 
tention of the Queen to the poor pay allowed him as Master of the Chapel 
Royal; in 1585 he received various grants of land in Essex, Hertford, and 
elsewhere. He died on June 6, 1597. 

The ultimate authority on the life and works of Hunnis is Mrs. C. C. 
Stopes, whose volume called William Hunnis and the Revels of the Chapel 
Royal was printed, in 1910, in Willy Bang's Materialien zur Kunde des 
alteren Englischen Dramas, volume xxix. 


Nine poems are assigned to Francis Kinwelmarsh in all the editions 
(/-/): Nos. 9, n, 13, 1 8, 19, 21, 40, 41, and 75. No. 98 is ascribed to him 
in A-C, to the Earl of Essex in F-7, and to both in D. It is torn out of E. 
That Kinwelmarsh was the author of No. 98 seems to me certain. 

Francis Kinwelmarsh perhaps came from an Essex family, his 
father may have been the Richard Kinwelmarsh who in 1562 held the 
manor of Newton Hall near Great Dunmow, but he was born in Lon- 
don. Mrs. Stopes, in Shakespeare's Industry, page 283, points out that in 
the register of Allhallows, London, the very first entry is: "Imprimis, the 
1 8th day of Oct. 1538, was christened Frances the sonne of Richard 
Kyndelmershe," and that in the same register occur also the names of 
Mary and Marcion, daughter and son of Edmond Kynwelmarsh, who 
were christened on March 26, 1557, and September 12, 1558, respectively. 

In 1 557 Francis entered Gray's Inn, where he was followed in 1561 and 
1563 by Anthony and Robert Kinwelmarsh, probably his brothers. 
Francis was a fellow-student at Gray's Inn with Gascoigne, with whom 
he collaborated in the translation of the Phcenissce of Euripides in 1566. 
This blank-verse play, Jocasta, was performed in Gray's Inn Hall in 
1566. On " themes" suggested by Francis and Anthony Kinwelmarsh, 
Gascoigne wrote two poems. 1 Kinwelmarsh was elected M.P. for Bos- 
siney, Cornwall, on April 27, 1572, the same year in which Gascoigne was 
elected for Midhurst. He is referred to in complimentary terms in Wil- 
liam Webbe's Discourse of English Poetrie (1586) ; 2 and in John Boden- 

1 See his Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i, 63-65. 

a Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, i, 245. 



ham's Belvedere y or the Garden of the Muses (1600), he is one of the de- 
ceased authors to whom the compiler gave his "due right/' 

R. L. 

One poem, No. 93, is assigned to R. L. in all the editions (A-I). In his 
edition of the Paradise^ page xviii, Brydges suggests an identification of 
this author with the R. L. now known to be Richard Linche, or Lynche 
who wrote Diella. Certain Sonnets, adjoined to the amorous Poem ofDom 
Diego and Gyneura (I596). 1 As Linche's acknowledged works date about 
1596-1601, it seems doubtful that this poem of 1576 should have been 
written by him. 


One poem, No. 103, is assigned to Lloyd in every edition in which it 
occurs (5-7). 

Lodowick (or Ludovic, or Lewis) Lloyd, poet and compiler, flourished 
from 1573 to 1610. He was sergeant at arms to Queen Elizabeth and 
perhaps to James L Among his more elaborate productions were The 
Pilgrimage of Princes (1573); Certain English Verses ', Presented unto the 
Queen s Most Excellent Majesty (i 586) ; 2 The Consent of Time, Deciphering 
the Errors of the Grecians in Their Olympiads (1590); The Stratagems of 
Jerusalem (1602); The Practice of Policy (1604); The Choice of Jewels 
(1607); and The Tragicomedy of Serpents (1607). Lloyd also wrote "A 
Dittie to the tune of Welshe Sydanen, made to the Queenes maj.' Eliz.," 
a ballad registered on August 13, 1579,* and reprinted in The British Bib- 
liographer.* The one poem which he contributed to the Paradise had been 
published previously in broadside form. It is very likely, then, that Lloyd 
had written other ballads as well. 


One poem, No. 27, is assigned to F.M. in every edition (A-I). 
Another, No. 54, is attributed to him in A but to Edwards in B-I. To 
Edwards No. 54 undoubtedly belongs. 

1 Reprinted in part by Sir Sidney Lee, Elizabethan Sonnets, n, 297 ff., and entirely 
by Edward Arber, An English Garner, vn (1883), 185-240. 

2 Reprinted in Huth's Fugitive 'Tracts, First Series. 
* Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 249. 

4 i (i8io),338. 



One poem, No. 39, which is anonymous in A, is ascribed to Marshall 
in B. Another, No. 94, which is assigned to him in A, is credited to Hun- 
nis in B-I; and to Hunnis it unquestionably belongs. Nothing is known of 
this author, unless he wrote the ballad of "Sad Marshall to the Singing 
Larke,"* which is signed "Finis, quod Marshal/* Ritson 2 says that "Mar- 
shall dye'd in 1589," but cites no authority for his statement. 

MY LUCK is Loss 

Five poems, Nos. i, 2, 43, 44, and 45, are in all the editions signed 
"My Luck is Loss." 

An attempt has been made to identify "My Luck is Loss," as well as 
G. G., or G. Gaske, with George Gascoigne. In The Complete Poems of 
George Gascoigne (i, xxix), Hazlitt remarks: 

In the " Paradyce of Daynty Deuyses," 1 576, are six poems of a moral cast 
in Gascoigne's didactic style, five with the motto "My lucke is losse," and one 
unsigned, 3 and . . . these were repeated in all the later impressions of the vol- 
ume which I have seen. . . . Again, in the edition of the "Paradise," published 
in 1580, a poem [No. 118] entitled "A Description of the Whole [j;V] World/' 
is signed " G. G." initials which, in the edition of 1600, according to Ritson, are 
amplified into "G. Gaske.". . . 

Gascoigne's constant allusions in his "Posies" to the faithlessness of Cres- 
sida, and the similarity of manner and treatment, combined to induce me to 
admit two other contributions [Nos. 1 16, 1 17] to the "Paradise of Dainty De- 
vises," edit. 1580, subscribed respectively "Troilus" and "Cressida." 

It is possible that these two poems, and "A Description of the World," 
were discovered among the poet's papers after his decease, or were floating on 
the surface of society, forgotten and unappropriated. 

Since, however, Hazlitt has produced no valid arguments, none of the 
poems he cites can logically be claimed for Gascoigne. No. 1 1 8 is, as the 
Notes below will show, by George Whetstone; and Troilus and Cressida 
were such stock subjects, such favorite themes for all the Elizabethan 
poets, that Hazlitt's remarks on the authorship of Nos. 116 and 1 17 can- 

1 Roxburghe Ballads, in, 190. 
9 Bibliographia Poetica> p. 277. 

3 What poem this was cannot be told, for Hazlitt did not reprint it and gave no 
further reference to it. He reprints (n, 323-335) only the eight poems he describes. 



not be taken seriously. In support of his identification of "My Luck is 
Loss" with Gascoigne, Hazlitt (i, 485) refers only to The pleasant Fable of 
Ferdinando leronimi, where Gascoigne writes: 

And so did I in vaine; 

But since it maie not be, 

Let such fishe there as finde the gaine, 

And leaue the losse for me. 

And with such lucke and losse 

I will content my selfe; 

Till tydes of turning time maye tosse 

Suche fishers on the shelfe. 

This reference is a flimsy proof of authorship. The phrase "My Luck is 
Loss" was, indeed, more or less proverbial, and many other uses of it are 
far more striking than that of Gascoigne. Thus, in the Paradise itself 
Barnabe Rich (No. 120) says, 

Thy luck is losse, thy fortune still withstoode. 

Humfrey Giffbrd, in "A Complaynt of a Louer," printed in A Posie of 
Gilloflowers (1580),* writes, "My lucke is turnde to losse." In George 
Peek's Arraignment of Paris (i584) 2 Oenone (in. i) sighs, 

And woe is me, my luck is loss, my pains no pity move; 
while Paris (iv. i) soliloquizes ruefully, 

My luck is loss, howe'er my love do speed. 

There is, then, no reason at all to justify connecting Gascoigne with 
the signature "My Luck is Loss" or with Nos. 116, 117, 118. In May, 
1572, various charges of ill-conduct had been preferred against him to 
prevent his being seated in Parliament. He was called "a common rymer 
and a deviser of slaunderous pasquclles againste diverse personnes of 
greate callinge," "a notorious ruffianne," "a spie, an atheist, and god- 
lesse personne." 3 Perhaps it was these charges, however just or unjust 
they may have been, that kept Gascoigne's name and poems out of the 
Paradise. On any other assumption their omission is almost inexplicable. 

1 Complete Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 89. 

3 Works, ^. Bullen, 1,38,61. 

3 Quoted in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1851, pt. u, 243 f. 




Seven poems are assigned to Edward de Vere, seventeenth Earl of Ox- 
ford, in all the editions in which they appear: Nos. 30, 77, 83, and 84 in 
A-I; Nos. 76 and 86 in A; and No. 85 in A-C. He was also probably the 
author of No. 82, which is attributed to him in B-I but to M. B. (Bewe) 
in^. 1 

Born on April 2, 1550, Edward de Vere succeeded to the earldom and 
to other hereditary dignities, including the office of lord great chamber- 
lain, in 1562. As a boy he held a prominent place in the Court, and at- 
tended the Queen on her progress to Oxford in 1566, where he must have 
witnessed the performance of Richard Edwards's Palamon and Arcite 
which was given in her honor. In 1571 he entered the House of Lords, and 
in December of the same year married the eldest daughter of William 
Cecil, Lord Burghley. Oxford was an ill-tempered, violent man. He 
treated his wife with downright cruelty; he insulted Sir Philip Sidney, 
caused him to be banished from Court, and (at least according to popular 
rumor) planned to murder him. In 1586 Oxford was appointed special 
commissioner for the trial of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1588 he served as a 
volunteer against the Spanish Armada. Though he squandered his for- 
tune and sold his ancestral estates, Oxford not infrequently extended his 
patronage to various men of letters, especially to those of the Bohemian 
type. Lyly dedicated to him Euphues and his England (1580); Spenser 
addressed a sonnet to him in the Faery Queen (1590); and many minor 
authors claimed him as their patron. Most of his life after 1592 was spent 
in retirement, with occasional public appearances, as at the trial of Essex 
in 1601 and the coronation of James I in 1603. He died on June 24, 1604. 
Twenty-two of Oxford's poems are scattered through the Paradise, the 
surreptitious edition of Sidney's A strophel and Stella (1591), The Phcenix 
Nest (1593), England's Helicon (1600), and England's Parnassus (1600); 
they have been collected and reprinted in volume iv of Grosart's Miscel- 
lanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library (1872). Among his contemporaries 
Oxford had a great reputation as a poet. William Webbe 2 remarked that, 
of those who "haue beene and yet are most excellent skylfull " in poetry, 

1 All eight of these poems are reprinted in A. B. Grosart's Miscellanies of the Fuller 
Worthies' Library , vol. iv (1872), and in the work of Looney discussed below. 

2 A Discourse of English Poetrie, 1586 (Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, 
i, 243). 

[ Iviii ] 


"the right honourable Earle of Oxford may challenge to him selfe the 
tytle of the most excellent among the rest"; while Puttenham * declared 
that, "for Comedy and Enterlude," these two "do deserue the hyest 
price: Th' Earle of Oxford and Maister Edwardes" 

It hardly seems worth while to pay much attention to Mr. J. Thomas 
Looney's Poems of Edward de Vere Seventeenth Earl of Oxford (1921), the 
sole purpose of which is to strengthen his theory, formally advanced in 
his "Shakespeare" Identified (1920), that Oxford and "Shakespeare" (a 
different being from 'the Stratford man Shakspere') were one and the same 
poet. Much of the "proof" for this strange identification is based upon 
the Paradise, but Mr. Looney's statements reveal little familiarity either 
with the poetical miscellanies in general or with Elizabethan publishing 
conditions. Thus he says (page lii) that the Paradise "would seem ... to 
have been published at his [Oxford's] suggestion," and that the title "is 
indicative of Oxford's faculty for striking new notes." Now, there is no 
indication whatever, and certainly no proof, that Oxford had anything to 
do with the publication of the Paradise; it was a strictly commercial ven- 
ture undertaken by a printer and dedicated to Lord Compton (hardly an 
act of which the noble Earl would have approved). With the title, in 
which I fail to hear a note particularly new, no person except the printer 
was concerned, as its language plainly shows. Disle wrote the title-page 
primarily to feature a dead poet, not to glorify living authors; and beyond 
question he made it as attractive as possible so that it would be effective 
as an advertising poster. 

To assert, as Mr. Looney does (page Ixii), that Oxford "published his 
poems voluntarily [sic] in 1576" is to fly in the face of known facts; and to 
say (page xliii) that most of his poems "refer to the special events" of 
1576 is an assertion that cannot be established. Indeed, if Edwards col- 
lected the poems and Disle plainly says that he did then all of them 
must have been written by 1566. It is certain that, if Oxford had super- 
vised, or even merely permitted, the publication, No. 82 would not have 
been assigned to M. B. in the first edition. Furthermore, the Paradise was 
not " the first of a numerous series of collections of poetry in which Eliza- 
bethan verse has been preserved" (page xliv). If one excepts from con- 
sideration Tottel's Miscellany (1557) and "The Court of Venus (1557?) 2 

1 The Arte of English Poesie, 1589 (ibid., n, 65). Cf. Francis Meres above, p. xlviii. 
a See Mrs. Stopes, Shakespeare's Industry, pp. 3058*. 


because they were not strictly Elizabethan, 1 still the Paradise was pre- 
ceded by the first edition (1566) of A Handful of Pleasant Delights (of 
which an eight-page fragment is in existence), 2 as well as by the "collec- 
tions of poetry " of Thomas Howell, George Turbervile, and many others. 
It is preposterous to call Oxford "the original and driving force of early 
Elizabethan song." Edwards and Hunnis if the claims of Wyatt and 
Surrey be ignored have far greater right to that distinction; nor can 
Turbervile and Gascoigne be overlooked. 

The verbal parallels between Oxford's Paradise poems and Shake- 
speare's works which Mr. Looney painstakingly amasses are, on the 
whole, mere commonplaces, often straight-out proverbs, that could be 
vastly increased in bulk by a person familiar with Elizabethan poetry. 3 
They prove nothing except that Shakespeare and Oxford, like all other 
Elizabethans, indulged in the use of fashionable commonplaces and 


One poem, No. 4, is attributed to W. R. in EC, but in A it is assigned 
to E. S. and in D-I to Hunnis. The initials might be interpreted as those 
of William Rankins (fl. 1587), the author of a vicious attack on the stage 
called A Mirrour of Monsters (1587), as well as of plays, satires, and 
poems, and of prefatory verses to Henry Perry's Welsh Grammar (i595) 4 
and John Bodenham's Belvedere (1600). The letters are, however, often 
explained as the initials of Sir Walter Raleigh; 5 but, even if that identifi- 

* But this exception would not extend to the editions of Tottel's Miscellany pub- 
lished in 1559, 1565, 1567, and 1574, which Mr. Looney ignores but which preceded 
the Paradise and inspired the publication of it. 

2 See my note in Modern Language Notes, XLI (1926), 327. 

3 I observe that he parallels 85.16-17 with King Lear, I. iv. I9if.: 

Then they for sudden joy did weep, 
And I for sorrow sung. 

But these lines were written by neither Oxford nor Shakespeare; they were composed 
before 1556 by the Protestant martyr John Careless, as I showed in the Modern Lan- 
guage Review, xv (1920), 87-89, and in my Old English Ballads (1920), p. 47. 

4 According to Hazlitt's Hand-Book, p. 498. 

s In his Introduction to the Seven English Poetical Miscellanies, p. vi, Collier de- 
clares that No. 4 is Raleigh's "earliest production in verse, unless we give precedence to 
his lines before Gascoyne's 'Steele Glasse'; and it is highly characteristic of the philo- 
sophical spirit and tone of Raleigh's mind." But this is sheer assertion. 


cation were certain, it would have little value. W. R., whoever he may 
have been, can hardly have been the author; instead, as is pointed out in 
the Notes, the authorship of No. 4 most probably belongs to Hunnis. 


One poem, No. 120, is assigned to Rich in C, the only edition in which 
it appears. 

Barnabe Rich was born about 1540, probably of an Essex family. 
Most of his life was spent in military service. During 1557-1558 he served 
in Queen Mary's army against France; later he took part in various cam- 
paigns in the Low Countries, where he met both Gascoigne and Church- 
yard. Promoted to the rank of captain, he sailed for Ireland in July, 1573, 
and spent the remainder of his life chiefly in the neighborhood of Dublin. 
In 1 574, after a brief visit to London, he began to write popular pam- 
phlets romances, satires, reminiscences, and the like. His best-known 
work is his Farewell to Military Profession (1581), a collection of ro- 
mances, one of which furnished Shakespeare with the plot for twelfth 
Night. He continued in the army for many years after writing this Fare- 
well, until in July, 1616, he was presented with a gift of 100 in recogni- 
tion of his position as senior captain of the kingdom. He boasted that he 
had written thirty-six books. Many of them ai e listed in the Dictionary of 
National Biography and in the printed catalogue of the British Museum. 

D. SAND (D. S.) 

Four poems, Nos. 22, 25, 29, and 47 (which was possibly by John Har- 
ington), are assigned to D. S. in every edition (//-/). No. 5 is attributed 
to him in A> but to its real author, Hunnis, in B-L Probably D. S. is iden- 
tical with the M. S. to whom No. 102 is credited. 

On the title-page of A, D. S. is listed as a contributor; in all later 
editions (B-I) these initials are expanded in the lists of authors to 
"D. Sand" or "D. Sande," but remain unchanged at the end of the 
poems. Sand is named along with several other poets in William 
Webbe's Discourse of English Poetrie (I586). 1 The attempt made by 
Brydges and others 2 to identify D. Sand with Dr. Edwin Sandys, Arch- 
bishop of York (ca. 1516-1588), is worthy of no consideration. 

1 Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, i, 242. 

3 Including H. H. Child, in the Cambridge History of English Literature, in, 189 
(English ed. 213). 



E. S. 

Three poems are attributed to E. S. in all the editions in which they 
occur: No. 38 in A, Nos. 50 and 74 in A-L No. 4 is assigned to him in A, 
to W. R. in BC, and to Hunnis in D-7; it was probably written by 
Hunnis. No. 37 is credited to him in A but to Lord Vaux in B-I; it 
was undoubtedly written by Vaux. 

The identity of E. S. is doubtful. Brydges in his edition of the Paradise 
(pages xvii, xviii) suggests that E. S. was the same as D. Sand, since 
D. Sand may stand for Dr. Edwin Sandys, 1 or else that the initials are 
those of Edmund Spenser. 2 Neither suggestion deserves serious considera- 


One poem, No. 102, is attributed to M. S. in every edition in which it 
occurs (B-I). Since M. is an abbreviation for Master, M. S. is no doubt 
identical with D. Sand. 


Two poems are assigned to Thorn in all the editions in which they ap- 
pear: No. 20 in A-I and No. 56 in AB. 

Three ballads by Thorn are preserved in Additional MS. 15,233,* 
where they are signed respectively "Fynis quod master Jhon Thorne," 
"Fynis, quod Jhon Thorne/' and " Fynis, quod Mr. Thorne." The last of 
these is, as the Notes indicate, a version of No. 56. 


Twelve poems are assigned to Lord Vaux in all the editions in which 
they appear: Nos. 8, 16, 17 (possibly by John Harington), 71, 87, 89, 90, 
and 91 in A-I; Nos. 80 and 92 in A; No. 81 in AB; and No. 113 in B-I. 

1 A suggestion that Collier, in his Introduction to Seven English Poetical Miscel- 
lanies (1867), p. v, treats as an established fact. Collier adds (p. vi) that, although prob- 
ably meant for Edwin Sandys, E. S. "might denote the Earl of Surrey." 

2 Cf. R. A. D. Lithgow, "The Paradise of Dainty Devices (1576)," 'Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Literature , 2d series, xvn (1895), 66. 

8 Edited by Halliwell[-Phillipps], The Moral Play of Wit and Science, pp. 65-68, 
102-104, iio-iii (Shakespeare Society, 1848). George Ellis, Specimens of the Early 
English Poets, n (1803), 152, says that Bishop Percy (see his Reliques> ed. Wheatley, 
n, 169) believed M. T. to have been printed "perhaps invertedly for T. Marshall." 



He also probably wrote No. 37, which is attributed to him in B-I, 
though in A it is signed E. S. No. 48 is given to him in A , but to Hunnis 
in E-I; No. 88 is assigned to him in A, but to Hunnis in B-G, while in HI 
it is anonymous. With twelve undisputed poems (omitting No. 17 but in- 
cluding No. 37) to his credit, Vaux is one of the most important contribu- 
tors to the Paradise. In the number of his contributions he is surpassed by 
only Edwards and Hunnis. 

Thomas Vaux, second Baron Vaux, born in 1510, was the eldest son of 
Nicholas Vaux, the first Baron Vaux, with whom he is confused by Put- 
tenham in The Arte of English Poesie (1589) and by many later writers. 
In 1523 Thomas succeeded to the barony. He attended Cardinal Wolsey 
to France in 1527, and five years later was in the train of Henry VIII 
on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Summoned to the House of Lords in 
January, 1531, he remained in attendance in that body until December, 
1555. He died in October, 1556, leaving a widow, two sons, and two 

Vaux was a contributor to TotteFs Miscellany, but only two of his con- 
tributions can now be identified. These two, and the thirteen poems attrib- 
uted to him in various editions of the Paradise, were reprinted by Gro- 
sart in the Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library, volume iv (1872). 
Puttenham 1 speaks of Vaux as "a man of much facilitie in vulgar mak- 
ings," " a man otherwise of no great learning, but hauing herein a maruel- 
ous facillitie"; "his commendation, he says, "lyeth chiefly in the facil- 
litie of his meetre, and the aptnesse of his descriptions such as he taketh 
vpon him to make, namely in sundry of his Songs, wherein he sheweth the 
counterfait action very liuely & pleasantly." 


One poem, No. no, which occurs in B only, is signed by Whetstone. 
He is also the author of No. 118 (*-/), though it is signed by G. G. or 
G. Gask(e). 

Whetstone, or Whetstones, was born in London about 1544. According 
to the Dictionary of National Biography, "as a young man he tried his 
fortune at court. He seems to have haunted gambling houses and broth- 
els, and dissipated his patrimony by reckless living. He subsequently 
devoted much energy to denunciations of the depravity of London, and 

1 Gregory Smith, op. '/., n, 63, 65, 413. 
[ Ixiii ] 


declared that he was fraudulently deprived of his property. For three 
years or more he conducted a costly lawsuit against those whom he 
charged with robbing him of his possessions, but he gained little/' 

In 1572 he served in an English regiment in Holland, holding an offi- 
cer's commission and making the acquaintance of Churchyard and Gas- 
coigne. He distinguished himself in action, but, returning to England, he 
took up literature as a profession. In 1576 he published 'The Rock of Re- 
gard, a book made up of some sixty-eight pieces, several of them tales in 
prose or verse translated from the Italian. In 1577 he entertained Gas- 
coigne, who died on October 5 while he was Whetstone's guest. 1 Imme- 
diately afterwards Whetstone wrote A Remembrance oj the Well Employed 
Life and Godly End oj George Gascoigne, Esq., part of which appears in the 
Paradise as No. 1 18. Similar verse-elegies from his pen were published on 
Sir Nicholas Bacon in 1579, Sir James Dyer in 1583, Thomas, Earl of Sus- 
sex, in 1583, Francis, Earl of Bedford, in 1585, and Sir Philip Sidney in 
1587. He also wrote a play, Promos and Cassandra (1578), which was 
never acted but which furnished Shakespeare with the plot of Measure for 
Measure. In 1578 or 1579 Whetstone accompanied Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
on his voyage to Newfoundland; in 1580 he spent some time in Italy. Two 
years later his Heptameron of Civil Discourses, a collection of prose ro- 
mances (one of which retells the Measure for Measure story) was printed. 
In 1585 he reentered the army, accompanying the English forces to Hol- 
land and taking part in the battle of Zutphen, in which Sidney was fatally 
wounded. Whetstone's last work, The Censure of a Loyal Subject (1587), 
dealt with the crime and punishment of Anthony Babington and his 
thirteen fellow-conspirators. He must have died towards the end of 1587; 
for an act of administration, I have discovered, was granted to his widow, 
Anne, on January 3, 1587/8. 

Whetstone wrote various other works which I have not mentioned. 
George Steevens (according to th^ Dictionary of National Biography) 
called him "the most quaint and contemptible writer, both in prose and 
verse, he ever met with." 


No. 61, which appears in A only, is assigned to Hunnis. As the Notes 
show, the poem was actually written by Wyatt, though Hunnis may have 

1 Such, at least, is the usual statement; but see B. M. Ward, "George Gascoigne 
and his Circle," The Review of English Studies, n (1926), 37, 39. 

[ Ixiv ] 


revised it. For information about Wyatt see the Dictionary of National 
Biography, Arber's edition of Tottel's Miscellany, and A. K. Foxwell's 
edition (1913) of Wyatt's poems. 


Two poems, Nos. 3 and 99, are assigned to Yloop in all the editions 
(//-/). His name appeared on the title-page of A, while that of so impor- 
tant a contributor as William Hunnis was omitted, no doubt because the 
name Yloop was signed to the third poem in A and hence was noticeable, 
whereas Hunnis's name was first met with at the end of the fifty-ninth 
poem. In all later editions both Yloop and Hunnis appear in the list of 
contributors, where in FG the name is spelled Ylope. 

In his copy of the Paradise (E), Malone suggested in a marginal note 
that "Yloop" was "Forsan M. Pooley," and later added to his note, 
"M r Steevens I observe made the same observation long after this was 
written/' r But the name "Pooley" itself is not of much help, though 
Brydges 2 remarks that "Pooley is a name that occurs in Yates's tripar- 
tite collection of poems, printed in 1582," referring to 'The Castle of 
Courtesy by James Yates, Servingman. 3 Many instances of the name oc- 
cur in the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic,* and in books on Suffolk. 

Master Yloop is probably the " S. Y." to whom, among other Paradise 
poets, William Webbe referred in 1586: s 

I might next speake of the dyuers workes of the olde Earle of Surrey, of the 
L. Vaus, of Norton of Bristow, Edwardes, Tusser, Churchyard, WyL Hunnis, 
Haiwood, Sand, Hyll, S.Y., M.D., and many others; but to speake of their 
severall gyfts and aboundant skyll shewed forth by them in many pretty and 
learned workes woulde make my discourse much more tedious. 

1 In the " Contents" to his edition (1800) of Edward Phillips's Theatrum Poetarum 
Anglicanorum (1675) Brydges remarks of Yloop, "It has struck me that this strange 
name is Pooly, read backwards." But evidently his suggestion was later than that of 
Steevens, who died in 1800. 

3 In his edition of the Paradise, p. xvii. 

3 I have not seen this book, but it is fully described in Corser's Collectanea Anglo- 
Poetica, v, 43 2 ~435- 

4 E. g., 1547-1580, pp. 20, 587; 1581-1590, p. 349; 1598-1601, pp. 13, 499. See also 
Centura Literaria, m (1807), 383, and Notes and Queries, 8th series, in, 39i~39 2 > XII > 

s Gregory Smith, op. cit., i, 242-243, 411. 




The extravagance of Elizabethan lyricists was a matter for incessant 
ridicule. "Were it not that I pitty the poore multitude of Printers/' de- 
clares Phantastes, a character in Lingua (1607),* "these Sonnet-mungers 
should starue for conceits, for all Phantasies. But these puling Louers, I 
cannot but laugh at them and their Encomions of their Mistresses. They 
make forsooth her hayre of Gold, her eyes of Diamond, her cheekes of 
Roses, her lippes of Rubies, her teeth of Pearle, and her whole body of 

But such ridicule as this, though in general applicable to the other 
poetical miscellanies of the time, left the Paradise untouched. Above all 
else, it is remarkable for the comparatively slight attention it pays to the 
tender passion and for the serious, even melancholy, tone of most of its 
lyrics. The one love-sonnet (No. 38) which appeared in the first edition 
was so obviously out of place that in all subsequent editions it was 
omitted. Such, too, was the fate of Nos. 78, 80, and 86, among others; and 
No. 8 1 went no farther than the third edition. As the Paradise grew older 
it became more and more sedate. Even in the love-poems that were al- 
lowed to remain the tone is usually far from optimistic, never amorous, 
the poets warning their readers (as in Nos. 23 and 65) of the dangers and 
the futility of love. 

Richard Edwards was a serious-minded person, whose lyrics were 
intended to inculcate prudence and virtue. A man of wide reading, he 
introduced many themes that were more or less novel : particularly sig- 
nificant is the manner in which he combined information with moral 
teaching in his poems on Damocles, Valerian, Spurina, and Zaleucus. 
Though he did not object to an occasional light touch or frothy subject, 
still the poems he chose from other writers are usually as grave or didactic 
as those composed by himself. 

In its opening poem, a translation from St. Bernard on the brevity and 
vanity of life, the Paradise sounds a minor key. The remaining poems sel- 
dom deal with the themes of love and honor, heretofore conventional in 
Elizabethan poetry; instead gravity, didacticism, and proverbial philoso- 
phy are conspicuous. Such titles as "Had I Wist," "Promise is Debt," 
and "No Words but Deeds" reveal an entirely different point of view 

1 Sigs. Da v -D3 (Tudor Facsimile Texts). 


from that of Tottel's Miscellany or of A Handful of Pleasant Delights. The 
certainty of death, the changeableness of friends, the importance of edu- 
cation, the hollowness of the Court, such are the subjects on which many 
of the poems bear. 

To be original on these topics is hardly possible. It is, then, to the 
credit of the authors that they deal with somewhat commonplace themes 
in a tuneful and usually an interesting fashion. In their language there is a 
terseness of expression often approaching epigram, and resulting in quot- 
able lines like "Of ignorance comes rotten weeds" (22.31), "A valiant 
mind no deadly danger fears" (83.15), "Many have been harmed by 
speech, through thinking few or none" (88.27). As in the other miscel- 
lanies of the period, proverbs and proverbial phrases abound. 

The defects of style in the Paradise are due to the taste of the age 
rather than to the individual authors. There is, of course, too much de- 
pendence on alliteration, with its inevitable crop of hackneyed phrases 
and figures. "He bites the baits that breeds his bitter bale" (21.7), "A 
captive clapped in chains of care, lapped in the laws of lethal love" 
(29.30), and "Where seething sighs and sour sobs Hath slain the slips 
that nature set" (52.32 f.) were lines that appealed to the Elizabethan 
ear; they may even have been considered beautiful, and so it is unfair to 
condemn them on modern standards. The Paradise does not over-use 
alliteration so hopelessly as the Gorgeous Gallery does; it rather marks a 
kind of halfway point between the old poetry and the new. 

The taste of the age likewise accounts for the over-dependence on bal- 
ance and antithesis, for the too abundant literary allusions, and for the 
piling up of figures which hold the main thought in suspense to a degree 
that sometimes becomes almost intolerable. In such a poem as No. 20 
there are two entire stanzas dealing with commonplaces about sturdy 
rocks, marble stones, stately stags, and swiftest birds, before the poet 
reaches his point itself obvious that man must die, that only good 
deeds live. Yet this poem is written in the best early Elizabethan style, a 
style developed and popularized by Churchyard and Turbervile; and it 
has a smoothness of diction and of rhythm that is not often found in the 
work of Wyatt and Surrey. The style of the poems is what might be called 
poetic Euphuism. Not many years passed before it became antiquated. 

As to diction, the Paradise is distinguished by a large number of 
obsolete and unusual words, many of which either furnish the only 
illustrations in the New English Dictionary or else are earlier than any 

[ Ixvii ] 


there cited: see, for example, in the Glossarial Index below, bedless,flawe, 
perforce, rage/ess, resign, shaling, totter. Obscure passages, too, abound, 
necessitating hard study and elaborate paraphrase for their elucidation; 
but probably in most cases the lack of clearness is due to corruption of 
the original lines by the printer. 

Most of the poems, as Disle observes in his prefatory epistle, were writ- 
ten to be sung; and, if sung, the faults which appear noticeable in reading 
can generally be condoned. The musical settings of several are referred to 
in the Notes. A considerable number (as Nos. 7, 52, 53, 98, 103, 1 16, 1 17) 
were first published in broadside, or ballad, form, and were intended for 
street-singing. Certain others, too (like Nos. 69, 73, 74, 76, 77), were ap- 
parently written to be sung as ballads. The Paradise, then, provides a 
combination of ballad-poetry and art-poetry, some of it by ordinary bal- 
ladists, the remainder by poets of varying degrees of distinction. 

The metres of the Paradise are considerably varied, but not so much 
as those of the Gorgeous Gallery. In striking contrast both to TotteFs Mis- 
cellany and to the Gallery, there is in the Paradise only one sonnet; but in 
other metrical forms it exhibits ingenuity and variety. It contains broad- 
side-ballad stanzas of many types, some of them charming. Poulter's 
measure is, of course, inevitable, as are also fourteeners; but verses of 
four, five, or six feet occur in greater proportion still. Although no tunes 
are named in the Paradise, most of the poems were written with definite 
tunes in mind; so that they naturally have a musical movement, a rhythm 
that dominates, whatever the metrical form be. 

Nobody will claim that there is great poetry in this collection; but 
there are many pleasing songs, and there are only a few poems that one 
would dispense with willingly. The best of the poets seems to me to be 
Richard Edwards: especially good is his lyric beginning "In going to my 
naked bed" (No. 46). Very pretty, too, are the religious lyrics of Francis 
Kinwelmarsh and Jasper Heywood (Nos. 9-11), the first of which, with a 
musical setting by William Byrd, enjoyed a long and well-deserved popu- 
larity. By no means despicable are the lyrics of William Hunnis, though 
his tendency to conceits and to rhetorical flourishes prevents more cordial 
praise. The depths of bathos, however, are reached in the epitaphs con- 
tributed by Lloyd, Disle, and Rich. 

But, so far as the first three editions are concerned, The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices deserves a high place in the history of English poetry. 
Coming as it did after Tottel's Miscellany and before Spenser's Shep- 

Ixviii ] 


herds' Calendar (1579), its poetry had no genuine rival save in the "In- 
duction" written by Sackville for the Mirror for Magistrates (1563). The 
historian of English poetry will always appreciate the Paradise, One who 
approaches the volume from a point of view not historical may at least 
be pleased with its quaintness, its ingenious figures, and its rhetorical 

For permission to use, and in some instances to reproduce, their texts 
of the Paradise y I am under heavy obligations to the British Museum, the 
Bodleian Library, Mr. Henry E. Huntington, Mr. W. A. White, and Sir 
R. L. Harmsworth, Bart. Messrs. Bernard Quaritch, Ltd., and Sotheby 
and Company have generously answered inquiries, and have helped me to 
ascertain the present whereabouts of certain books. My old friend, Miss 
Addie F. Rowe, not only checked the manuscript from beginning to end, 
but also, during my absence from America on a John Simon Guggenheim 
Memorial Fellowship, assumed most of the burden of piloting the book 
through the press. Her aid, as usual, has been invaluable. Professor 
George Lyman Kittredge ^ II Maestro di color che sanno") read the man- 
uscript, and made innumerable helpful suggestions. My indebtedness to 
him, increasing year by year, has reached a stage that admits no possi- 
bility of repayment or even of adequate acknowledgment. For his help I 
must necessarily content myself with this too general word of thanks. 

H. E. R. 

November 8, 1926 

[ Ixix ] 


ofdaynty dcuifes, 

aptlp furmffreb, tojtfj furtbrp pitfjie anb learneb inuetition*- 

deutjed and written for the moSlpart, by M. Edwards 

fometimes of her Mate/ties Chappel: the ret,by 

fundry learned Gentlemen, both of honor, 

and woorfhippe. 


S. Barnarde. lafperHeyvvood. 

TV' RK - 

L. Vaux. M . Bewe. 

D - S R. Hill. 

M. Yloop, with others. 


don by ffenry T>i/le, dvce//yngm 

$aule Cfjurctjparb, at ttje >outfj tocf t boore 

of Saint Sanies Church, and are there 
to he folde. 



rable Syr Henry ompton 

Ho;tbe Compton.of Compton. 


and my ^ery good Lord, (pre- s 
suming ^>ppon your curtesy) J 
am bolde to present ^>nto your honor, this 
small Volume: Sntituled, The ^Paradise 
ofdeynty deuises, being penned by diuers 
learned Qentlemen, and collected togea- 10 
ther, through the trauell of one, both of 
Ippoorship andcredite,forhispriuate ^>se: 
Jpbo not long since departed this lyfe, 
'tohich "token J had perused ouer, not'toith 
out the aduise of sundry myfreendes, J 15 
determined by they r good motion, to set 
them in print, Ivbo ther^nto greatly per- 
s^adedme, Ivith these and li%e ^oordes : 
The Jvryters of them, Twere both of honor 
andlworship: besides that, our o'tonecoun- 
trey men, and such asfortheyr learnyng 
and grauitie , might be accounted of a- 




mongthe'toisest. Furthermore, the ditties 
both pithy and pleasant, as^ellfor the 
inuention as meter, and "to>yll yeelde a 
farre greater delight, being as they are so 5 
aptly made to be set to any song in .5. 
partes, or song to instrument. Which 'foel 
consydering J purposed not to forsake so 
good an occasion, beseeching your honor 
to accept it in good part, cheefelyfor the 10 
auffi hours sake: Ivpho though some of them 
are departed this lyfe,yet theyr "tooorthy 
doings shall continue for euer: for li%e as 
the shadoof olcTtoeth the body, so praise 
folo*b?eth ^ertue : and a st he shado^goeth 1 5 
somtimes before, and sometimes behind, 
so doth praise also to ^oertue: but the later 
itcommeth, the greater it is, and to be the 
better esteemed. Thus fearing to offende 
your honor "frith these my rude speaches, ao 
yend, *fi>ishingyour L. many y ere s ofioy. 

Hour goob Ho^bsfjipfi! faobolp to commaunb. 


of the blessed Saint "Barnards 

hem* ,contepnpnB tfje tmtftable f elicttie 

of this wayfaring worlde. 

mundus militat, sub vana gloria, cuius prosperitas est transitoria? 5 
cito labitur, eius potentia, quam vasa figuli, qua sunt fragilia. 

dooth cache state apply it selfe to worldly prayse? 
And vndertake such toyle, to heape vp honours gayne: 
Whose seate, though seeming sure, on fickle fortune stayes, 
Whose giftes were neuer proued, perpetuall to remayne. 10 

But euen as earthen pot, with euery fillip fayles, 
So fortunes fauour flittes, and fame with honour quayles. 

Plus crede litteris, scriptis in glacie, quam mundi fragility vana fallacies. 
Fallax in premijs, virtutis specie, quce nunquam habuit, tempus fiducix. 

Thinke rather firme to finde, a figure grauen in Ise, 15 

Whose substance subiect is, to heate of shinyng sunne: 

Then hope for stedfast stay, in wanton worldes deuise, 

Whose fained fond delightes, from falsheds forge doo come. 

And vnder Vertues veyle, are largely dealt about, 

Deceiuing those, who thinke their date wyll neuer out. 20 

Magis credendu est viris fallacious y quam mundi miseris prosperitatibus, 
Falsis insanijs & voluptatibus,falsis quoquce studiis &? vanitatibus. 

The trifeling truethles tongue, of rumours lying lippes, 

Deserues more trust, then dooth the highest happy hap: 

That world to worldlinges geues, for see how honour slippes, 25 

To foolishe fond conceytes, to pleasures poysoned sap. 

To studyes false in proofe, to artes applyed to gayne, 

To fickle fancies toyes, which wysedome deemeth vayne. 

Die vbi 


S. ISarnards verses. 

Die vbi Salomon, olim tarn nobilis? vel vbi Samson est, dux inuincibilis? 
Vel dulcis Ionathas y multu amabilis? vel pulcher Absolon, vultu mirabilis? 

Where is the sacred king, that Salomon the wyse? 

Whose wysdome, former time, of duetie did commend: 5 

Where is that Samson strong, that monstrous man in syze? 

Whose forced arme, dyd cause the mighty pillers bend. 

Where is the peareles Prince, the freendly lonathas? 

Or Absolon, whose shape and fauour did surpasse. 

Quo Ccesar abijt, celsus imperio, vel diues splendidus, totus in prandio, 10 

Die vbi fullius, clarus eloquio, vel Aristoteles, summus ingenio. 

Where is that Caesar nowe, whose hygh renowmed fame, 

Of sundry conquestes wonne, throughout the world did sound? 

Or Diues riche in store, and rich in richely name, 

Whose chest with gold and dishe, with daynties did abound. 15 

Where is the passing grace, of Bullies pleding skill ? 

Or Aristotles vayne, whose penne had witte and wyll. 

esca vermium, o massa pulueris, o ros, d vanitas, cur sic extolleris? 
Ignoras penitus vtrum eras vixens y fac bonum omnibus , quam diu poteris. 

foode of filthy woorme, oh lumpe of lothsome clay, 20 

O life full like the deawe, which mornyng sunne dooth waste: 

shadowe vayne, whose shape with sunne dooth shrinke away, 

Why gloryest thou so much, in honour to be plaste? 

Sith that no certayne houre, of life thou dost enioy, 

Most fyt it were, thy tyme in goodnesse to employ. 25 

Quam breue festu est, hcec mudi gloria, vt vmbra hominu, sic eius gaudia> 
Qua semper subtrahit ceterna prcemia, & ducunt hominu, ad dura deuia. 

How short a banquet seemes the pompe of high renowme? 
How like the senseles shape, of shiuering shadowe thinne? 
Are wanton worldly toyes, whose pleasure plucketh downe, 30 

Our harts from hope, & hands from works, which heauen should win. 



S. ^Barnards verses. 

And takes vs from the trod, which guides to endles gayne, 
And sets vs in the way, that leades to lastyng payne. 

Hcec mundi gloria y qua magni penditur y sacris in litteris y flos fani dicitur. 

Vt leue folium, quod vento rapitur y sic vita hominem, hac vita tollitur. 5 

The pompe of worldly prayse, which worldlinges hold so deere, 

In holy sacred booke, is likened to a flowre: 

Whose date dooth not conteyne, a weeke, a moonth, or yeere, 

But springing nowe, dooth fade againe within an houre. 

And as the lightest leafe, with winde about is throwne, 10 

So lyght is lyfe of man, and lightly hence is blowne. 

Finis. My Lucke is losse. 
[2.] Beware of had I wyst. 

T3 Eware of had I wyst, whose fine bringes care and smart, 

Esteeme of all as they deserue, and deeme as deemd thou art: 15 

So shall thy perfect freend, enioy his hoped hyre, 
And faythlesse fawning foe, shall misse theffect of his desyre. 
Good wyll shall haue his gayne, and hate shal heape despite, 
A faithlesse freend shall finde distrust, and loue shall reape delight. 
Thy selfe shall rest in peace, thy freend shall ioy thy fate, 20 

Thy foe shall fret at thy good happe, and I shall ioy thy state. 
But this my fond aduise, may seeme perchaunce but vayne, 
As rather teaching how to lose, then howe a freend to gayne. 
But this not my intent, to teache to finde a freend, 

But safely how to loue and leaue, is all that I entend. 25 

And yf you prooue in part, and finde my counsell true, 
Then wyshe me well for my good wyll, tis all I craue adewe. 

Finis. My lucke is losse. 

[3-] The perfect try all ofafaythfullfreend. 

stayed state, but feeble stay, 
Not costly robes, but bare aray: 
Not passed wealth, but present want, 

Not heaped store, but sclender skant: 5 

Not plenties purse, but poore estate, 
Not happy happe, but froward fate: 
Not wyshe at wyll, but want of ioy, 
Not harts good health, but hartes annoy: 

Not freedomes vse, but prisons thrall, 10 

Not costly seate, but lowest fall: 
Not weale I meane, but wretched woe, 
Booth truely trye, the freend from foe: 
And nought, but froward fortune proues, 

Who fawning faines, or simply loues. 15 

Finis, Yloop. 

[4.] No pleasure, without some payne. 
CWeete were the ioyes, that both might like and last, 

Strange were the state, exempt from all distresse: 

Happy the lyfe, that no mishap should tast, 20 

Blessed the chaunce, might neuer change successe. 
Were such a lyfe to leade, or state to proue, 
Who would not wyshe, that such a lyfe were loue. 

But the sowry sauce of sweete vnsure, 

When pleasures flye, and flee with wast of winde: 25 

The trustlesse traynes that hoping hartes allure, 

When sweete delightes doo but allure the minde. 

When care consumes and wastes the wretched wight, 

Whyle fancy feedes, and drawes of her delight. 

What lyfe were loue, yf loue were free from payne? 30 

But that payne, with pleasure matcht should meete: 
Why dyd the course of nature so ordayne, 
That sugred sowre, must sause the bitter sweete. 
Which sowre from sweete, might any meanes remoue. 
What happe, what heauen, what lyfe, were lyke to loue, 35 

Finis. E. S. 


The Taradise, ofdayntie deuises. Pol. i . 

[5.3 Our pleasures are vanities. 

TIEhoId the blast which blowes, the blossomes from the tree, 
* The end whereof consumes and comes, to nought we see. 
Ere thou therefore be blowen, from life that may not last, 5 

Begin for grace, to call for time mispent and past. 

Haue mind on brittle life, whose pleasures are but vayne, 

On death likewyse bethinke, how thou maist not remaine. 

Andfeare thy Lord to greeue, which sought thy soule to saue, 

To synne no more be bent, but mercie aske and haue. 10 

For death who dooth not spare, the kinges on earth to kill, 
Shall reape also from thee, thy pleasure, life, and will. 
That lyfe which yet remaynes, and in thy brest appeares, 
Hath sowne in thee sutch seedes, you ought to weede with teares. 

And life that shall succeede, when death is worne and past, 15 

Shall spring for euer then, in ioy or paine to last. 
Where death on life hath power ye see, that life also, 
Hath mowen the fruites of death, which neuer more shall growe. 

[6.] M. Edwardes MAY. 20 

VX/'Hen ffiS is in his prime, then jH9H eche hart reioyce, 

When fK3$ bedeckes eche branch w greene, eche bird streines 
The liuely sappe creepes, vp into y bloming thorne, (forth his voyce. 
The flowres, which cold in prison kept, now laughes the frost to scorne. 
All natures Impes triumphes, whyles ioy full May dooth last, 25 

When 4ft@$ is gone, of all the yeere the pleasant time is past. 

> makes the cherfull hue, $13$ breedes and bringes newe blood, 
) marcheth throughout euery limme, jUlSfl makes y mery moode. 
4$1&H pricketh tender hartes, their warbling notes to tune, 
Ful strange it is, yet some wee see, doo make their jVH3|^ in 3Jun e. 30 
Thus thinges are straungely wrought, whyles ioyfull jft&P doth last, 
Take fM8$ in time, when 4H&$ is gone, the pleasant time is past. 

9 U All 


2. The Paradise 

All ye that Hue on earth, and haue your $t&$ at wyll, 
Reioyce in jH$339, as I doo now, and vse your jH3$ with skill. 
Vse jWSP, whyle that you may, for $191$ hath but his time, 
When all the fruite is gone, it is to late the tree to clime. 
Your liking and your lust, is freshe whyles $13$ dooth last, 
When $(&$) is gone, of all the yeere the pleasaunt time is past. 

[7.] Faire woordes make fooles faine. 


TN youthfull yeeres when fyrst my young desyres began, 

To pricke mee foorth to serue in Court a sclender tall young man. 
My Fathers blessing then I askt vpon my knee, 

Who blessing me with trembling hand, these woordes gan say to me. 
My sonne, God guide thy way, and shielde thee from mischaunce. 
And make thy iust desartes in Court, thy poore estate to aduaunce. 15 

Yet when thou art become one of the Courtly trayne, 
Thinke on this prouerbe olde (qd he) that faire woordes make fooles 


This counsell grauely geuen, most strange appeares to me. 
Tyll tract of time, with open eyes, had made me plainely see. 
What subtill sleightes are wrought, by painted rales deuise, 20 

When hollowe hartes with freendly shoes the simple doo entise. 
To thinke al golde that shines to feede their fonde desire, 
Whose shiuering cold is warmd with smoke, in stead of flaming fire. 
Sith talke of tickle trust, dooth breede a hope most vaine, 
This prouerbe true by proofe I finde, that faire woordes make fooles 25 


Faire speache alway doeth well, where deedes insue faire woordes, 
Faire speache againe, alway dooth euil, that busshes geues for birdes. 
Who hopes to haue fayre woordes, to trye his luckie lot, 
If I may counsel let him strike it, whyle the iron is hotte. 
But them that feede on cloddes, in steade of pleasaunt grapes, 30 

And after warning often geuen, for better lucke still gapes. 
Full loth I am, yet must I tell them in woordes plaine, 
This prouerbe old proues true in them, that faire words makes fooles 




ofdayntie deuises. 

Wo woorth the time that woordes, so slowly turne to deedes, 

Wo worth the time, y faire sweete floures, are growe to rotten weedes. 

But thrise wo woorth the time, that trueth, away is fled, 

Wherein I see how simple hartes, with woordes are vainely fed. 5 

Trust no faire woordes therefore, where no deedes doo ensue, 

Trust words, as skilful Falkeners doo trust Haukes that neuer flew. 

Trust deedes, let woordes be woordes, which neuer wrought me gaine, 

Let my experience make you wyse, and let woordes make fooles faine. 

M. Edwardes. 10 

[8.] In his extreame sycknesse. 

\X/"hat greeues my bones, and makes my body faint? 

What prickes my flesh and teares my head in twaayne? 
Why doo I wake, when rest should me attaynt? 

When others laugh, why doo I Hue in paine? 15 

I tosse I turne, I cftange from side to side, 
And gtrettfje me oft, in sorowes linkes betyde. 

t, as one betost in waues of care, 
I tame, to flee the woes of lothsome lyfe: 

I Change to spie, yf death this corps might spare, 20 

I tfttetdje to heauen, to ridde me of this strife, 
Thus doo I tftretrfje and Change, and toftie and tame, 
Whyle I in hope of heauen by life doo burne. 

Then holde thee still, let be thy heauinesse, 

Abolishe care, forgeat thy pining woe: 25 

For by this meanes soone shalt thou finde redresse, 

When oft betost, hence thou to heauen must goe. 

Then tdftSe and tUtne, and tumble franke and free. 

happy thryse, when thou in heauen shalt be. 

Finis. L. Vaux. 

a it For 



[9.] For Christmas day. 

Reioyce reioyce^ with hart and voyce y 
In Christes birth this day reioyce. 

Virgins wombe, this day dyd spring, 5 

The precious seede that onely saued man: 
This day let man reioyce and sweetely sing, 
Since on this day saluation fyrst began. 
This day dyd Christe mans soule from death remooue, 
With glorious saintes to dwell in heauen aboue. 10 

This day to man came pledge of perfect peace, 

This day to man came loue and vnitie: 

This day mans greefe began for to surcease, 

This day did man receyue a remedie. 

For eche offence, and euery' deadly sinne, 15 

With guiltie hart, that erst he wandred in. 

In Christes flocke, let loue be surely plaste, 

From Christes flocke, let Concorde hate expell: 

Of Christes flocke, let loue be so embraste, 

As we in Christe, and Christe in vs may dwell. 20 

Christe is the aucthour of all vnitie, 

From whence proceedeth all felicitie. 

syng vnto this glittering glorious king, 

prayse his name, let euery liuing thing: 

Let hart and voyce like Belles of syluer ring, 25 

The comfort that this day did bring. 

Let Lute, let Shalme, with sounde of sweete delight, 

The ioy of Christes birth this day resight. 

Finis. F. K. 



ofdayntiedeuises. 5. 

[10.] Easter day. 

A LI mortall men this day reioyce, 

In Christ that you redeemed hath: 

By death, with death sing we with voyce, 5 

To him that hath appesed Gods wrath. 
Due vnto man for sinfull path, 
Wherein before he went astray: 
Geue thankes to him with perfect faith, 
That for mankind hath made this glorious day, 10 

This day he rose from tombe againe, 

Wherin his precious corse was laide: 

Whom cruelly the lewes had slaine, 

With blooddy woundes full ill araide. 

Man be nowe no more dismaide, 15 

If thou hencefoorth from sinne doo stay, 

Of death thou needest not be afraide, 

Christ conquered death for this his glorious day. 

His death preuayled had no whit, 

As Paul the Apostle well doth write, 20 

Except he had vprysen yet. 

From death to life by Godlike might. 

With most triumphant glittering light. 

This day his glory shined I say, 

And made vs bright as sunne this glorious day. 25 

man aryse with Christe therefore, 

Since he from sinne hath made thee free: 

Beware thou fall in sinne no more, 

But ryse as Christe dyd ryse for thee. 

So mayst thou him in glory see, 30 

When he at day of doome shal say: 

Come thou my childe and dwell with me, 

God Graunt vs all, to see that glorious day. 

Finis. lasper Heywood. & ill. 


6. The 'Paradise 

[11.] For Whit Sunday. 
/"X)me holy ghost eternall God, and ease the wofull greefe: 

That thorough the heapes of heauy sinne, can no where find releefe. 
Doo thou O God redresse 5 

The great distresse 
Of sinfull heauinesse. 

Come comfort the aflicted thoughtes, of my consumed hart: 

ryd the pearcing pricking paynes, of my tormenting smart. 

O holy Ghost graunt me i 

That I by thee 

From sinne may purged be. 

Thou art my God, to thee alone, 

1 wyll commend my cause: 

Not glittering golde nor precious stone, 15 

Shall make me leaue thy lawes. 

O teache me then the way 

Whereby I may 

Make thee my onely stay. 

My lippes, my tongue, my hart and al, 20 

Shall spreade thy mightie name: 
My voyce shall neuer cease to sound, 
The prayses of the same. 

Yea euery liuing thing 

Shall sweetely syng 25 

To thee (O heauenly king.) 

Finis. M. Kindlemarsh. 

[12.] Who mindes to bring his shippe to happy shore, 
Must care to knowe the lawes of wysdomes lore. 

"JV/TY freend, yf thou wylt credite me in ought, 30 

To whom the trueth by tryall well appeares: 
Nought woorth is wit, till it be dearely bought, 
There is no wysedome but in hoarie heares. 


ofdayntie deuises. 7. 

Yet yf I may of wysedome oft define, 

As well as others haue of happinesse: 

Then to my woordes my freende, thy eare encline, 

The thinges that make thee wyse, are these I gesse. 5 

Feare God, and knowe thy selfe in eche degree, 

Be freend to all, familier but to fewe: 

Too light of credite, see thou neuer be, 

For tryall oft in trust, dooth treason shewe. 

To others faultes cast not to much thy eye, 10 

Accuse no man of gilt, amend thy owne: 

Of medling much, dooth mischiefe oft aryse, 

And oft debate, by tickle tongue is sowne. 

What thing thou wylt haue hid, to none declare, 

In woorde or deede, beware of had I wist: 15 

So spend thy good, that some thou euer spare, 

For freendes like Haukes, doo soare from emptie fist. 

Cut out thy coate, according to thy cloth, 

Suspected persons see thou alwayes flee: 

Beleeue not him that once hath broke his troth, 20 

Nor yet of gift, without desart be free. 

Time quickly slips beware how thou it spend, 

Of wanton youth, repentes a painefull age: 

Beginne nothing without an eye to thend, 

Nor bowe thyne eare from counsell of the sage. 25 

If thou to farre let out thy fancie slip, 

And witlesse wyll from reasons rule outstart: 

Thy folly, shall at length be made thy whippe, 

And sore, the stripes of shame, shal cause thee smart. 

To doo too much for olde men is but lost, 30 

Of freendship had to women comes like gaine: 
Bestowe not thou on children to much cost, 
For what thou dooest for these, is all in vayne. 



8. The "Paradise 

The olde man or he can requite, he dyes, 

Vnconstant is the womans waueryng minde: 

Full soone the boy thy freendship wyl despise, 

And him for loue thou shalt vngratefull finde. 5 

The aged man is like the barren ground, 
The woman like the Reede that wagges with winde: 
There may no trust in tender yeeres be found, 
And of the three, the boy is most vnkinde. 

If thou haue found a faithfull freend in deede, 10 

Beware thou lose not loue of such a one: 
He shall sometime stand thee in better steede, 
Then treasure great of golde or precious stone. 
Finis. lasper Hewood. 

[ I 3l Of the inconstant stay of 'fortunes giftes. 15 

TF jfortune be thy stay, thy state is very tickle, 

She beares a double face, disguised, false, and fickle. 
This day she seemes to smile, to morrowe wyl she frowne, 
What nowe she sets aloft, anone she throweth downe. 
Fly Jfottunei sly deseytes, let ^Tertue be thy guide, 20 

If that you doo intend in happy state to bide. 

Vpon the setled Rocke, thy building surest standes, 

Away it quickly weares, that resteth on the sandes. 

Dame < \J0ttU is the Rocke, that yeeldes assured stay, 

Dame Jfottune is the Sand, that skowreth soone away. 25 

Chuse that is certaine, let thinges vncertayne passe, 

Preferre the precious golde, before the brittle glasse. 

Sly Jfortune hath her sleightes, she plaies vpon the packe, 

Looke whom she fauours most, at length she turnes to wracke. 

But ^Tettlte simply deales, she shuns deceitfull trayne, 30 

Who is by Jfottune raysed vp, shall neuer fall againe. 

Sticke fast to ^Jettue then, that geues assured trust, 

And fly from JfortUttetf freekes, that euer prooue vniust. 

Finis. F. K. Promise 


ofdayntiedeuises. 9. 

[14.] Promise is debt. 
TN my accompt, the promise that is vowed, 

Among the good, is holden such a debt: 

As he is thought, no whit to be alowed, 5 

That setteth light his promise to forget. 
And for my part, I wyl not linke in loue, 
With fickle folke, whose fancies oft remoue. 

My happy gaine, I doo esteeme for such, 

As fewe haue found, in these our doutful dayes: 10 

To finde a freend, I thinke it be as much, 

Aste winne, a fort full fraught of noble praise. 

Of all the goodes, that there may be possest, 

A faithfull freend, I iudge to be the best. 

freendly league, although to late begunne, 15 

Yet time shall try our troth, is well imployed: 
And that we both shall see, that we haue wonne, 
Such fastned faith, as can not be destroyed. 
By enuious rage, or slaunders bitter blowe 

That seekes the good, to ouerthrowe, 20 

Finis. R. Hill. 

[15.] No woordes, but deedes. 
HPHE wrong is great, the paine aboue my power, 

That yeeldes such care in doutfull dennes to drowne: 

Such happe is hard, where fortune dooth so lower, 25 

As freendly looke, is turned to froward frowne. 
Is this the trust that faithfull freendes can finde? 
With those that yet haue promise broke? 
By deedes in dout, as though no woordes can binde, 
A vowed freend to hold him to his yoke. 30 

faithlesse freend? what can assure your minde, 
That doutes so soone, before you haue cause why? 
To what hard happe? dooth Fortune here me binde, 
When woordes nor deedes can no way satisfye. 

$ i. What 

io. TheTaradise 

What can I write? that hath not oft been saide? 

What haue I saide? that other hath not affyrmed? 

What is approued? that ought to be assayed? 

Or what is vowed? that shall not be performed? 5 

Cast of mistrust, in haste no credite giue, 

To this or that, that breedeth freendes vnrest: 

No doubt at all, but trust me if I liue, 

My deedes shall prooue, that all is for the best. 

And this beleeue, the Sea shall ceasse to flowe, io 

The Sunne to shine within the setled skie: 

All thinges on earth, shall leaue to spring and growe, 

Yea euery foule shall want, his winges to flye. 

Eare I in thought, shall seeme once to retyre, 

If you my freend remaine, as I desyre: 15 

Nowe lose no time, but vse that whyle you may, 

Forget not this, a dogge shall haue a day. 

Finis. R. D. 

[16.] He desyreth exchange of lyfe. 

HPHE day delayed, of that I most doo wishe, 20 

Wherewith I feede and starue, in one degree: 
With wishe and want, still serued in one dishe, 
Aliue as dead, by proofe as you may so we. 
To whom of olde, this prouerbe well it serues, 
Whyle grasse dooth growe, the seelly Horse he sterues. 25 

Tweene these extreames, thus doo I rome the race, 

Of my poore life, this certaynely I knowe: 

Tweene would and want, vnwarely that dooth passe, 

More swift then shot, out of the archers bowe. 

As Spider drawes her line in vayne all day, 30 

I watch the net, and others haue the pray. 



ofdayntie deuises. 1 1 . 

And as by proofe, the greedy dogge doth gnaw, 

The bared bone, all onely for the taste: 

So to and fro, this lothsome life I drawe, 

With fancies forst, and fled with vaine repast. 5 

Jfra* tft#SU brought vnto the water brinke, 

So aye thirst I, the more that I doo drinke. 

Loe thus I dye, and yet I seeme not sicke, 

With smart vnseene, my selfe my selfe I weare: 

With prone desire, and power that is not quicke, 10 

With hope aloft nowe drenched in dispaire, 

Trayned in trust, for no reward assignd, 

The more I haste, the more I come behinde. 

With hurt to heale, in frozen yse to frye, 

With losse to laugh, this is a woonderous case: 15 

Fast fetred here, is forste away to flye, 

As hunted Hare, that Hound hath in the chase. 

With winges and spurres, for all the haste I make, 

As like to lose, as for to drawe the stake. 

The dayes be long, that hang vpon desert, 20 

The life is irke of ioyes that be delayed: 
The time is short, for to requite the smart, 
That dooth proceede of promise long vnpaid, 
That to the last of this my fainting breath, 

I wishe exchange of life, for happy death. 25 

Finis. L: Vaux. 

[17.] Of the instabililie of youth. 

r/7H E N I looke backe, and in my selfe beholde, 

The wandring wayes, that youth could not descry: 

And markt the fearefull course that youth did holde, 30 

And mette in mind, eache steppe youth strayed a wry. 
My knees I bowe, and from my hart I call, 
Lorde, forget these faultes and follies all. 

$ tt. For 


i2. TheTaradise 

For nowe I see, howe voyde youth is of skill, 

I see also his prime time and his end: 

I doo confesse my faultes and all my yll, 

And sorrowe sore, for that I did offend. 5 

And with a mind repentant of all crimes, 

Pardon I aske for youth, ten thousand times. 

The humble hart, hath daunted the proud mind, 

Eke wysedome hath geuen ignorance a fall: 

And wit hath taught, that folly could not finde, 10 

And age hath youth, her subiect and her thrall. 

Therefore I pray, Lorde of life and trueth, 

Pardon the faultes committed in my youth. 

Thou that dydst graunt the wyse king his request? 

Thou that in Whale, thy prophet didst preserue: 15 

Thou that forgauest the wounding of thy brest? 

Thou that dydst saue the theefe in state to sterue. 

Thou only God, the geuer of all grace? 

Wipe out of mind, the path of youthes vaine race. 

Thou that by power, to lyfe didst rayse the dead. 20 

Thou that of grace restorest the blinde to sight: 

Thou that for loue, thy life and loue out bled, 

Thou that of fauour, madest the lame goe ryght. 

Thou that canst heale, and helpe in all assayes, 

Forgeue the gilth, that grewe in youthes vayne wayes. 25 

And nowe since I, with faith and doubtlesse minde, 

Doo fly to thee by prayer, to appease thy yre: 

And since that thee, I onely seeke to finde, 

And hope by faith, to attayne my iust desyre. 

Lorde, minde no more youthes error and vnskill, 30 

And able age, to doo thy holy wyll. 

Finis. L. Vam. 



ofdayntie deuises. 1 3 . 

[18. ] Most happy is that state alone , 

Where woordes and deedes agree in one. 

15 Y painted woordes, the silly simple man, 

To trustlesse trappe, is trayned now and than. 5 

And by conseyte, of sweete alluring tale, 
He bites the baites, that breedes his bitter bale. 
To beawties blast, cast not thy rolling eye: 
In pleasaunt greene, doo stinging Serpent lye. 

The golden Pill, hath but a bitter taste: 10 

In glittering glasse, a poyson ranckest plaste. 
So pleasant woordes, without perfourming deedes: 
May well be deemed, to spring of Darnel seedes. 
The freendly deede is it, that quickly tryes: 

Where trusty faith, and freendly meaning lyes. 15 

That state therefore, most happy is to me: 
Where woordes and deedes, most faithfully agree. 

My freend, yf thou wylt keepe thy honest name: 

Fly from the blotte, of barking slaunders blame. 

Let not in woord, thy promise be more large: 20 

Then thou in deede, art wylling to discharge. 

Abhorred is that false dissembling broode, 

That seemes to beare, two faces in one hoode. 

To say a thing, and not to meane the same: 

Wyll turne at length, to lose of thy good name. 25 

Wherefore my freend, let double dealing goe: 

In steade whereof, let perfect plainenesse flowe. 

Doo thou no more, in idle woordes exceede: 

Then thou intendes to doo, in very deede. 

So good report, shall spreade thy woorthy prayse: 30 

For being iust in woord and deede alwayes. 

You worldly wightes, that worldly dooers are: 
Before you let your woord slip foorth to farre, 
Consyder wel, what inconuenience springes: 

By breache of promise made, in lawfull thinges. 35 

JJ ItU First, 


i4- TheTaradise 

First, God mislikes where such deceite dooth swarme: 

Next, it redoundeth vnto thy neighbours harme. 

And last of all, which is not least of all: 

For such offence, thy conscience suffer shall. 5 

As barren groundes, bringes foorth but rotten weedes: 

From barren woordes, so fruitelesse chaffe proceedes. 

As sauerie flowres, doo spring in fertill ground: 

So trusty freendes, by tryed freendes are found. 

To shunne therefore the woorst, that may ensue: 10 

Let deedes alway, approue thy sayinges true. 

Finis. F. K. 

[19.] Who wyll aspire to dignitie, 
By learnyng must aduaunced be. 

HPHE poore that Hue in needie rate, 15 

By learning doo great richesse gayne: 
The riche that Hue in wealthy state, 
By learnyng doo their wealth mainteyne. 
Thus ritch and poore, are furthered still, 
By sacred rules of learned skill. 20 

All fond conceites of franticke youth, 

The golden gyft of learning stayes: 

Of doubtfull thinges to searche the trueth, 

Learning sets foorth the reddy wayes. 

happy him doo I repute, 25 

Whose brest is fraught with learninges fruite. 

There growes no Corne within the feelde, 

That Oxe and Plough did neuer tyll: 

Right so the mind no fruite can yeelde, 

That is not lead by learninges skill. 30 

Of ignoraunce comes rotten weedes, 

Of learnyng springes right noble deedes. 



ofdayntie deuises. 1 5. 

Like as the Captayne hath respect, 

To trayne his souldiers in aray: 

So Learning dooth mans mind direct, 

By "^Jettue* staffe his lyfe to stay. 5 

Though Freendes and Fortune waxeth skant, 

Yet learned men shall neuer want. 

You Impes therefore in youth be sure, 

To fraught your mindes with learned thinges: 

For Learning is the fountayne pure, 10 

Out from the which all glory springes. 

Who so therefore wyll glory winne, 

With Learning fyrst, must needes beginne. 

Finis. F. K. 

[20.] Mans flitting life^fyndes surest stay, 15 

Where sacred Vertue bearelh sway. 

r PHE sturdy Rocke, for all his strength, 

By raaging Seas, is rent in twayne: 
The Marble stone, is pearst at length, 

With little droppes, of drislyng rayne. 20 

The Oxe dooth yeelde vnto the yoke, 
The Steele obeyeth the hammer stroke. 

The stately Stagge, that seemes so stout, 

By yalpyng Houndes, at bay is set: 

The swiftest Bird, that flees about, 25 

Is caught at length in Fowlers net. 

The greatest Fishe in deepest Brooke, 

Is soone deceiued with subtil hooke. 

Ye man him selfe, vnto whose wyll, 

All thinges are bounden to obay: 30 

For all his witte, and woorthy skill, 

Dooth fade at length, and fall away. 


1 6. The Taradise 

There is nothing, but time dooth wast, 
The Heauens, the Earth, consume at last. 

But ""fcTertue sittes, triumphing still, 

Vpon the Trone, of glorious Jfattte: 5 

Though spitefull Death, mans body kill, 

Yet hurtes he not, his vertuous name. 

By Life or death, what so be tides, 

The state of 'Fettue, neuer slides. 

Finis. M. T. 10 

[21.] Nothing is comparable vnto afaithfullfreend. 

CIth this our time of Freendship is so scant, 

Sith Freendship nowe in euery place dooth want. 
Sith euery man of Freendship is so hollowe, 

As no man rightly knowes which way to followe. 15 

Sease not my Muse, cease not in these our dayes, 
To ryng loude peales, of sacred Freendships prayse. 

If men be nowe, their owne peculier freendes, 

And to their neighbours Freendship none pretendes. 

If men of Freendship shewe them selues so bare, 20 

And of their brethren take no freendly care. 

Forbeare not then my Muse, nor feare not then, 

To ryng disprayse of these vnfreendly men. 

Did man of Freendship knowe the mightie power? 

Howe great effectes it woorketh euery houre. 25 

What store of hidden freendship it retaynes, 

How still it powreth foorth aboundaunt gaynes. 

Man would with thee my muse in these our dayes, 

Ryng out loude peales, of sacred Freendships prayse. 

Freendship, releeueth mans necessitie, 30 

Freendship, comforteth mans aduersitie. 
Freendship augmenteth mans prosperitie, 
Frendship preferres man to felicitie. 


ofdayntie deuises. 1 7. 

Then ryng my muse, ryng out in these our dayes, 
Ring out loude peales, of sacred Freendships prayse. 

Of Freendship, groweth loue and charitie, 

By Freendship, men are linked in amitie: 5 

From Freendship, springeth all commoditie, 

The fruite of Freendship, is fidelitie. 

Oh ryng my Muse, ryng out in these our dayes, 

Peale vpon peale, of sacred Freendships prayse. 

That man with man, true Freendship may embrace, 10 

That man to man, may shewe a freendly face: 

That euery man, may sowe such freendly seedes, 

As Freendship, may be found in freendly deedes. 

And ioyne with me my Muse in these our dayes, 

To ryng loude peales, of sacred Freendships prayse. 15 

Finis. F. K. 
[22.] &e*ptee ftnem. 

be as wyse as C&1C<& was, 
Or ritch as C&C&'Fft in his life: 
To haue the strength of HetCUleS, 20 

Whiche did subdue by force or strife. 
What helpeth it when Death doth call, 
The happy ende exceedeth all. 

The Ritche may well the Poore releeue, 

The Rulers may redresse eche wrong: 25 

The Learned may good counsell geue, 

But marke the ende, of this my song. 

Who dooth these thinges, happy they call, 

Their happy ende exceedeth all. 

The happiest end, in these our dayes, 30 

That all doo seeke, both small and great: 

C U Is 

1 8. The ^Paradise 

Is eyther for Fame, or els for Prayse, 

Or who may sitte in highest seate. 

But of these thinges, hap what hap shall, 

The happy ende exceedeth all. 5 

A good beginning oft we see, 

But seeldome standyng at one stay: 

For fewe doo lyke the meane degree, 

Then prayse at parting some men say. 

The thing whereto cache wight is thrall, 10 

The happy ende exceedeth all. 

The meane estate, that happy life, 

Whiche liueth vnder gouernaunce: 

Who seekes no hate, nor breedes no strife, 

But takes in woorth his happy chaunce, 15 

If contentation him befall, 

His happy end, exceedeth all. 

The longer lyfe that we desyre, 

The more offence dooth dayly growe: 

The greater paine it dooth require, 20 

Except the ludge some mercie shewe. 

Wherefore I thinke, and euer shall, 

The happy ende exceedeth all. 

Finis. D. S. 

[23.] He perswadeth his freend, from the 25 

fond effectes of loue. 

art thou bound, and maist goe free, 
Shall reason yeelde to raging wyll ? 
Is thraldome like to libertie? 

Wylt thou exchange thy good for ill? 30 

Then shalt thou learne a childishe play, 
And of eche part to taste and proue, 
The lookers on, shall iudge and say, 
Loe this is he that Hues by loue. 



ofdayntie deuises. 1 9. 

Thy wittes with thoughtes, shal stand at stay, 

Thy head shall haue but heauie rest: 

Thy eyes shall watche for wanton prayes, 

Thy tongue shall shewe thy hartes request. 5 

Thy eares shall heare a thousand noyse, 

Thy hand shall put thy pen to paine: 

And in the ende, thou shalt dispraise, 

The life so spent, for such small gaine. 

If leue and list might neuer cope, 10 

Nor youth to runne from reasons race: 
Nor yf strong sute might winne sure hope, 
I would lesse blame a louers case. 
For loue is hotte, with great desire, 

And sweete delight makes youth so fond, 15 

That little sparkes wyl prooue great fyre, 
And bring free hartes to endlesse bond. 


[24.] Wantyng his desyre, he complayneth. 

'"PHe sayling ships with ioy at lenght, do touche the long desired port, 20 

The hewing axe y oke doth waste, y battring Canon breakes y fort. 
Hard hagard Haukes stope to y lure, wild colts in time y bridle tames, 
There is nothing so out of vre, but to his kinde long time it frames. 
Yet this I finde in time, no time can winne my sute, 
Though oft the tree I clime, I can not catche the fruite. 25 

And yet the pleasant branches oft, in yeelding wyse to me doo bowe, 
When I would touch, they spring aloft, sone are they gone, I wot not 
Thus I pursue y fleting flood, like tantalus in hel belowe, (howe: 

Would god my case she vnderstood, which can ful sone releue my woe: 
Which yf to her were knowen, the fruite were surely mine, 30 

She would not let me grone, and brouse vpon the rine. 

But if my ship with tackle turne, with rented sailes must needes retire, 
And streame & wind had plainely sworne, by force to hinder my desire: 

C U* Lyke 

20. The Taradise 

Like one that strikes vpon y rocks, my weerie wrack I should bewaile 
And learne to know false fortunes mocks, who smiles on me to small a- 
Yet sith she only can, my rented ship restore, (uaile: 

To helpe her wracked man, but once I seeke no more. 5 

Finis. M. Edwardes. 
[25.] fry >e before you trust. 

TN freendes are found a heape of doubtes, that double dealing vse, 

A swarme of such I could finde out, whose craft I can accuse: 
A face for loue, a hart for hate, these faigned freendes can beare, 10 

A tongue for troth, a head for wyles, to hurt eche simple eare. 
In humble port is poyson pact, that plainenesse can not spie, 
Which credites all, and can not see, where stinging serpentes lye: 
Through hastie trust, the harmelesse hart, is easely hampred in, 
And made beleeue it is good golde, when it is lead and tin. 15 

The first deceit that bleares mine eyes, is faigned faith profest, 
The second trappe, is grating talke, that gripes eche strangers brest. 
The third deceit, is greeting woordes, with colours painted out, 
Which biddes suspect to feare no smart, nor dread no dangerous dout. 
The fourth and last, is long repaire, which creepes in freendships lap: 20 
And dayly hauntes, that vnder trust, deuiseth many a trap. 
Lo how false freendes, can frame a fetch, to winne the wil with wyles, 
To sauce their sleightes with sugred sops, & shadowe harme w smiles. 
To serue their lustes, are sundry sortes, by practise diuers kindes, 
Some carries honnie in their mouthes, and venime in their mindes. 25 

Mee thinkes the stones within the streetes, should crie out in this case, 
And euery one that doth them meete, should shunne their double face. 
Finis. D. S. 

[26.] A Lady forsaken, complayneth. 

TF pleasures be in painefulnesse? in pleasures dooth my body rest, 30 

If ioyes accorde with carefulnesse? a ioyfull hart is in my brest: 
If prison strong be libertie? in libertie long haue I been, 
If ioyes accord with miserie? who can compare a lyfe to myne. 



ofdayntie deuises. 2 1 . 

Who can vnbind that is sore bound? who can make free y is sore thrall 
Or how can any meanes be found? to comfort such a wretch withall? 
None can, but he y hath my hart, conuert my paines to comfort then, 
Yet since his seruant I became, most like a bondman haue I beene: 5 

Since first in bondage I became, my woord and deede was euer such, 
That neuer once he could me blame, except from louing him too much. 
Which I can iudge no iust offence, nor cause that I deserud disdayne, 
Except he meane through false pretece, through forged loue to make a 
Nay nay alas, my fained thoughts my freded & my fained ruth (traine 10 
My pleasures past my present plaints, shew wel I meane but to much 
But since I can not him attaine, against my wil I let him goe, (truth: 
And lest he glorie at my paine, I wyl attempt to cloke my woe. 
Youth, learne by me, but doo not proue, for I haue proued to my paine, 
What greeuous greefes do grow by loue, & what it is to loue in vaine. 15 

Finis. M. D. 
[27.] Finding worldly wyes but vanities^ he wysheth death. 

in filthy froward fate, wherein a thousand cares I finde, 
By whom I doo lament my state, annoide with fond afflicted mind: 

A wretche in woe, and dare not crie, 20 

I Hue, and yet I wishe to dye. 

The day in dole, that seemeth long, I pas with sighes & heauy cheere, 
And with these eyes I vewe the wrong, that I sustaine by louing here: 

Where my mishappes as rife doo dwell, 

As plagues within the pit of hell. 25 

A wailing wight I walke alone, in desart dennes there to complaine, 
Among the sauage sort to mone, I flee my frends where they remaine: 

And pleasure take to shun the sight, 

Where erst I felt my cheefe delight. 

A captiue clapt in chaynes of care, lapt in the lawes of lethall loue, 30 

My fleshe & bones consumed bare, with crauling greefes ful strange to 

Though hap dooth bidde me hope at least, (proue: 

Whiles grasse dooth growe, yet starues the beast. 
A seeged fort with forraine force, for want of ayde, must yeelde at last, 
So must my weeried pined corse, submit it selfe to bitter tast: 35 

Of crauling care, that carkes my brest, 

Tyll hop or death, shall breede my rest. 

Finis. F. M. C tti. He 


[28.] Hauing marryed a woorthy Lady, 
and taken away by death, he com- 
playneth his mishap. 

T N youth when I at large did leade, my life in lustie libertie, 5 

When heuy thoughtes no one did spreade, to let my pleasant fantesie 

No fortune seemd, so hard could fall, 

This freedome then, that might make thrall. 

And twentie yeres I skarse had spent, whe to make ful my happy fate, 
Both treasures great were on me cast, with landes and titles of estate: 10 

So as more blest then I stoode than, 

Eke as me thought was neuer man. 

For of Dame Fortune who is he, coulde more desyre by iust request, 
The health, with wealth, and libertie, al which at once I thus possest: 

But maskyng in this ioly ioy, 15 

A soden syght, prooud al a toy. 

For passyng on these merie dayes, with new deuice of pleasures great, 
And now & then to viewe the rayes, of beauties workes with cunnyng 

In heauenly hewes, al which as one, (fret: 

I oft behelde, but bounde to none. 20 

And one day rowlyng thus my eyes, vpon these blessed wyghts at ease, 
Among the rest one dyd I see, who strayght my wandryng lookes dyd 

And stayed them firme, but suche a syght, (sease: 

Of beautie yet sawe neuer wyght. 

What shal I seke to praise it more, where tongs can not praise y same, 25 
But to be short to louers lore, I strayght my senses al dyd frame: 

And were it wyt, or were it chaunce, 

I woonne the Garlande in this daunce. 

And thus wher I before had thought, no hap my fortune might encrese, 
A double blis this chance forth brought, so did my ladies loue me plese: 30 

Her fayth so firme, and constant suche, 

As neuer hart, can prayse too muche. 

But now with torments strange I tast, y fickle stay of fortunes whele, 
And where she raysde from height to cast, with greater force, of greefe 

For from this hap of soden frowne, (to feele: 35 

Of Princes face she threwe me downe. 


ofdayntie deuises. 2 3 . 

And thus exchange now hath it made, my libertie a thing most deare, 
In hateful prison for to fade, where sundred from my louing feare: 

My wealth, and health, standes at like stay, 

Obscurely to consume away. 5 

And last when humaine force was none, could part our loue wherin we 
My ladyes life alas is gone, most cruel death hath it bereued: (liued, 

Whose vertues, her, to God, hath wonne, 

And leaft me here, a man vndone. 

Finis. F. G. 10 

[29.] A woorthy dittie, song before the Queenes 
Maiestie at Bristowe. 

IV/TIstrust not troth, that truely meanes, for euery ielous freke, 

In steade of wrong, condemne not right, no hidde wrath to wreke: 
Looke on the light of faultlesse life, how bright her vertues shine, 15 

And measure out her steppes eche one, by leuel and by line. 

Deeme eche desert by vpright gesse, whereby your prayse shal Hue, 

If malice would be match with might, let hate no Judgement geue: 

Enforse no feare with wresting wittes, in quiet conscience brest, 

Lend not your eares to busie tongues, which breedeth much vnrest. 20 

In doubtfull driftes wade not to farre, it weeries but the mind, 
Seeke not to search the secret harts, whose though tes are hard to find: 
Auoide from you those hatefull heads, that helpes to heape mishapp, 
Be slowe to heare the flatterers voyce, which creepeth in your lapp. 

Embrace their loue that wills you good, and sport not at their praise, 25 
Trust not too much vnto your selfe, for feeble are your stales: 
Howe can your seate be setled fast, or stand on stedfast ground, 
So propped vp with hollowe hartes, whose suertie is vnsound. 

Geue faith to those that feare for loue, and not that loue for feare, 
Regard not them that force compels, to please you euery where: 30 

All this well waide and borne away, shall stablishe long your state, 
Continually with perfect peace, in spite of puffing hate. 

Finis. D. S. His 


24- The Taradise 

[30.] His good name being blemished, he bewayleth. 

Raud is the front of Fortune past all recouerie, 
I stayles stand, to abide the shocke of shame and infamie. 
My life through lingring long is lodge, in lare of lothsome wayes, 5 

My death delaide to keepe from life, the harme of haplesse dayes: 
My sprites, my hart, my witte and force, in deepe distresse are dround, 
The only losse of my good name, is of these greefes the ground. 

And since my mind, my wit, my head, my voyce, and tongue are weake 

To vtter, mooue, deuise, conceiue, sound foorth, declare, and speake: 10 

Such pearsing plaintes, as answeare might, or would my wofull case, 

Helpe, craue I must, and craue I wyll, with teares vpon my face: 

Of al that may in heauen or hell, in earth or ayre be found, 

To wayle with me this losse of mine, as of these greefes the ground. 

Helpe gods, helpe saintes, helpe sprites & powers, y in the heauen doo 15 
Helpe ye y are to wayle aye woont, ye howling hounds of hel: (dwel, 
Helpe man, helpe beasts, helpe birds, & wormes, y on y earth doth toile 
Helpe fishe, helpe foule, that flocks and feedes vpon the salt sea soyle: 
Helpe eccho that in ayre dooth flee, shryl voyces to resound, 
To wayle this losse of my good name, as of these greefes the ground. 20 

Finis. E. 0. 

[31.] Of Fortunes power. 

pdEHlCtatei whose passing happe, causd him to lose his fate, 

A golden ryng cast in the seas, to change his constant state, 
And in a fishe yet at his bourd, the same he after found, 25 

Thus Fortune loe, to whom she takes, for bountie dooth abound. 

The myzers vnto might she mountes, a common case we see, 

And mightie in great miserie, she sets in lowe degree: 

Whom she to day dooth reare on hie, vpon her whirling wheele, 

To morowe next she dingeth downe, and casteth at her heele. 30 



ofdayntie deuises. 2 5. 

No measure hath shee in her gifts, shee doth reward cache sort. 

The wise that counsell haue, no more then fooles that maketh sport. 

Shee vseth neuer partiall handes for to offend or please, 

Geue me good Fortune all men sayes, and throw me in the seas. 5 

It is no fault or worthines, that makes men fall or rise, 

I rather be borne Fortunate, then to be very wise. 

The blindest man right soone, that by good Fortune guided is, 

To whome that pleasant Fortune pipes, can neuer daunce amis. 

Finis. M. Edwardes. 10 

[32.] Though Triumph after bloudy warres, the greatest brags do beare: 
Yet Triumph of a conquered minde, the crowne of Fame shall weare. 

o so doth marke the carelesse life, of these vnhappie dayes, 
And sees what small and slender hold, the state of vertue stayes: 
He findes that this accursed trade, proceedeth of this ill, 15 

That men be giuen, too much to yeelde to their vntamed will. 

In lacke of taming witlesse wil, the poore we often see 

Enuies the ritch, because that he, his equall cannot bee: 

The rich aduauncd to might by wealth, from wrong doth not refraine, 

But will oppresseth weaker sort, to heape excessiue gaine. 20 

If Fortune were so blinde, to geue to one man what he will, 

A world would not suffise the same, if he might haue his fill: 

We wish, we searche, we striue for all, and haue no more therin 

Then hath y slaue, when death doth come, though Cresus welth we win. 

In getting much, we get but care, such brittle wealth to keepe, 25 

The rich within his walles of stone doth neuer soundly sleepe: 
When poore in weake and slender house, doe feare no losse of wealth, 
And haue no further care but this, to keepe them selues in health. 

Affection may not hide the sword of sway, in iudgement seat, 
Least partiall law doe execute the lawe in causes great: 30 

But if the minde in constant state, affection quite doe leaue, 
The higher state shall haue their rights, the poore no wrong receaue. 

23 u Is 


26. TheTaradise 

It is accompted greater praise to Ceasars loftie state, 

Against his vanquist foes, in warres to bridle wrekefull hate: 

Then when to Rome he had subdued, the people long vnknowne, 

Wherby as farre as land was found, the same abrode was blowne. 5 

If honor can selfe will refuse, and iustice be vpright, 
And priuate state desires but that, which good appeares in sight: 
Then vertue shall with soueraigne show, to euery eye reueale 
A heauenly life, a wealefull state, a happie common weale. 

Let vertue then the Triumph win, and gouerne all your deedes, 10 

Your yeelding to her sober heastes, immortall glory breedes: 
Shee shall vpreare your worthy name, shew then vnto the skies, 
Her beames shall shine in graue obscure, where shrined carkesse lies. 

Finis. M. Edwardes. 

[33.] Of perfect wisedome. 15 

TT/'Ho so will be accompted wise, and truely claime the same, 

By ioyning vertue to his deedes, he must atchieue the same: 
But fewe there be, that seeke thereby true wisedome to attaine, 
God, so rule our hearts therefore, such fondnesse to refraine. 

The wisedome which we most esteeme, in this thing doth consist, 20 

With glorious talke to shew in wordes our wisedome when we list. 
Yet not in talke, but seemely deedes, our wisedome we should place, 
To speake so faire, and doe but ill, doth wisedome quite disgrace. 

To bargaine well, and shunne the losse, a wisedome counted is, 

And thereby through the greedie coyne, no hope of grace to mis. 25 

To seeke by honoure to aduaunce his name to brittle praise, 

Is wisedome, which we daily see, increaseth in our dayes. 

But heauenly wisedome sower seemes to hard for them to win, 

And weary of the sute they seeme, when they doe once begin: 

It teacheth vs to frame our life, while vitall breth we haue, 30 

When it dissolueth earthly masse, the soule from death to saue. 



ofdayntie deuises. 27. 

By feare of God to rule our steppes, from sliding into vice, 

A wisedome is, which we neglect, although of greater price: 

A poynt of wisedome also this, we commonly esteeme, 

That euery man should be in deede, that he desires to seeme. 5 

To bridle that desire of gaine, which forceth vs to ill, 
Our hawtie stomackes Lord represse, to tame presuming will: 
This is the wisedome that we should, aboue cache thing desire, 
O heauenly God from sacred throne, that grace in vs inspire. 

And print in our repugnant hearts, the rules of wisedome true, 10 

That all our deedes in worldly life, may like thereof insue: 
Thou onely art the liuing spring, from whome this wisedome flowes, 
O washe therewith our sinfull heartes, from vice that therin growes. 
Finis. M. Edwardes. 

[34.] Afrendly admonition. 15 

stately wightes, that Hue in quiet rest 
Through worldly wealth, which God hath giuen to you. 
Lament with teares and sighes from dolefull brest: 
The shame and power that vice obtaineth now. 

Behold how God doth daily profer grace, 20 

Yet we disdaine, repentance to embrace. 

The suddes of sinne doe sucke into the mind, 

And cancred vice doth vertue quite expell, 

No chaunge to good alasse can resting finde: 

Our wicked hearts so stoutly doe rebell. 25 

Not one there is that hasteth to amend, 

Though God from heauen his daily threates doe send. 

We are so slow to chaunge our blamefull life, 

We are so prest to snatche aluring vice: 

Such greedie hartes on euery side be rife. 30 

So few that guide their will by counsell wise, 

To let our teares lament the wretched case, 

And call to God for vndeserued grace. 

B ti. You 


28. The "Paradise 

You worldly wightes, that haue your fancies fixt 

On slipper ioy of terreine pleasure here: 

Let some remorse in all your deedes be mixt. 

Whiles you haue time let some redresse appere. 5 

Of sodaine Death the houre you shall not know, 

And looke for Death although it seemeth slow. 

Oh be no iudge in other mens offence, 
But purge thy selfe and seeke to make thee free, 

Let euery one applie his diligence, 10 

A chaunge to good with in him selfe to see: 
God direct our feete in such a stay, 
From cancred vice to shame the hatefull way. 
Finis. R. Hill 

[35.] Sundrie men y sundrie affectes. 15 

yN euery wight some sondrie sort of pleasure I doe finde, 

Which after he doth seeke to ease his toyling minde. 
Diana with her training chase, of hunting had delight, 
Against the fearefull Deare, shee could direct her shotte aright. 
The loftie yeares in euery age, doth still imbrace the same, 20 

The sport is good, if vertue doe assist the chearefull game. 

Minerua in her chattering armes her courage doth aduaunce, 

In triall of the bloudie warres, shee giueth luckie chaunce. 

For sauegard men imbrace the same, which doe so needefull seeme, 

That noble heartes their cheefe delights in vse therof esteeme. 25 

In warlike games to ride or trie the force of armes they vse, 

And base the man we doe accompt, that doth the same refuse. 

The siluer sound of musickes cordes, doth please dpollos wit, 

A science which the heauens aduaunce, where it deserues to sit. 

A pleasure apt for euery wight, releefe to carefull minde, 30 

For woe redresse, for care a salue, for sadnesse helpe we finde. 

The soueraigne praise of Musicke still, doth cause the Poetes faine, 

That whirling Spheres, and eke the heauens, do hermonie retaine. 

I heard 


ofdayntie dmises. 2 9. 

1 heard that these three powers, at variaunce lately fell, 

Whiles eache did praise his owne delight, the other to excell. 

Then Fame, as one indifferent iudge, to ende the case they call, 

The praise pronounced by her to them, indifferently doth fall. 5 

Diana health and strength maintaine, Minerua force doth tame, 

And Musicke geues sweete delight, to further other game. 

These three delightes to hawtie mindes, the worthiest are estemed, 
If vertue be anexed to them, they rightly be so demed. 
With ioy they doe releeue the witte with sorrow oft opprest, 10 

And neuer suffer solempne greefe too long in minde to rest. 
Be wise in mirth, and seeke delight, the same doe not abuse, 
In honest mirth, a happie ioy we ought not to refuse. 
Finis. R. Hill. 

[36.] 'Time giues experience. 15 

reade what paines the powers deuine, 
Through wrath concerned by some offence, 
To mortall creatures they assigne 
Their due desartes for recompence. 

What endlesse paine they must endure, 20 

Which their offences did procure. 

A Gripe doth Vitius Liuer teare 

His greedie hungrie gorge to fill, 

And Sisiphus must euer beare 

The rowling stone against the hill. 25 

A number moe in hell be found, 

Which thus to endlesse paine are bound. 

Yet all the woe that they sustaine, 

Is nothing to the paine of me, 

Which cometh through the proude disdaine 30 

Of one, that doth to loue repine: 

Therefore I crie woe worth the houre, 

Since first I fell in Venus power. 

23 tit. The 


30. The Taradise 

The gnawing gripes of irksome thought, 

Consumes my heart with fifius griefe: 

I also haue full vainly wrought, 

With Sisiphus without reliefe. 5 

Euen when I hope to ende my paine, 

I must renue my sute againe. 

Yet will I not seeme so vntrue, 

To leaue a thing so late begone: 

A better happe may yet insue, 10 

The strongest towres in time be wonne. 

In time therefore, my trust I place, 

Who must procure desired grace. 

Finis. R. H. 

[37.] Of sufferance cometh ease. 15 

'IPO seeme for to reuenge eache wrong in has tie wise, 

By proofe we see of guiltlesse men, it hath not bene the guise. 
In slaunders lothsome brute, where they condemned bee, 
With ragelesse moode they suffer wrong, where truth shal trie the free. 
These are the patient panges, that passe within the brest 20 

Of those, that feele their cause by mine, where wrog hath right opprest. 
I know how by suspect, I haue bene iudgd awrie, 
And graunted giltie in the thing, that cleerely I denie: 
My faith may me defend, if I might loued be, 

God iudge me so, as from the guilt I know me to be free. 25 

I wrote but for my selfe, the griefe was all mine owne, 
As, who would proue extremitie, by proofe it might be knowne. 
Yet are there suche, that say, they can my meaning deeme, 
Without respect of this olde trothe, things proue not as they seeme. 
Whereby it may befall, in iudgement to be quicke, 30 

To make them selues suspect therewith, that needed not to kicke. 
Yet in resisting wrong, I would not haue it thought 
I do amisse, as though I knew by whome it might be wrought. 
If any suche there be, that heerewithall be vext, 

It were their vertue to beware, and deeme me better next. 35 

Finis. E. S. 

[38.] Being 


ofdayntie deuises. 3 1 . 

[38.] Being trapped in Loue he complayneth. 
'"PHe hidden woes that swelleth in my hart, 

Brings forth suche sighes, as filles the aire with smoke: 
The golden beames, thorow this his fierie dart, 5 

Dare not abide, the answere of the stroke. 
Which stroke, although it dazed me some dele, 
Yet nature taught my hand to worke his kinde, 
Wherewith I raught to pull away the stele, 

But to my paine, it left my head behinde, 10 

That fastned hath my heart so neare the pith, 
Except suche salue, as when the Scorpion stinges, 
I might receiue to heale my wounde therewith: 
In vaine for ease, my tongue alwayes it ringes. 

And I for paines, shall pearish through her guilt, 15 

That can reioyce, to see how I am spilt. 

Finis. E. S. 

[39.] Though Fortune haue sette thee on hie, 

Remember yet that thou shalt die. 
C T"'0 die, Dame nature did man frame, 20 

Death is a thing most perfect sure: 
We ought not natures workes to blame, 
Shee made nothing, still to endure. 
That lawe shee made, when we were borne, 

That hence we should retourne againe: 25 

To render right, we must not scorne, 
Death is due debt, it is no paine. 

The ciuill lawe, doth bidde restore 
That thou hast taken vp of trust: 

Thy life is lent, thou must therfore 30 

Repay, except thou be vniust. 
This life is like a poynted race, 
To the ende wherof when man hath trode, 
He must returne to former place, 

He may not still remaine abrode. 35 



32. The 'Paradise 

Death hath in all the earth aright, 

His power is great, it stretcheth farre: 

No Lord, no Prince, can scape his might, 

No creature can his duetie barre. 5 

The wise, the iust, the strong, the hie, 

The chast, the meeke, the free of hart, 

The rich, the poore, who can denie, 

Haue yeelded all vnto his dart. 

Could Hercules that tamde cache wight? 10 

Or else Vlisses with his witte? 

Or lanus who had all foresight? 

Or chast Hypolit scape the pitte? 

Could Cresus with his bagges of golde? 

Or Irus with his hungrie paine? 15 

Or Signus through his hardinesse bolde? 

Driue backe the dayes of Death againe. 

Seeing no man then can Death escape, 

Nor hire him hence for any gaine: 

We ought not feare his carraine shape, 20 

He onely brings euell men to paine. 

If thou haue ledde thy life aright, 

Death is the ende of miserie: 

If thou in God hast thy delight, 

Thou diest to Hue eternallie. 25 

Eache wight therefore while he Hues heere, 

Let him thinke on his dying day: 

In midst of wealth, in midst of cheere, 

Let him accompt he must away. 

This thought, makes man to God a frend, 3 

This thought doth banish pride and sinne: 

This thought doth bring a man in thend, 

Where he of Death the field shall win. 

[40.] All 


ofdayntie deuises. 27. 

[40.] All thinges ar Vaine. 
A Lthough the purple morning, bragges in brightnes of the sunne, 

As though he had of chased night, a glorious conquest wonne: 
The Time by day, giues place againe to forse of drowsie night, 5 

And euery creature is constraind, to chaunge his lustie plight. 

Of pleasures all, that heere we taste: 

We feele the contrary at laste. 

In spring, though pleasant Zephirus y hath frutefull earth inspired, 
And nature hath each bushe, each branch, with blossomes braue attired: 10 
Yet fruites and flowers, as buds and blomes, full quickly witherd be, 
When stormie Winter comes to kill, the Somers iolitie. 

By Time are gotte, by Time are lost 

All things, wherein we pleasure most. 

Although the Seas so calmely glide, as daungers none appeare, 15 

And dout of stormes, in skie is none, king Phebus shines so cleare: 
Yet when the boistrous windes breake out, and raging waues do swel, 
The seely barke now heaues to heauen, now sinkes againe to hel. 

Thus chaunge in euery thing we see, 

And nothing constant, seemes to bee. 20 

Who floweth most in worldly wealth, of wealth is most vnsure, 
And he that cheefely tastes of ioy, doth sometime woe indure: 
Who vaunteth most of numbred frends, forgoe them all he must, 
The fairest flesh and liuelest bloud, is turnd at length to dust. 

Experience geues a certaine grounde, 25 

That certen heere, is nothing founde. 

Then trust to that which aye remaines, the blisse of heauens aboue, 
Which Time, nor Fate, nor Winde, nor Storme, is able to remoue: 
Trust to that sure celestiall rocke, that restes in glorious throne, 
That hath bene, is, and must be still, our anker holde alone. 30 

The world is but a vanitie, 

In heauen seeke we our suretie. 

Finis. F. K. 

[41.] A vertuous Gentle woman in the praise of hir Loue. 
T Am a Virgine faire and free, and freely doe reioyce, 35 

I sweetely warble sugred notes, from siluer voyce: 
For which delightfull ioyes, yet thanke I curtesie loue, 
By whose allmightie power, such sweete delites I proue, 

Ci, I 


28. TheTaradise 

I walke the pleasant fieldes, adornd with liuely greene, 

And view the fragrant flowres, most louely to be scene: 

The purple Columbine, the Cousloppe and the Lillie, 

The Violet sweete, the Daizie and Daffadillie. 5 

The Woodbines on the hedge, the red Rose and the white, 
And cache fine flowres else, that rendreth sweete delite: 
Among the which I choose, all those of seemeliest grace, 
In thought, resembling them to my deare louers face. 

His louely face I meane, whose golden flouring giftes, 10 

His euer liuing Fame, to loftie skie vpliftes: 
Whom louing me I loue, onely for vertues sake, 
When vertuously to loue, all onely care I take. 

Of all which freshe faire flowers, that flowre that doth appeare 

In my conceit most like to him I holde so deare. 15 

I gather it, I kisse it, and eake deuise with it, 

Suche kinde of liuely speeche, as is for louers fit. 

And then of all my flowres, I make a garland fine, 

With which my golden wyer heares, together I doe twine: 

And sette it on my head, so taking that delight, 20 

That I would take, had I my louer still in sight. 

For as in goodly flowres, myne eyes great pleasure finde, 
So are my louers gyftes, most pleasant to my minde: 
Vpon which vertuous gyftes, I make more sweete repast, 
Then they that for loue sportes, the sweetest ioyes doo tast. 25 

Finis. M. K. 

[42.] Oppressed with sorowe, he wysheth death. 

TF Fortune may enforce, the carefull hart to cry, 

And griping greefe constrayne, the wounded wight lament: 
Who then alas to mourne, hath greater cause then I, 30 

Agaynst whose hard mishap, both Heauen and Earth are bent. 


ofdayntie deuises. 29. 

For whom no helpe remaynes, for whom no hope is left: 

From whom all happy happes is fled, and pleasure quite bereft. 

Whose lyfe nought can prolong, whose health nought can assure: 

Whose death, oh pleasant port of peace, no creature can procure. 5 

Whose passed proofe of pleasant ioy, 

Mischaunce hath chaunged, to greefes anoy: 

And loe, whose hope of better day, 

Is ouerwhelmd with long delay. 

Oh hard mishap. 10 

Eache thing I plainely see, whose vertues may auayle, 
To ease the pinching payne, which gripes the groning wyght: 
By Phisickes sacred skill, whose rule dooth seldome fayle, 
Through labours long inspect, is playnely brought to lyght. 
I knowe, there is no fruite, no leafe, no roote, no rynde, 15 

No hearbe, no plant, no iuyce, no gumme, no mettal deepely mind: 
No Pearle, no Precious stone, ne leme of rare effect, 
Whose vertues, learned Gallens bookes, at lardge doo not detect. 
Yet all theyr force can not appease, 

The furious fy ttes of my disease, 20 

Nor any drugge of Phisickes art, 
Can ease the greefe, that gripes my hart. 

Oh straunge disease. 

I heare the wyse affyrme, that Nature hath in store, 
A thousand secrete salues, which Wysdome hath outfound: 25 

To coole the scorching heate of euery smarting sore: 
And healeth deepest scarre, though greeuous be the wound. 
The auncient prouerbe sayes, that none so festred greefe, 
Dooth grow, for which the gods them selues, haue not ordeynd releefe. 
But I by proofe doo knowe, such prouerbes to be vayne, 30 

And thinke that Nature neuer knewe, the plague which I sustayne. 
And so not knowyng my distresse, 
Hath leaft my greefe remedilesse, 
For why, the heauens for me prepare, 
To Hue in thought, and dye in care. 35 

Oh lastyng payne. 

By chaunge of ayre I see, by haute of healthfull soyle, 
By dyet duely kept, grose humours are expeld: 

<C ti. I knowe 


26. The Taradise 

I know that greefes of minde, and inward heartes turmoile, 

By faithfull frendes aduise, in time may be repeld. 

Yet all this nought auailes, to kill that me anoyes, 

I meane to stoppe these floudes of care, that ouerflow my ioyes. 5 

No none exchaunge of place, can chaunge my lucklesse lot, 

Like one I Hue, and so must die, whome Fortune hath forgot. 

No counsell can preuaile with mee, 

Nor sage aduise with greefe agree: 

For he that feeles the paines of hell, 10 

Can neuer hope in heauen to dwell. 

Oh deepe despaire. 

What liues on earth but I, whose trauaile reapes no gaine, 
The wearyed Horse and Oxe, in stall and stable rest: 
The Ante with sommers toyle, beares out the winters paine, 1 5 

The Fowle that flies all day, at night retournes to rest. 
The Ploughmans weary worke, amid the winters mire, 
Rewarded is with somers gaine, which yeeldes him double hire: 
The sillye laboring soule, which drudges from day to day, 
At night, his wages truely paide, contented goth his way. 20 

And comming home, his drowsie hed 
He cowcheth close in homely bed: 
Wherein no sooner downe he lies, 
But sleepe hath straight possest his eyes. 

Oh happie man. 25 

The Souldier biding long, the brunt of mortall warres, 
Where life is neuer free, from dint of deadly foyle: 
At last comes ioyfull home, though mangled all with scarres, 
Where frankly, voyde of feare, he spendes the gotten spoyle. 
The Pirate lying long, amidde the fooming floodes, 30 

With euery flawe in hazard is, to loose both life and goodes. 
At length findes view of land, where wished Porte he spies, 
Which once obtained, among his mates, he partes the gotten prise. 
Thus euery man, for trauaile past, 

Doth reape a iust reward at last: 35 

But I alone, whose troubled minde, 
In seeking rest, vnrest doth finde. 

Oh lucklesse lotte. 

Oh curssed 


ofdayntie deuises. 

Oh curssed caitife wretche, whose heauie harde mishappe, 

Doth wish tenne thousande times, that thou hadst not bene borne: 

Since fate hathe thee condemned, to Hue in sorrowes lappe. 

Where waylinges waste thy life, of all redresse forlorne. 5 

What shall thy griefe appease? who shall thy torment stay? 

Wilt thou thy selfe, with murthering handes, enforce thy owne decay? 

No, farre be thou from me, my selfe to stoppe my breath, 

The gods forbid, whom I beseeche, to worke my ioyes by death. 

For lingering length of lothed life, I0 

Doth stirre in mee such mortall strife: 

That whiles for life and death I crie, 

In Death I Hue, and liuing die. 

Oh froward fate. 

Loe heere my hard mishappe, loe heere my straunge disease, 15 

Loe heere my deepe despaire, loe heere my lasting paine: 
Loe heere my froward fate, which nothing can appease. 
Loe heere how others toyle, rewarded is with gaine. 
While luckelesse, loe, I Hue in losse of laboures due, 

Compeld by proofe of torment strong, my endlesse greefe to rue. 20 

In which, since needes I must, consume both youth and age 
If olde I Hue, and that my care no comfort can asswage. 
Henceforth I banishe from my brest, 
All frustrate hope of future rest, 

And truthlesse trust to times reward, 25 

With all respectes of ioyes regard, 

Here I forsweare. 

[43.] Where reason makes request, there wisedome ought supplie, 
With friendly answere prest, to graunt or else denie. 

T Sigh? why so? for sorrowe of her smart. 3 

I morne? wherfore? for greefe that shee complaines. 
I pi tie? what? her ouerpressed hart. 
I dread? what harme? the daunger shee sustaines, 
I greeue? where at? at her oppressing paines. 

I feele? what forse? the fittes of her disease, 35 

Whose harme doth me and her, alike displease. 

tiu I 


32. The Paradise 

I hope, what happe? her happy healthes retyre, 

I wishe, what wealth? no wealth, nor worldly store 

But craue, what craft? by cunnyng to aspyre 

Some skyll, whereto? to salue her sickly sore. 5 

What then ? why then would I her health restore, 

Whose harme me hurtes, howe so? so woorkes my wyll 

To wyshe my selfe and her, lyke good and yll. 

What moues the mind, whereto? to such desyre 

Ne force, ne fauour, what then? free fancies choyse: 10 

Art thou to choose? my charter to require 

Eache Ladyes loue is fred by customes voyce, 

Yet are there grauntes, the euidence of theyr choyse. 

What then, our freedome is at lardge in choosyng, 

As womens willes are froward in refusing. 15 

Wotes she thy wyll? she knowes what I protest, 

Daynde she thy sute? she daungerd not my talke: 

Gaue she consent? she graunted my request, 

What dydst thou craue? the roote, the fruite, or stalke, 

I asked them all, what gaue she, Cheese, or chalke? 20 

That taste must try, what taste? I meane the proofe 

Of freendes, whose wyls withhold her bowe aloofe. 

Meanst thou good fayth? what els, hopest thou to speede? 

Why not, foole vntaught in carpet trade, 

Knowest not what proofes from such delayes proceede, 25 

Wylt thou like headles Cocke be caught in glade? 

Art thou like Asse, too apt for burden made? 

Fy, fy, wyl thou for saint adore the shrine? 

And woo her freend, eare she be wholy thine? 

Who drawes this drift? moued she, or thou this match? 30 

Twas I : oh foole, vnware of womens wyles, 

Long mayst thou wayte, like hungry houndes at hatche, 

She crafty Foxe, the seely Goose beguiles. 



ofdayntie deuises. 3 3 . 

Thy sute is shaped so fyt for long delay, 
That shee at wyll may chek, from yea to nay, 

But in good soothe, tell me her frendes intent: 

Best learne it first, their purpose I not knowe, 5 

Why then thy will to woorse and worse is bent, 

Dost thou delight, the vnkindled cole to blowe? 

Or childelike louest, in anckred bote to rowe, 

What meane these termes? who sith thy sute is such, 

Know of or on, or thou afect to much. 10 

No haste but good, why no, the meane is best, 

Admit shee loue, mislike in lingring growes: 

Suppose shee is caught, then Woodcocke on thy crest, 

Till end approues, what skornefull sedes shee sowes. 

In loytring loue, such dangers ebbes and flowes, 15 

What helpe herein? why wake in dangerous watch, 

That too, nor fro, may make thee marre the match: 

Is that the way to ende my wery woorke? 

By quicke dispatch, to lesson long turmoyle, 

Well well, though losse in lingering wontes to lurke, 20 

And I a foole, most fitte to take the foyle: 

Yet proofe from promise, neuer shall recoyle. 

My woordes with deedes, and deedes with woordes shal wend, 

Tyll shee, or hers, gaynesay that I entend. 

Art thou so fond? not fond, but firmely fast, 25 

Why foole, her freendes wote how thy wyl is bent: 

Yet thou lyke doult, whose witte and sense is past, 

Sest not what frumpes, doo folowe thy entent. 

Ne knowe, how loue in lewe of skorne is lent, 

Adewe, for sightes such folly should preuent. 30 

Well well, their skoffes with scornes might be repaid, 

If my requestes were fully yead or nayd. 

e (iff. Well 


30. The Taradise 

Well, well, let these with wisedomes paise be waide, 
And in your chest of cheefest secreates laide. 

What is, or may be mine, 

That is, and shall be thine: 5 

Till death the twist vntwine, 

That doth our loues combine. 

But if thy heart repine, 

Thy body should be mine. 

Shew me thereof some sine, 10 

That I may slacke the line, 

That knitts thy will to mine. 

Finis. My Lucke is losse. 

[44,] Donee eris Felix multos numerabis arnicas, 

Nullus ad amissus ibit amicus opes. 15 

TfUen as the Rauen, the Crowe, and greedie Kite 

Doe swarming flocke, where carren corpes doth fall: 
And tiring teare with beake and talentes might, 
Both skin and fleshe to gorge their guttes withall. 

And neuer cease, but gather moe to moe, 20 

Doe all to pull the carkase too and froe, 
Till bared bones at last they leaue behinde, 
And seeke elsewhere, some fatter foode to finde. 

Euen so I see, where wealth doth waxe at will, 

And Golde doth growe to heapes of great encrease: 25 

There frendes resort, and profering frendship still, 

Full thicke they throng, with neuer ceasing prease. 

And slilie make a shew of true intent, 

When nought but guile, and inwarde hate is ment: 

For when mischaunce shall chaunge such wealth to want, 30 

They packe them thence, to place of ritcher haunt. 

Finis. My Lucke is losse. 


ofdaintie deuises. 4 1 

[45.] What ioye to a contented mynde. 

HPHe faithe that failes, must nedes be thought vntrue, 

The frende that faines, who holdeth not vniust, 

Who likes that loue, that chaungeth still for newe: 5 

Who hopes for truthe, where trothe is voide of trust, 
No faithe, no frende, no loue, no trothe so sure, 
But rather failes then stedfastly endure. 

What head so staled? that altereth not intent, 

What thought so sure? that stedfast doeth remaine, 10 

What witte so wise? that neuer nedes repent: 

What tonge so true? but sometyme wonts to faine, 

What foote so firme? that neuer treads awrie, 

What soner dimde? then sight of clerest eye. 

What harte so fixt? but sone enclines to change, 15 

What moode so milde? that neuer moued debate: 

What faithe so strong? but lightly likes to range, 

What loue so true? that neuer learnde to hate. 

What life so pure? that lasts, without offence, 

What worldly mynde? but moues with ill pretence. 20 

What knot so fast? that maie not be vntide, 

What seale so sure? but fraude or forse shall breke: 

What prop of staye? but one tyme shrinks aside, 

What ship so stanche? that neuer had a leke. 

What graunt so large? that no exception maks, 25 

What hoped helpe? but frende at nede forsaks. 

What seate so high? but lowe to grounde maie fall, 

What hap so good? that neuer founde mislike: 

What state so sure? but subiect is to thrall 

What force preuailes? where Fortune liste to strike. 30 

What wealth so muche? but tyme maie turne to want, 

What store so greate? but wastyng maketh skant. 

f.i. What 


42 The Taradise 

What profites hope in depth of dangers thrall, 

What ruste in tyme, but waxeth worse and worse: 

What helpes good harte, if Fortune froune withall, 

What blessyng thriues, gainst heauenly helples curse. 5 

What winnes desire, to get and can not gaine, 

What botes to wishe and neuer to obtaine. 

Finis. My lucke is losse. 

[46.] Amantium ira amoris redintigratia est. 

IN goyng to my naked bedde, as one that would haue slept, 10 

I heard a wife syng to her child, that long before had wept: 
She sighed sore and sang full sore, to bryng the babe to rest, 
That would not rest but cried still, in suckyng at her brest. 
She was full wearie of her watche, and greued with her child, 
She rocked it and rated it, vntill on her it smilde: 15 

Then did she saie now haue I founde, the prouerbe true to proue, 
The fallyng out of faithfull frends, is the renuyng of loue. 

Then tooke I paper, penne and ynke, this prouerbe for to write, 

In regester for to remaine, of suche a worthie wight: 

As she preceded thus, in song vnto her little bratte, 20 

Muche matter vttered she of waight, in place whereas she satte. 

And proued plaine, there was no beast, nor creature bearyng life, 

Could well be knowne to Hue in loue, without discorde and strife: 

Then kissed she her little babe, and sware by God aboue, 

The fallyng out of faithfull frends, is the renuyng of loue. 25 

She saied that neither kyng ne prince, ne lorde could Hue aright, 

Vntill their puissance thei did proue, their manhode & their might. 

When manhode shalbe matched so, that feare can take no place, 

Then wearie works makes warriours, eche other to embrace. 

And leaue their forse that failed the, whiche did consume the rout, 30 

That might before haue liued their tyme, and nature out: 

Then did she syng as one that thought, no man could her reproue, 

The fallyng out of faithfull frendes, is the renuyng of loue. 



ofdaintie deuises. 43 

She saied she sawe no fishe ne foule, nor beast within her haunt, 

That mett a straunger in their kinde, but could geue it a taunt: 

Since fleshe might not indure, but reste must wrathe succede, 

And forse the fight to fall to plaie, in pasture where thei feede. 5 

So noble nature can well ende, the works she hath begone, 

And bridle well that will not cease, her tragedy in some: 

Thus in her songe she oft reherst, as did her well behoue, 

The fallyng out of faithfull frends, is the renuyng of loue. 

I meruaile muche pardy quoth she, for to beholde the route, 10 

To see man, woman, boy & beast, to tosse the worlde about :(ly smile 

Some knele, some crouch, some beck, some check, & some ca smoth 

And some embrace others in armes, and there thinke many a wile. 

Some stande aloufe at cap and knee, some humble and some stout, 

Yet are thei neuer frends indeede, vntill thei once fall out: 15 

Thus ended she her song, and saied before she did remoue, 

The fallyng out of faithfull frends, is the renuyng of loue. 

[47.] Thinke to dye. 

THe life is long, whiche lothsomely doeth laste, 20 

The dolfull daies drawe slowly to their date: 
The present panges, and painfull plags forepast, 
Yelds greffe aye grene, to stablishe this estate. 
So that I feele in this greate storme and strife, 
That death is sweete, that shorteneth suche a life. 25 

And by the stroke of this straunge ouerthrowe, 
All whiche conflict in thraldome I was thrust: 
The Lorde be praised, I am well taught to knowe, 
From whens man came, and eke whereto he must. 

And by the waie, vpon how feble force, 30 

His terme doeth stande, till death doeth ende his course. 

The pleasant yeres that semes so swetely ronne, 
The mery daies to ende, so fast that flete: 
The ioyfull wights, of whiche daies dawes so sone, The 


44 The Taradise 

The happie howrs, whiche mo doe misse then mete. 
Doe all consume as snowe against the Sonne, 
And death maks ende of all that life begonne. 

Since death shall dure till all the worlde be wast, j 

What meaneth man, to dread death then so sore? 
As man might make, that life should alwaie last, 
Without regard, the Lorde hath ledde before. 
The daunce of death, whiche all must runne on rowe, 
The hower wherein onely hym self doeth knowe. 10 

If man would mynde, what burdeins life doeth bryng, 
What greuous crimes to God, he doeth commit: 
What plagues, what panges, what perill thereby spryng, 
With no sure hower in all his daies to sit. 

He would sure thinke, and with greate cause I doo, 15 

The daie of death is happier of the twoo. 

Death is the doore whereby we drawe to ioye, 
Life is a lake, that drowneth all in paine: 
Death is so dole it seaseth all awaie, 

Life is so leude that all it yelds is vaine. 20 

And as by life, in bondage man is brought, 
Euen so by death is freedome likewise wrought. 

Wherefore with Paule, let all men wishe and praie, 
To be disolued of this foule fleshly masse: 

Or at the least be armed against the daie, 25 

That thei be founde good souldiers prest to passe. 
From life to death, from death to life againe, 
And suche a life as euer shall remaine. 

Finis. D. S. 

[48.] Beyng asked the occasion of his white 30 

heady he aunswereth thus. 

sethyng sighes and sower sobbs, 
Hath slaine the slipps that nature sett: 



ofdaintiedeuises. 45 

And skaldyng showers with stonie throbbs, 

The kindly sappe from them hath fett. 

What wonder then though you doe see, 

Vpon my head white heeres to bee. 5 

Where thought hath thrild and throne his speares, 

To hurt the harte that harmth hym not: 

And gronyng grief hath grounde forthe teares, 

Myne eyne, to staine my face to spot. 

What wonder then though you doe see, 10 

Vpon my head white heeres to bee. 

Where pinchyng paine hym self hath plaste, . 

There peace with pleasures were possest: 

And walles of wealth are fallen to waste, 

And pouertie in them is prest. 15 

What wonder then, though you doe see, 

Vpon my head white heeres to bee. 

Where wretched woe doeth weaue her webbe, 

There care the clewe, can catche and caste: 

And floudds of ioye are fallen to ebbe 20 

So loe, that life maie not long laste. 

What wonder then, though you doe see, 

Vpon my head white heeres to bee. 

These heeres of age are messengers, 

Whiche bidd me, fast repent and praie: 25 

Thei be of death the harbingers, 

That doeth prepare, and dresse the waie. 

Wherefore I ioye, that you maie see, 

Vpon my head suche heeres to bee. 

Thei be the line that lead the length, jo 

How farre my race was for to ronne: 

Thei saie my yongth is fledde with strength, 

And how old age, is well begonne. 



46 The Taradise 

The whiche I feele, and you maie see, 
Vpon my head suche lines to bee. 

Thei be the stryngs of sober sounde, 

Whose Musicke is hermonicall: 5 

Their tunes declare, a tyme from grounde 

I came, and how thereto I shall. 

Wherefore I ioye that you maie see, 

Vpon my head suche stryngs to bee. 

God graunt to those that white heeres haue, 10 

No worse them take, then I haue ment: 
That after thei be laied in graue, 
Their soules maie ioye their Hues well spent, 
God graunt likewise that you maie see, 

Vpon my head suche heeres to bee. 15 

Finis. L. V. 

[49. The Louer wisheth himself e an Harte in the Foreste, 

(as Acteon was) for his Ladyes sake."] 
Would to God I were gfcteon, that Biana did disguise, 
To walke the Forest vp and doune, whereas my ladie lies: 20 

An Harte of heere and hewe, I wishe that I were so, 

So that my Ladie knewe me, onely and no mo. 

The shalyng Nutts and Maste, that falleth from the tree, 

Should well suffice for my repast, might I my ladie see: 

It should not greue me, there in frost, to lye vpon the grounde, 25 

Delite should easly quite the coste, what euill so that I founde. 

Sometyme that I might sale, when I sawe her alone, 

Beholde, see yonder slaue aldaie, that walketh the woodds alone. 


[50. Seeing forsaken of his f rend he complaineth.'] 30 

WHy should I lenger long to Hue, 
In this desease of fantasie, 
Sins fortune doeth not cease to giue, 
Things to my mynde moste contrarie. 

And at my ioyes doeth lowre and froune, 35 

Till she hath tourned them vpsidoune. 


ofdaintie deuises. 47 

A ffrende I had to me moste dere, 

And of long tyme faithfull and iuste: 

There was no one, my harte so nere, 

Nor one in whom I had more truste. 5 

Whom now of late without cause why, 

Fortune hath made my enemie. 

The grasse me thinks should growe in skie 

The starres, vnto the yearth cleaue faste: 

The water streame should passe awrie, 10 

The winds should leue their stregt of blast. 

The Sonne and Moone by one assent, 

Should bothe forsake the firmament. 

The fishe in ayer should flie with finne, 

The foules in floud should bryng forth fry 15 

All thyngs me thinks should erst beginne, 

To take their course vnnaturally. 

Afore my frende should alter so, 

Without a cause to bee my foe. 

But suche is Fortunes hate I saie, 20 

Suche is her will on me to wreake: 

Suche spite she hath at me alwaie, 

And ceasseth not my harte to breake. 

With suche dispite of crueltie, 

Wherefore then longer liue should I. 25 


[51.] Prudens. The historic of Damacles, &? Dionise. 

WHoso is set in princly trone, and craueth rule to beare, 
Is still beset on euery side, with perill and with feare. 
High trees by stormie winds are shakt, & rent vp fro the 30 

and flashy flaks of lightnings flames on turrets do reboud (groud 
When little shrubs in sauetie lurke, in couert all alowe, 



48 The Taradise 

And freshly florishe in their kynde, what euer winde doe blowe. 
The cruell kyng of &CltfiIp: who fearyng Barbars hands, 
Was wont to singe his beard hym self, with cole and fire brands. 
Hath taught vs this, the proofe whereof, full plainly we maye see, 5 

Was neuer thyng more liuely touched, to shewe it so to bee. 
This kyng did seme to 29amade, to be the happiest wight, 
Because he thought none like to hym, in power or in might. 
Who did alone so farre excell the rest in his degree, 

As doeth the Sunne in brightnes cleare, the darkest starre we see. 10 

Wilt thou (then said this cruell kyng) proue this my present state 
Possesse thou shalt this seate of myne, and so be fortunate. 
Full gladly then this J9antacl0#, this proferd honour tooke, 
And shootyng at a princely life, his quiet rest forsooke. 
In honours seate then was he plast, accordyng to his will, 15 

Forthwith a banquet was preparde, that he might feast his fill. 
Nothyng did want wherein twas thought, that he would take de- 
To feede his eye, to fill his mouthe, or please the appetite. (lite, 
Suche store of plate, I thinke in Grece, there scarsly was so much 
His seruitours did Angels seme, their passyng shape was suche. 20 

No daintie dishe but there it was, and thereof was suche store, 
That throughout Grece so princly chere, was neuer seen before. 
Thus while in pope and pleasures seate, this amatletf was plast, 
And did beginne with gladsome harte, eche daintie dishe to taste. 
At length by chaunce cast vp his eyes, and gan the house to vewe, 25 

And sawe a sight that hym enforst, his princly state to rewe. 
A sworde forsoth with dounward point, that had no stronger thred 
Then one horse heere that peised it, direct vpon his head. 
Wherewith he was so sore amasde, and shooke in euery parte, 
As though the sworde that hong aboue, had stroke hym to the hart 30 

Then all their pleasures toke their leaue, & sorowe came in place, 
His heauie harte the teares declared, that trickled doune his face. 
And then forthwith with sobbing voice, besought y king of grace, 
That he would licens hym with speede, to depart out of that place. 
And saied that he full long enough, had tried now with feare, 35 

What tis to be a happie man, and princly rule to beare. 
This deede of thyne oh JBlOttttfe, deserues immortall fame, (shame. 
This deede shall alwaies Hue with praise, though thou didst Hue w 


of damtie deuises. 49 

Whereby bothe kyngs be put in minde, their dangers to be great 
And subiects be forbid to clime, high stepps of honours seate. 


[52.] Fortitude. A yong man of gipt y and Valerian. 5 

* Che one deserues great praise to haue, but yet not like I think, 
Bothe he that can sustain the yoke of paines, & doeth not shrink 
And he whom Cupids couert crafte, can nothyng moue at all, 
Into the harde and tangled knotts, of Venus snares to fall. 
Besturre you then who so delights, in vertues race to ronne, 10 

The fliying boye with bowe ibent, by strength to ouercome. 
As one did once when he was yong, and in his tender daies, 
Whose stout and noble deede of his, hath got immortall praise. 
The wicked Romaines did pursue, the sely Christians than, 
What tyme Valerian Emperour was, a wicked cruell man. 15 

Who spared not with bloudy draughts, to queche his owne desire 
Dispatchyng all that stucke to Christ, with hotte consumyng fire. 
At length a man, of tender yeres, was brought before his sight, 
Suche one as Nature semed to make, a witnesse of her might. 
For euery parte so well was set, that nothyng was depraued, 20 

So that the cruell kyng hym self, would gladly haue hym saued. 
So loth he was to see a woorke, so rare of Naturs power, 
So finely built so sodainly, destroied within an hower. 
Then meanes he sought to ouercome, or winne hym at the lest, 
To slip from Christe, whom he before had earnestly profest. 25 

A bedde preparde, so finely deckt, suche diuers pleasaunt smels, 
That well it might appeare a place, where pleasure onely dwells. 
By hym he laied a naked wenche, a Venus darlyng sure, 
With sugred speache & louely toyes, that might his minde allure. 
Such wanton lewres as these he thought, might easly him entise, 30 

Which things he knewe w lustie youth, had alwaies been in prise. 
Suche waies I thinke the Gods them selues, could haue inuented 
For flatteryng Venus ouercoms, the senses euery chone, (none, 

And he hym self was euen at point, to Venus to consent, 
Had not his stout and manly mynde, resisted his entent. 35 

When he perceiued his fleshe to yelde, to pleasures wanton toyes, 

<&,U And 


50 The ^Paradise 

And was by sleight almoste prouoked, to tast of Venus ioyes. 
More cruell to hym self then those, that glad would hym vndoo, 
With bloudie tooth his teder tong, bote quite and cleane in twoo. 
Thus was the paine so passyng greate, of this his bloudie bitte, 5 

That all the fire and carnall lust, was quenched euery whitte. 
Doe ill and all thy pleasures then, full sone will passe awaie, 
But yet the shame of those thy deedes, will neuermore decaie. 
Do well & though thy paines be great, yet sone eche one wil cease, 
But yet, the praise of those thy deedes will euermore increase. 10 


[53.] lust ice. Zaleuch and his Sonne. 

LEt rulers make most perfect lawes, to rule both great & smal 
If thei them selues obeye them not, it boteth not at all. 
As lawes be nought but rulers dome, coteining egall might, 15 

So rulers should be speakyng lawes, to rule by line of right. 
Zaleuch the Prince of Locrine once, appointed by decree, 
Eche lecherer should be punished, with losse of either eye. 
His sonne by chaunce offended first, whiche when his father sawe, 
Lorde God how earnest then was he, to execute the lawe. 20 

Then ran the people all by flocks, to hym with wepyng eyes, 
Not one emong the rout there was, but pardon, pardon cries. 
By whose outcries and earnest sute, his sonne in hope did stande, 
That he thereby should then obtaine, some pardon at his hande. 
But all in vaine for he is founde, to be the man he was, 25 

And maketh hast so muche the more, to haue the lawe to passe. 
The people yet renued their sute, in hope of some relief, 
Whose faces all besprent with teares, did testifie their grief. 
And cried all for pities sake, yelde now to our request, 
If all you will not cleane remit, yet ease the paine at lest. 30 

Then somewhat was the father moued, with all the peoples voice 
And euery man did giue a shoote, to shewe thei did reioyce. 
Well then quoth he it shalbe thus, the lawe shalbe fulfilde, 
And yet my sonne shall fauour haue, accordyng as you wilde. 
One eye of his shalbe pulde out, thus hath his leudnesse got, 35 

And likewise so shall one of myne, though I deserue it not. 



ofdaintie deuises. 45 

This worde no soner was pronoucde, but strait y deede was doen, 

Twoo eyes, no mo were left, betwene the father and the sonne. 

Saie now who can, and on my faithe Apollo he shalbe, 

Was he more gentle father now? or iuster ludge trowe ye. 5 

This man would not his lawes belike, the webbs y spiders weue, 

Wherein thei lurke when thei entende, the simple to deceiue. 

Wherewith small flies full sone be caught, & tangled ere thei wist, 

When greate ones flie and scape awaie, & breake them as thei list. 

Finis. 10 

[54.] Temperaunce. Spurina and the Romaine Ladies. 

TF nature beare thee so great loue, y she in thee haue beautie plast 
Full harde it is as we doe proue, to kepe the body cleane & chast: 

Twixt comelinesse and chastitie, 

A deadly strife is thought to be. 15 

For beautie whiche some men suppose to be, as twere a golden ill, 
Prouoketh strief and many foes, that seke on her to worke her wil 

Assaults to tounes if many make, 

No toune so strong but maie be take. 

And this Spurina witnesse can, who did for beautie beare the bell, 20 

So cleane a wight so comly made, no dame in Rome but loued wel 

Not one could cole her hote desire, 

So burnyng was the flame of fire. (come, 

Like as when baite caste in y floud, forthwith doeth cause the fishes 
That pleasantly before did plaie, now presently to death to runne. 25 

For when thei see the baite to fall, 

Straight waie thei swallowe hooke and all. 
So when Spurina thei did see, to hym thei flocked out of hande, 
She happest dame was thought to be, that in his fauour moste did 

Not knowyng vnder sweete deceits, (stande. 30 

How Venus hids her poysoned baits. (chain, 

But whe he sawe them thus to rage, whom loue had linked in his 
This means he sought for to aswage, these ladies of their greuous 

His shape intendyng to disgrace, (pain. 

With many wounds he skotch his face. 35 

.. By 


52 TheTaradise 

By whiche his deede it came to passe, y he y semed an angel bright 
Euen now so cleane disfigured was, y he became a lothsom wight. 

And rather had be foule and chast, 

Then faire, and filthie ioyes to tast. 5 

What pen ca write, or tog expresse, y worthy praises of this deede, 
My think that God can do no lesse, then graunt him heauen for his 

Who for to saue hym self vpright, (meede. 

Hym self hath first destroyed quite. 

Finis q> F. M. 10 

[55."] A bunche of herbes and flowers. 

IF y eche flower, the godds haue framed, are shapt by sacred skill 
Were as I would (no wrong to wishe) & myne to weare at will. 
Or els eche tree, with lustie top, would lende me leaue to loue, 
With spriggs displaied to spread my sute, a wailing hart to proue 15 

Vpon my helme sone should you see, my hedde aduaunced hie, 
Some slipp for solace there to sett, and weare the same would I. 
Yet would I not for greate delight, the Daises strange desire, 
The Lillie would not like my lust, nor Rose would I require. 
The Marigould might growe for me, Rosemary well might reste, 20 

The Fenell to that is more fit, for some vnfrendly gest. 
Nor Cowslopps would I craue at all, sometymes thei seme to coy 
Some ioly youth the Gelliflower, estemeth for his ioye. 
The Lauender sometymes aloft, alures the lookers eyes, 
The Paunsie shall not haue the praise, where I may geue the prise 25 

And thus no flower my fansie feeds, as liketh so my luste, 
As that I maie subiect my self, to toyes of tickle truste. 
For flowers though thei be faire and fresh, of sent excelling swete 
Yet growe thei on the ground belowe, we tred them with our fete 
And shall I then goe stoupe to suche? or els go seke to those, 30 

Shall flowers enforse me once to faune, for feare of freds or foes. 
Yet rather yelde I to the right, as reason hath assignde, 
Myne authour saied there was no salue, in flowers for me to finde. 
And yet perhapps some tree there is, to shroud me fro the shower, 
That with her armes maie salue y soule, that yeldeth to her power. 35 



ofdaintie deuises. 5 3 

Where I maie finde some pleasant shade, to salue me fro the sonne 
Eche thyng we see that reason hath, vnto the trees doe runne. 
Bothe men & beasts suche foules as fly, the treasures are the trees 
And for my part when braunches fall, I wishe no other fees. 5 

But whe that stormes beset me round, suche succor God me sende, 
That I maie finde a frendly tree, that will me well defende. 
No tree there is whiche yeilds no good, to some that doe it seke 
And as thei are of diuers kynds, their vses are vnlike. 
The Eue tree serues the Bowiers turne, the Ash the Coupers art, 10 

The puisant Oke doeth make the post, the Pine some other part. 
The Elme doeth helpe to hide the birds, in wearie winters night, 
The Briers I gesse are nothyng worth, thei serue but for despight 
The willowe wisht I farre fro hens, good will deserue no wrong, 
The Sallowe well maie serue their states, that syng so sad a song. 15 

The Boxe and Beche eche for hymself, aboue the reste doeth boste, 
The Eglantine for pleasure oft, is pricked vpon the poste. 
The Hauthorne so is had in prise, the Baies doe beare the bell, 
And that these Baies did bryng no blisse, I like it not so well. 
As erst I doe that semely tree, by whiche those Baies I founde, 20 

And where withall vnwittyngly, I tooke so greate a wounde. 
As if the tree by whiche I lent, doeth lende me no relief, 
There is no helpe but doune I fall, so greate is growne my grief. 
And therefore at the last I craue, this fauour for to finde, 
When euery tree that here is told, beginns to growe vnkinde. 25 

The B. for beautie whom I boste, and shall aboue the rest, 
That B. maie take me to her trust, for B. doeth please me best. 
It liks me well to walke the waie, where B. doeth kepe her bower 
And when it raines to B. I ronne to saue me from the shower. 
This brauche of B. whiche here I meane, to kepe I chiefly craue, 30 

At becke vnto this B. I bowe, to sarue that beautie braue. 
What shall I sale the tyme doeth passe, the tale to tedious is, 
Though loth to leaue, yet leaue I must, and saie no more but this, 
I wishe this B. I might embrace, when as the same I see, 
A league for life then I require, betwene this B. and me. 35 

And though vnworthy, yet good will, doeth worke the waie herein 
And B. hath brought the same about, whiche beautie did begin. 


&.iii. Now 


54 The "Paradise 

[56.] Now mortall man beholde and see, This 
worlde is but a vanitie. 

T/T^Ho shall profoundly way or scan, the assured state of man, 

" Shall well perceiue by reason than: 5 

That where is no stabilitie, remaineth nought but vanitie. 

For what estate is there think ye, throughly content w his degre, 

Whereby we maie right clerely see: 
That in this vale of miserie, remaineth nought but vanitie. 

The great men wishe y meane estate, meane men again their state 10 

Old men thinke children fortunate: (doe hate, 

A boye a man would fainest be, thus wandreth man in vanitie. 

The coutrey man doth daily swell, w great desire in court to dwel 

The Courtier thinks hym nothyng well: 
Till he from court, in countrey be, he wandreth so in vanitie. 15 

The sea doeth tosse y marchats brains, to wish a farme & leue those 
The Farmer gapeth at marchantes gaines: (pains, 

Thus no man can contented be, he wandreth so in vanitie. 

If thou haue lands or goods great store, cosider thou thy charge y 

Since thou must make account therefore: (more, 20 

Thei are not thine but lent to thee, and yet thei are but vanitie. 

If thou be strog or faire of face, sicknes or age doth both disgrace, 

Then be not proude in any case: 
For how can there more folly be, then for to bost of vanitie. 

Now finally be not infect, with worldly cares, but haue respect, 25 

How God rewardeth his true electe: 
With glorious felicitie: free from all worldly vanitie. 

Finis. M. Thorn. 


ofdaintie deuises. 5 5 

[57.] In commendation of Mustek. 

Here gripyng grief the hart would wound & dolfull domps the oppresse 
There Musick with her siluer soud, is wont with spede to giue redresse, 
Of troubled minde for euery sore, swete Musick hath a salue therfore. 5 

In ioye it maks our mirth abound, in grief it chers our heauy sprights, 
The carefull head release hath found, by Musicks pleasant swete delights 
Our sences, what should I saie more, are subiect vnto Musicks lore. 

The Godds by Musick hath their praie, the foule therein doeth ioye, 

For as the Romaine Poets saie, in seas whom Pirats would destroye, 10 

A Dolphin saued from death moste sharpe, Arion plaiyng on his harpe. 

A heauenly gift, that turnes the minde, like as the sterne doth rule the ship, 
Musick whom the Gods assignde to comfort man, whom cares would nip, 
Sith thou both ma & beast doest moue, what wiseman then wil thee reproue. 

Finis M Edwards. 1 5 

[58. Beware of Sirens."] 

WHen sage Hisses sailed by, 
The perillous seas, where Cirens syng: 
Hym self vnto the mast did tye, 

Lest their alluryng tunes might bryng, 20 

His mynde on maze and make hym staie, 
And he with his become their praie. 

Misses O thou valiant wight, 
It semed dame Circes loued thee well: 

What tyme she told, to thee aright. 25 

The seas wherein the Sirens dwell. 
By meane where, against thy saile, 
Their subtill songes, could not preuaile. 

Were thou amongs vs here againe, 

And heard our Sirens melodic: 30 

Not Circes skill nor yet thy braine, 
Could kepe thee from their trecherie. 
Suche Sirens haue we now adaies, 
That tempt vs by a thousande waies. 



56 The Taradise 

Thei syng thei daunce, thei sport, thei plaie 

Thei humbly fall vpon their knees: 

Thei sigh, thei sobb, thei prate, thei praie, 

With suche dissemblyng shifts as these, 5 

Thei calculate, thei chaunt, thei charme, 

To conquere vs that meane no harme. 

Good ladies all letts ioyne in one, 
And banishe cleane this Siren kinde: 

What nede we yelde, to heare their mone, ID 

Since their deceipt we daiely finde. 
Let not your harts to them apply, 
Defie them all for so will I. 

And if where Circes now doeth dwell, 

You wisht you witt aduise, to learne: 15 

Loe I am she that best can tell, 
Their Sirens songes and them discerne. 
For why experience yeldeth skill, 
To me that scapt that Sirens ill. 

Finis. M.Bew. 20 

[59.] Findyng no ioye, he desireth death. 

THe Cony in his caue, the Feret doeth anoye, 
And fleyng thence his life to saue, him self he doeth destroye. 
His Berrie rounde about besett, with hunters snares, 

So that when he to scape starts out, is caught therein vnwares, 25 

Like choise poore man haue I to bide and rest in loue, 
Or els from thence to start, and still as bad a death to proue. 

I see, in loue to rest, vnkindnesse doeth pursue, 
To rent the harte out of his breast, whiche is a louer true. 
And if from loue I starte, as one that loue forsaks, 30 

Then pensiue thoughts my harte doeth perse, & so my life it taks. 
Thus then to fly or bide, harde is the choise to chuse, 
Since death hath capde, & trenched eche side, & saith life now refuse 


[6 4 ] 

ofdaintie deuises. 5 7 

Content I am therefore, my life therein to spende, 
And death I take a salue for sore, my wearie daies to ende. 
And thus I you request, that faithfull loue professe, 

When carcas cased is in chest, and bodie laied on hears. 5 

Your brinishe teares to saue, suche as my corse shall moue, 
And therewith write vpon my graue, behold the force of loue. 


[60.] Hope well and haue well. 

IN hope the Shipman hoiseth saile, in hope of passage good, 10 

In hope of health the sickly man, doeth suffer losse of bloud. 
In hope the prisoner linckt in chaines, hopes libertie to finde, 
Thus hope breds helth & helth breds ease, to euery troubled mynd. 

In hope desire getts victorie, in hope greate comfort spryngs, 
In hope the louer Hues in ioyes, he feares no dreadfull styngs: 15 

In hope we liue and maie abide, suche stormes as are assignde, 
Thus hope breds helth, & helth breds ease, to euery troubled mind. 

In hope we easely suffer harme, in hope of future tyme, 
In hope of fruite, the pain semes swete, that to the tree doeth clime 
In hope of loue suche glory growes, as now by profe I finde: 20 

That hope breds helth, & helth breds ease to euery troubled minde. 


[6 1.] He repenteth his folly. 

T7Tf He first mine eyes did vew, & marke thy beutie faire for to behold, 

And whe myne eares, gan first to harke, the pleasant words y thou 25 
I would as the I had been free, fro eares to heare, & eyes to se (me told 

And when my hands did handle oft, that might thee kepe in memorie, 
And when my feete had gone so softe, to finde and haue thy companie, 
I would eche hande a foote had been, and eke eche foote, a hand so seen. 

J&.i. And 


58 The "Paradise 

And when in minde I did consent, to followe thus my fansies will, 
And when my harte did first relent, to tast suche baite my self to spill, 
I would my harte had been as thine, or els thy harte as soft as myne. 

The should not I suche cause haue foud, to wish this mostrus sight to se, 5 
Ne thou alas that madest the wounde, should not deny me remedy, 
Then should one will in bothe remain, to graut one hart whiche now is 


[62.] He requesteth some frendly comfort 

affirmyng his constancie. 10 

THe mountaines hie whose loftie topps, doeth mete the hautie sky 
The craggie rocke that to the sea, free passage doeth deny, 
The aged Oke that doeth resist, the force of blustryng blast, 
The pleasaunt herbe that euery where, a fragrant smell doeth cast. 
The Lyons forse whose courage stout, declares a princlike might, 15 
The Eagle that for worthinesse, is borne of kyngs in fight: 
The Serpent eke whose poisoned waies, doeth belche out venim vile, 
The lothsome Tode that shunneth light, and liueth in exile. 
These these I saie and thousands more, by trackt of tyme decaie, 
And like to tyme doe quite consume, and vade from forme to claie: 20 

But my true harte and seruice vowed, shall last tyme out of minde, 
And still remaine as thine by dome, as Cupid hath assignde. 
My faithe loe here I vowe to thee, my trothe thou knowest right well, 
My goods my frends, my life is thine, what nede I more to tell? 
I am not myne but thine I vowe, thy hests I will obeye, 25 

And serue thee as a seruaunt ought, in pleasyng if I maie: 
And sith I haue no fliyng wings, to see thee as I wishe, 
Ne finnes to cut the siluer streames, as doeth the glidyng fishe, 
Wherefore leaue now forgetfulnesse, and sende againe to me, 
And straine thy azured vaines to write, that I maie greetyng see: 30 

And thus farewell more deare to me, then chiefest frende I haue, 
Whose loue in harte I minde to shrine, till death his fee doe craue. 




ofdaintiedeuises. 59 

[63.] He complaineth his mishapp. 

SHall rigor raigne where youth hath ron, shall fansie now forsake, 
Shall fortune lose that fauour wonne, shall not your anger slake: 
Shall hatefull harte be had in you, that frendly did pretende, 5 

Shall slipper thoughts and faithe vntrue, that harte of yours defende 

Shall nature shewe your beautie faire, that gentle semes to be, 
Shall frowardnesse, your fancies aver, be of more force then she: 
Shall now disdaine the dragg of death, direct and leade the waie, 
Shall all the imps vpon the yearth, reioyce at my decaie. 10 

Shall this the seruice of my youth, haue suche reward at last, 
Shall I receiue rigor for ruth, and be from fauour cast: 
Shall I therefore berent my harte, with wights that wishe to dye, 
Or shall I bathe my self with J:eares, to feede your fickle eye. 

No no I shall in paine lye still, with Turtle doue moste true, 15 

And vowe my self to witt and will, their counsels, to ensue: 
Good Ladies all that louers be, your helpe hereto purtende, 
Giue place to witt, let reason seme, your enemie to defende. 

Lest that you thinke as I haue thought, your self to striue in vaine, 
And so to be in thraldome brought, with me to suffer paine. 20 

Finis. M.H. 

[64.] No foe to a flatterer. 

I Would it were not as I thinke, I would it were not so, 
I am not blinde although I winke, I feele what winds doe blowe: 
I knowe where craft, with smilyng cheare, creps into bloudy brest, 25 
I heare how fained speache, speaks faire, where hatred is possest. 
I se the Serpent lye and lurck, vnder the grene alowe, 
I see hym watche a tyme, to worke, his poyson to bestowe. 

In frendly looks suche fraude is founde, as faithe for feare is fleade, 
And frendship hath receiued suche wounde, as he is almoste deade, 30 

And hatefull harte with malice greate, so boyles in cankerd minde: 

.. That 


60 The Taradise 

That flatteries flearyng in my face, had almoste made me blinde, 
But now I see all is not golde, that glittereth in the eye, 
Nor yet suche frends as thei professe, as now by profe I finde. 

Though secret spight by craft, hath made a coate of Panters skin, 5 
And thinks to finde me in the shade, by sleight to wrapp me in, 
Yet God be praised my eye is cleare, and can beholde the Sonne: 
When falshood dares not once appeare, to ende that he begonne, 
Thus tyme shall trie the thyng amisse, whiche God sone shortly sende, 
And turne the harte that fained is, to be a faithfull frende. 10 


[65. His comparison of LoueJ] 

THe Spider with greate skill, doeth trauell daie by daie, 
His limmes no tyme, lye still to set his house in staie: 
And when he hath it wrought, thinkyng therein to raigne, 15 

A blast of winde vnthought, doeth driue it doune againe. 

The profe whereof is true, to make his worke indure, 
He paines hym self a newe, in hope to dwell more sure: 
Or in some secret place, a corner of the wall, 
He trauaileth a space, to builde and rest with all. 20 

His pleasure swete to staie, when he to rest is bent, 
An vgly shamble Flie, approcheth to his tent: 
And there entends by forse, his labours greate to win, 
Or els to yelde his corse, by fat all death therein. 

Thus is the Spiders nest, from tyme to tyme throwne downe, 25 

And he to labour prest, with endles pains vnknowne: 
So suche as louers be, like trauell doe attaine, 
Those endles works ye see, are alwaies full of paine. 


[66. Euill to hym that euill thinkethJ] 30 

HPHe subtill slily sleights, that worldly men doe worke, 

The fredly showes vnder whose shade, most craft doth ofte lurke 



ofdaintie deuises. 6 1 

Enforceth me alas, with yernfull voice to saie, 

Wo worthe the wily heads that seeks, the simple mans decaie. 

The birde that dreds no guile, is sonest caught in snare, 
Eche gentle harte deuoide of craft, is sonest brought to care: 5 

Good nature sonest trapt, whiche giues me cause to saie. 
Wo worthe the wily heads that seeks, the simple mans decaie. 

I see the serpent vile, that lurks vnder the grene, 
How subtelly he shrouds hym self, that he maie not be sene: 
And yet his fosters bane, his leryng looks bewraie, 10 

Wo worthe the wily heads that seeks, the simple mans decaie. 

Wo worthe the fainyng looks, one fauour that doe waite, 
Wo worthe the fained frendly harte, that harbours depe deceit: 
Wo worthe the Vipers broode, oh thrise wo worthe I saie, 
All worldly wily heads that seeks, the simple mans decaie. 15 

Finis. M.Edwards. 
[67. He assureth his constancie.'] 

h painted speache I list not proue, my cunnyng for to trie, 
Nor yet will vse to fill my penne, with gilefull flatterie: 
With pen in hand, and harte in breast, shall faithfull promise make 20 

To loue you best, and serue you moste, for your great vertues sake. 

And since dame Nature hath you deckt, with gifts aboue the rest, 

Let not disdaine a harbour finde, within your noble brest: 

For loue hath ledd his lawe alike, to men of eche degree, 

So that the begger with the prince, shall loue as well as he. 25 

I am no prince I must confesse, nor yet of princes line, 
Nor yet a brutishe begger borne, that feeds among the Swine: 
The fruite shall trie the tree at last, the blossomes good or no, 
Then doe not iudge of me the worse, till you haue tried me so. 

As I deserue, so then reward, I make you iudge of all, 30 

If I be false in worde or deede, let lightnyng thunder fall: 

&.W. And 


62 The "Paradise 

And furies fell with franticke fitts, bereue and stopp my breathe, 
For an example to the rest, if I shall breake my faithe. 

Finis. M.B. 

[68.] 'Trie and then trust. 5 

'"PHe sainct I serue, and haue besought full oft, 
Vpon my knees, to stande my Goddes good: 
With hope did holde, my head sometyme aloft, 
And fed my faunyng frende, with daintie foode. 

But now I see, that words are nought but winde, 10 

The sweter meate, the sowrer sauce I finde. 

Thus while I helde the Ele by the taile, 
I had some hope, yet neuer wanted feare: 
Of double dread, that man can neuer faile, 

That will presume to take the Wolfe, by the eare. 15 

I snatche for sothe, muche like to Esops dogg, 
I sought for fishe, and alwaies caught a frogg. 

Thus did I long bite, on the fomyng bitt, 
Whiche found me plaie enough, vnto my paine: 

Thus while I loued, I neuer wanted fitt, 20 

But liued by losse, and sought no other gaine. 
But why should I mislike with Fortunes fetters, 
Since that the like haue hapt vnto my betters. 
Richard Hill. 

[69.] Complainyng to his frende ', he replieth wittely. 25 

yf.TpHe fire shall freese, the frost shall frie the frozen mountains hie, 
B. what strage thinges shal dame nature force, to turne her course 
^.My Ladie hath me left, and taken a newe man, (awrie. 

.B.This is not straunge, it happes oft tymes, the truthe to scan. 

more is my paine, 5.her loue then refraine, 30 

thought she would flitt, 5.eche one that hath witt, 
A.\ not this straunge, 5.1ight loue will chaunge. 


ofdaintie deuises. 6 3 

A. By skilfull meanes I her reclaime, to stope vnto my luer, 
JS.Suche hagard haukes will sore awaie, of them who can be suer. 
^.With siluer bells and hoode, my ioye was her to decke, 

B. She was full gorgd, she would the soner giue the checke. 5 
/f .The more is my paine, 5.her loue then refraine, 

/f.Who thought she would flitt, .eche one that hath witt, 
A.\s not this straunge, 5.1ight loue will chaunge. 

//.Her chirping lippes would chirp to me, swete wordes of her desire 

5.Suche chirping birdes who euer sawe, to preach still on one brire 10 

^.She saied she loued me beste, and would doe till she die, 

B. She saied in wordes, she thought it not, as tyme doeth trie. 

//.The more is my paine, 5.her loue then refraine, 

/^.Who thought she would flitt, .eche one that hath witt. 

A. Is not this straunge, 5.1ight loue will chaunge. 15 

A. Can no man winne a woman so, to make her loue endure, 
B. To make the Foxe his wiles to leaue, what man will put in vre. 
yf.Why then there is no choice, but all women will chaunge, 

B. As men doe vse so, some women doe loue to raunge, 

//.The more is my paine, 5.her loue then refraine, 20 

//.Who thought she would flitt, 5.eche one that hath witt: 
//.Is not this straunge, 5.1ight loue will chaunge. 

//. Sithe slipper gaine falles to my lot, farwell that glidyng praie 

J5.S5the that the dice doeth runne a wrie, betimes leaue of thy plaie. 

//.I will no more lament, the thyng I maie not haue, 25 

B. Then by exchaunge the losse to come, all shalt thou saue. 

//.Loue will I refraine, B. thereby thou shalt gaine: 

yf.With losse I will leaue, 5.she will thee deceiue, 

//.That is not straunge, 5.then let her raunge. 

M.Edwards. 30 

[70.] No paines comparable to his attempt. 

ci \ci iHat watche, what wo, what want, what wracke? 
Is due to those that toyle the Seas: 



64 The Taradise 

Life ledd with losse, of paines no lacke, 

In stormes to winne, muche resdesse ease. 

A bedlesse horde, in seas vnrest, 

Maie happ to hym, that chaunseth best. 5 

How sundrie sounds with lead and line, 
Vnto the depe, the shipman throwes: 
No foote to spare, he cries oft tymes, 
No nere, when how the master blowes. 

If Neptune frown, all be vndoen, 10 

Strait waie the shipp, the wrack hath won 

These daungers greate doe oft befall, 
On those that shere vpon the sande: 
ludge of their Hues, the best who shall, 

How vile it is, fewe vnderstande. 15 

Alacke? who then maie iudge, their game: 
Not thei, whiche haue not felt the same. 

But thei that fall in stormes and winde, 
And daies and yeres haue spent therein: 

Suche well may iudge, since profe thei find 20 

In rage, no rest, till calme begin. 
No more then those, that loue doe faine, 
Giue iudgement of true louers paine. 

Finis W. H. 

[71.] No pleasure without some paine. 25 

TJOw can the tree but wast, and wither awaie, 

That hath not sometyme comfort of the Sonne: 
How can that flower but fade, and sone decaie, 
That alwaies is with darke clouds ouer ronne. 

Is this a life, naie death you maie it call, 30 

That feeles eche paine, and knoweth no ioye at all. 

What foodies beast can line long in good plight, 
Or is it life, where sences there be none: 


ofdaintie deuises. 6 5 

Or what auaileth eyes without their light? 

Or els a tonge, to hym that is alone. 

Is this a life? naie death you maie it call, 

That feeles eche paine, and knowes no ioye at all. 5 

Whereto serue eares, if that there be no sounde, 
Or suche a head, where no deuise doeth growe: 
But all of plaints, since sorrowe is the grounde, 
Whereby the harte doeth pine in deadly woe. 

Is this a life, naie death you maie it call, 10 

That feeles eche paine, and knows no ioye at all. 

Finis. L. V au x. 



N choise of frends what happ had I, to chuse one of Cirenes kinde,(blinde: 
Whose harpe, whose pipe, whose melodie, could feede my eares & make me 
Whose pleasant noise made me forget,that in sure trust was great deceit. 16 

In trust I see is treason founde, and man to man deceitfull is, 
And whereas Treasure doeth abounde, of flatterers there doe not misse: 
Whose painted speache, and outward showe, doe seme as frends and be not so. 

Would I haue thought in thee to be, the nature of the Crokadill, 20 

Whiche if a man a slepe maie see, with bloudy thirst desires to kill: 
And then with teares a while gan wepe, the death of hym thus slaine a slepe. 

O flatterer false, thou traitor borne, what mischief more might thou deuise, 
Then thy deare frende, to haue in scorne,and hym to wounde in sondrie wise: 
Whiche still a frende pretends to be, and art not so by profe I se. 25 

Fie fie,vpon suche trechery. 

Finis. W.H. 
[73.3 Beyng importunate , at the length, he obtaineth. 

I no waie winne you, to graunt my desire? 
What woman, will graunt you, the thyng you require: 30 

onely to loue me, is all that [I] craue, 

3.1. You 


66 The Taradise 

5. You onely to leaue me, is all I would haue. 
//.My deare alas now saie not so, 
5. To loue you best, I must saie no: 
^.Yet will I not flitt, 5.then plaie on the bitt. 
A.I will, 5.doc still, //.yet kill not, B. I will not. 
me your man, 5.beshrewe me than. 

A. The swifter I followe, then you fly awaie, 

B. Swift hauks in their fliyng, oft times misse their pray 

/f.Yet some killeth dedly, that flie to the marke: 10 

B. You shall touche no feather, thereof take no carke. 

//.Yet hope shall further my desire, 

5. You blowe the coales, and raise no fire. 

^.Yet will I not flitt, 5.then plaie on the bitt, 

A.I will, 5. doe still, //.yet kill not, 5.1 will not, 15 

yf .Make me your man, 5.beshrewe me than. 

A. To loue is no daunger where true loue is ment, 
B.I will loue no ranger, lest that I repent: 

A. My loue is no ranger, I make God auow, 

B. To trust your smoth saiyngs, I sure knowe not how. 20 
AMostt truthe I meane, as tyme shall well trie, 

5.No truthe in men, I oft espie. 

A Yet will I not flitt, B. then plaie on the bitt. 

A.I will, 5.doc still, //.yet kill not, 5.1 will not: 

//.Make me your man, B Be shrewe me than. 25 

//.Some women male saie naie, and meane loue moste true, 

B. Some women can make fools, of as wise men as you, 

A. In tyme I shall catche you, I knowe when and where: 

B.I will sone dispatche you, you shall not come there. 

//.Some speds at length, that oft haue mist, 30 

B.I am well armed, come when you list. 

^.Yet will I not flitt, 5.then plaie on the bitt. 

A.I will, 5.doe still, -^.yet kill not, 5.1 will not, 

//.Make me your man, 5.beshrewe me than. 



ofdaintie deuises. 6 7 

A. Yet worke your kinde kindly, graunt me loue for loue, 

B. I will vse you frendly, as I shall you proue: 

A. Moste close you shall finde me, I this doe protest, 

B. Then sure you shall binde me, to graunt your request. 5 
A. happie threde now haue I sponne, 

/?. You syng before the conquest wonne. 

A. Why then, will you swarue, /J.euen as you deserue: 

A. Loue still, 5.1 will, yf.yet kill not, 5.1 will not. 

A . Make me your man, /?.come to me than. 10 


[74.] \Requiryng thefauour of his loue: 
She aunswereth thus. 

M.^ "IT THat death male be, compared to loue? 

H. \\ What grief therein, now doest thou proue? 15 

M. My paines alas who can expresse, 

H. I see no cause of heauinesse. 

M.My Ladies looks, my wo hath wrought: 

H. Then blame thyne eyes that first haue sought, 

M.I burne alas, and blowe the fire, 20 

H. A foole consumes by his desire, 

M.What shall I do than? //,come out and thou can. 

H. Alas I die, M.what remedie? 

M. My sugred sweete, is mixed with gall, 

H. Thy Ladie can not doe with all: 25 

M The more I seeke, the lesse I finde, 

//. Then striue not with the streame and winde. 

M.Her must I loue, although I smarte, 

//.With thy owne sworde, thou slaiest thy harte: 

M.Suche pleasaunt baites, who can refraine, 3 

//. Suche beats will sure brede the greate paine. 

M.What shal I do than? //.Come out and thou can. 

H. Alas I die, M.what remedie. 

J.ii. Her 


68 <The "Paradise 

M. Her golden beames, myne eyes doe daze, 
H. Vpon the Sonne thou males t riot gaze: 
M. She might reward my cruell smarte, 

H. She thinks thou bearest a fained harte. 5 

M. She laughs to heare my wofull cries, 
H. Forsake her then, in tyme be wise: 
M. No no alas, that male not bee, 
H. No wise man then will pitie thee, 

M. What shall I do than? //.come out and thou can. 10 

M.Alas I die, //.what remedie. 

M. A liuyng death, loe thus I proue, 
H. Suche are the fruts of froward loue: 
M. that I might her loue once againe, 

H. Thy gaine would not, halfe quite the paine. 15 

M. Her will I loue though she be coye, 
H. A foole hym self will still anoye: 
M. Who will not die for suche a one, 
//. Be wise at length, let her alone: 

M. I can not doe so, //.then be thy owne foe, 20 

M.Alas I die, //.what remedie. 

[75.] ^A loners ioye. 

IHaue no ioye, but dreame of ioye, and ioye to thinke on ioye, 
A ioye I withstoode, for to enioye, to finishe myne anoye: 25 

I hate not without cause alas, yet loue I knowe not why, 
I thought to hate, I can not hate, although that I should die. 
A foe moste swete, a frende moste sower, I ioye for to embrace, 
I hate the wrong, and not the wight, that workt my wofull case: 
What thyng it is I knowe not I, but yet a thyng there is, 30 

That in my fancie still perswads, there is no other blisse. 
The ioyes of life, the pangs of death, it make me feele eche daie, 
But life nor death, this humour can deuise to weare awaie. 
Faine would I dye, but yet in death no hope I see remaines, 



ofdaintie deuises. 69 

And shall I Hue? since life I see, a sourse of sorie paines: 
What is it then that I doe seke, what ioye would I aspire, 
A thyng that is deuine belike, to high for mans desire. 

Finis. F.K. 
[76.] ^fhe iudgement of desire. 

THe liuely Larke did stretche her wyng, 
The messenger of mornyng bright: 
And with her cherefull voyce did syng, 

The daies approche, dischargyng night. 10 

When that Aurora blushyng redd, 
Discride the gilt of Thetis bedd: 
Laradon tan tan, Tedriton teight. 

I went abroad to take the aire, 

And in the meadds I mett a knight, 15 

Clad in carnation colour faire, 
I did salute the youthfull wight. 
Of hym I did his name enquire, 
He sight and saied, I am desire, 
Laradon tan tan, Tedriton teight. ao 

Desire I did desire to staie, 
A while with hym I craued talke: 
The courteous wight saied me no naie, 
But hande in hande with me did walke. 

Then in desire I askte againe, 25 

What thing did please, and what did pain 
Laradon, tan, tan. 

He smild and thus he answered me, 
Desire can haue no greater paine: 

Then for to see an other man, 3 

The thyng desired to obtaine. 
No ioye no greater to then this, 

Mi. Then 


70 (TheTaradise 

Then to inioye what others misse, 
Laridon, tan, tan. 

Finis. E.O. 

[77.] ^The complaint of a louer, wearyng 5 

Elacke and fawnie. 

ACroune of Bayes shall that man weare, 
That triumphs ouer me: 
For blacke and Tawnie will I weare, 
Whiche mournyng colours be. 10 

The more I folowed on, the more she fled awaie, 
As Daphne did full long agone, Apollos wishfull praie: 
The more my plaints resounde, the lesse she pities me, 
The more I saught the lesse I founde, that myne she ment to be. 

Melpomeney, alas with dolefull tunes helpe than, 15 

And syng bis wo worthe on me, forsaken man: 
Then Daphnes bales shal that man weare, that triumphs ouer me, 
For Blacke & Taunie will I weare, which mournyng colours be. 

Droune me you tricklyng teares, you wailefull wights of woe, 
Come help these hads to ret my heares, my rufull happs to showe: 20 

On whom the scorchyng flames of loue, doeth feede you se, 
Ah a lalalantida my deare dame, hath thus tormented me. 

Wherefore you Muses nine, with dolefull tunes helpe than, 
And syng Bis wo worthe on me forsaken man : 

Then Daphnes Baies shall that man weare, that triumps ouer me 25 

For Blacke & Taunie will I weare, which mourning colours be. 

An Ancres life to leade, with nailes to scratche my graue, 
Where earthly Wormes on me shall fede, is all the ioyes I craue: 
And hid my self from shame, sith that myne eyes doe see, 
Ah a alantida my deare dame, hath thus tormented me. 30 



ofdaintie deuises. 7 1 

And all that present be, with dolefull tunes helpe than: 
And syng Bis woe worthe on me, forsaken man. 

Finis. E.O. 

[78.] ^He complaineth thus. $ 

LO heare the man that must of loue complaine, 
Lo heare that seas that feeles no kinde of blisse: 
Lo here I seke for ioye, and finde but paine, 
Lo what despite can greater be then this? 

To freze to death, and stande yet by the fire, 10 

And she that shonneth me moste, I doe desire. 

L. But shall I speake alas, or shall I die, 

A&y death no helpe, in speache some helpe doeth lie: 

L.Then from that breast, remoue a Marble minde, 

/f.As I see cause, so are ye like to finde. 15 

L.I yelde my self, what would you more of me, 

/f .You yelde, but for to winne and conquer me, 

L.Saie and kill not madame, 

//.Forsake your sute for shame, 

No no no no, not so. 20 

happie man, now vaunt thy self, 
That hath this conquest gainde: 
And now doeth Hue in greate delight, 
That was so lately painde. 

Triumph, triumph, triumph, who louers be 25 

Thrise happie is that woyng, 
That is not long a doyng, 
Triumph, triumph, triumph, that hath like victorie. 




72 The ^Paradise 

[79.] \Findyng no relief > he complaineth thus. 

IN quest of my relief I finde distresse, 
In recompence of loue, moste depe disdaine: 
My langour is suche, words maie not expresse, 5 

A shower of teares, my watrishe eye doeth raine. 
I dreame of this, and doe deuine of wo, 
I wander in the thoughts, of my swete fo. 

I would no peace, the cause of warre I flie, 

I hope, I feare, I burne, I chill in froste: 10 

I lye alowe, yet mounts my minde on hie, 
Thus doubtfull stormes, my troubled thoughts haue toste, 
And for my paine, this pleasure doe I proue. 
I hate my self, and pine in others loue. 

The worlde I graspe, yet holde I nought at all, 15 

At libertie, I seme in prison pent: 
I taste the sweete, more sower then bitter gall, 
My shipp semes sounde, and yet her ribbs be rent. 
And out alas, on Fortune false I crie, 
Looke what I craue, that still she doeth denie. 20 

Bothe life and death, be equall vnto me, 
I doe desire to die, yet craue I life, 
My witts with sondrie thoughts doe disagre, 
My self am with my self at mortall strife. 

As warmth of sonne doeth melte the siluer Snowe, 25 

The heate of loue, beholde consumes me so. 

Finis. R.H. 

[80.] ^Beyng in loue y he complaineth. 

T/T/'Hat dome is, this I faine would knowe, 

That demeth all by contraries: 30 

What God, or whether height or lowe, 
Now would I learne some warrantise. 
Some saie the blinded God aboue, 



ofdaintie deuises. 7 3 

Is he that woorketh all by loue: 

But he that stirreth strife, the truthe to tell, 

I alwaies feele, but knowe not well. 

Some sale Alecto with her mates, 5 

Are thei whiche breedeth all anoye: 
Who sitts like Haggs in hellishe gates, 
And seeks still whom thei maie destroye. 
Some saie againe, tis destinie, 

But how it comes, or what it is, 10 

I let it passe, before I misse. 

Despite doeth alwaies worke my wo, 
And happ as yet holds hardly still: 
For feare I set my frendshipp so, 

And thinke againe to reape good will. 15 

I doe but striue against the winde, 
For more I seeke, the lesse I finde: 
And where I seeke moste for to please, 
There finde I alwaies my desease. 

And thus I loue, and doe reape still, 20 

Nothyng but hate for my good will. 

Finis. L.V. 

[8 1.] A louer disdained, complaineth. 

IF euer man had loue to dearly bought, 
Lo I am he that plaies within her maze: 25 

And finds no waie, to get the same I sought, 
But as the Dere are driuen vnto the gaze. 
And to augment the grief of my desire, 
My self to burne, I blowe the fire: 

But shall I come ny you, 30 

Of forse I must flie you. 

IU What 


74 1%e "Paradise 

What death alas, maie be compared to this, 
I plaie within the maze of my swete foe: 
And when I would of her but craue a kis, 

Disdaine enforceth her awaie to goe. 5 

My self I check: yet doe I twiste the twine, 
The pleasure hers, the paine is myne, 
But shall I come ny you, 
Of forse I must flie you. 

You courtly wights, that wants your pleasant choise, 10 

Lende me a floud of teares, to waile my chaunce: 
Happie are thei in loue, that can reioyse, 
To their greate paines, where fortune doeth aduaunce 
But sith my sute alas, can not preuaile, 

Full fraight with care, in grief still will I waile: 15 

Sith you will needs flie me, 
I maie not come ny you. 


[82.] \Eeyng in loue y he complaineth. 

TF care or skill, could conquere vaine desire, 20 

Or reasons raines, my strong affection stale: 
Then should my sights, to quiet breast retire, 
And shunne suche signes, as secret thoughts bewraie. 
Vncomely loue, whiche now lurks in my breast, 
Should cease my grief, through wisdos power opprest 25 

But who can leaue, to looke on Venus face? 
Or yeldeth not, to lunos high estate: 
What witt so wise, as giues not Pallas place, 
These vertues rare, eche Godds did yelde amate. 

Saue her alone, who yet on yearth doeth reigne, 30 

Whose beauties stryng, no Gods can well destraine. 

What worldly wight, can hope for heauenly hire, 
When onely sights, must make his secret mone: 

A silent 


ofdaintie deuises. 7 5 

A silent sute, doeth selde to Grace aspire, 

My haples happe, doeth role to restles stone, 

Yet Phebe faire, disdainde the heauens aboue, 

To ioye on yearth, her poore Endimions loue. 5 

Rare is reward, where none can iustly craue, 
For chaunce is choise, where reason maks no claime: 
Yet lucke sometymes, dispairyng souls doeth saue, 
A happie starre made Giges ioye attaine. 

A slauishe Smith, of rude and rascall race, 10 

Founde means in tyme, to gaine a Goddes grace. 

Then loftie Loue, thy sacred sailes aduaunce, 
My sithyng seas, shall flowe with streames of teares: 
Amidds disdaine, driue forthe my dolefull chaunce, 

A valiaunt minde, no deadly daunger feares. 15 

Who loues alofte, and setts his harte on hie, 
Deserues no paine, though he doe pine and die. 

[83.] ^A louer reiected y complaineth. 

e tricklyng teares, that fales along my cheeks, 20 

The secret sighs, that showes my inward grief: 
The present paines perforce, that loue aye seeks, 
Bidds me renew, my cares without relief, 
In wofull song in dole displaie, 
My pensiue harte for to bewraie. 25 

Bewraie thy grief, thou wofull harte with speede, 
Resigne thy voyce, to her that causde thy woe: 
With irksome cries, bewaile thy late doen deede, 
For she thou louest, is sure thy mortall foe, 

And helpe for thee, there is none sure, 30 

But still in paine, thou must endure. 

&.. The 


7 6 The ^Paradise 

The striken Deare hath helpe, to heale his wounde, 
The haggerd hauke, with toile is made full tame: 
The strongest tower, the Canon laies on grounde, 

The wisest witt, that euer had the fame. 5 

Was thrall to Loue, by Cupids sleights, 
Then waie my case with equall waights. 

She is my ioye, she is my care and wo, 
She is my paine, she is my ease therefore: 

She is my death, she is my life also, 10 

She is my salue, she is my wounded sore. 
In fine, she hath the hande and knife, 
That maie bothe saue, and ende my life. 

And shal I liue on yearth to be her thral ? 

And shall I sue, and serue her all in vaine? 15 

And kisse the stepps, that she letts fall, 
And shall I praie the gods, to kepe the pain 
From her, that is so cruell still? 
No, no, on her woorke all your will. 

And let her feele the power of all your might, 20 

And let her haue her moste desire with speede: 
And let her pine awaie, bothe daie and night, 
And let her mone, and none lament her neede. 
And let all those, that shall her se, 
Dispise her state, and pitie me. 25 

Finis. E.O. 

[84.] If Not attainyng to his desire^ he complaineth. 

TAm not as [I] seme to bee, 

Nor when I smile, I am not glad: 

A thrall although you count me free, 30 

I moste in mirthe, moste pensiue sadd. 
I smile to shade my bitter spight, 
As Haniball that sawe in sight: 


C8 4 ] 

ofdaintie deuises. 7 7 

His countrey soile, with Carthage toune: 
By Romaine force, defaced doune. 

And Ccesar that presented was, 

With noble Pompeyes princely hedd, 5 

As twere some iudge, to rule the case, 
A floud of teares, he semde to shedd. 
Although in deede, it sprong of ioye, 
Yet others thought it was annoye: 

Thus contraries be vsed I finde, ic 

Of wise to cloke the couert minde. 

I Haniball that smiles for grief, 
And let you Caesars teares suffice: 
The one that laughs at his mischief, 

The other all for ioye that cries. 15 

I smile to see me scorned so, 
You wepe for ioye, to see me wo: 
And I a harte by loue slaine dead, 
Presents in place of Pompeyes head. 

cruell happ, and harde estate, 20 

That forceth me to loue my foe: 
Accursed be so foule a fate, 
My choise for to profixe it so. 
So long to fight with secret sore, 

And finde no secret salue therefore: 25 

Some purge their paine, by plaint I finde, 
But I in vaine doe breathe my winde. 

Finis. E.O. 

[85.] ^His mynde not quietly setled y he writeth this. 

as the waxe doeth melt, or dewe consume awaie, 30 

Before y Sonne, so I behold through careful thoughts decaie: 
For my best lucke leads me, to suche sinister state, 

lUlff. That 


78 The *Paradist 

That I doe wast with others loue, that hath my self in hate. 
And he that beats the bushe, the wished birde not getts, 
But suche I see as sitteth still, and holds the foulyng netts. 

The Drone more honie sucks, that laboureth not at all, 5 

Then doeth the Bee, to whose most pain, least pleasure doth befall: 
The Gardner sowes the seeds, whereof the flowers doe growe, 
And others yet doe gather them, that tooke lesse paine I knowe. 
So I the pleasaunt grape haue pulled from the Vine, 
And yet I languish in greate thirst, while others drinke the wine. 10 

Thus like a wofull wight, I woue my webb of woe, 
The more I would wede out my cares, the more thei seme to grow 
The whiche betokeneth hope, forsaken is of me, 
That with the carefull culuer climes, the worne & withered tree. 
To entertaine my thoughts, and there my happe to mone, 15 

That neuer am lesse idle loe, then when I am alone. 

[86.] 1f(y the mightie power of Loue. 

-%fY meanyng is to worke, what wonders loue hath wrought, 

Wherwith I muse why me of wit, haue loue so derely bought: 20 

For loue is worse then hate, and eke more harme hath doen, 
Record I take of those that rede, of Paris Priams sonne. 

It semed the God of slepe, had mazed so muche his witts, 
When he refused witt for loue, whiche cometh but by fitts: 
But why accuse I hym, whom yearth hath couered long, 25 

There be of his posteritie aliue, I doe hym wrong. 

Whom I might well condempne, to be a cruell iudge: 
Vnto my self who hath the crime, in others that I grudge. 




ofdaintie deuises. 7 9 

[87.] ^Beyng disdained, he complaineth. 

IF frendlesse faithe, if giltlesse thought maie shield, 
If simple truthe that neuer ment to swerue: 
If dere desire accepted frute doe yield, 5 

If greedie lust in loyall life doe seme. 
Then maie my plaint bewaile my heauie harme: 
That sekyng calme, haue stombled on the storme. 

My wonted cheare, ecclipsed by the cloude, 

Of deepe disdaine, through errour of reporter 10 

If wearie woe enwrapped in thy shroude, 
Lies slaine by tonge of the vnfrendly sorte. 
Yet heauen and yearth, and all that nature wrought: 
I call to vowe of my vnspotted thought. 

No shade I seke in parte, to shilde my taint, 15 

But simple truthe, I hunt no other sute: 
On that I gape, the issue of my plaint, 
If that I quaile, let Justice me confute. 
If that my place, emongs the giltles sort, 
Repaie by dome, my name and good report. 20 

Goe heauie verse, persue desired grace, 
Where pittie shrinde in cell of secret brest: 
Awaits my hast, the rightfull lott to place, 
And lothes to see, the giltles man opprest. 

Whose vertues great, haue crouned her more with fame, 25 

Then kyngly state, though largely shine the same. 

Finis.L. Faux. 
[88.] ^Of the meane estate. 

HPHe higher that the Ceder tree, vnder the heauens doe growe, 

The more in danger is the top, when sturdie winds gan blowe, 30 

Who Judges then in princely throne, to be deuoide of hate, 
Doeth not yet knowe, what heapes of ill, lies hid in suche estate. 



8o The "Paradise 

Suche dangers greate,suche gripes of minde, suche toile doe thei sustaine, 
That oftentimes, of God thei wishe, to be vnkyngde againe. 

For as the huge & mightie rocks, withstande the ragyng seas, 
So kyngdoms in subiection be, whereas dame Fortune please: 5 

Of brittle ioye, of smilyng cheare, of honie mixt with gall, 
Allotted is to euery Prince, in fredome to be thrall. 
What watches longe,what stepps vnsure, what grefes and cares of minde: 
What bitter broiles, what endles toiles, to kyngdoms be assingde. 

The subiect then maie well compare w prince for plesant daies, 10 

Whose silent might bryngs quiet rest, whose might no storme bewraies: 
How muche be we, then bounde to God, who suche prouision maks 
To laye our cares vpon the Prince thus doeth he for our saks. 
To hym therefore, let vs lift vp our harts, and praie a maine: 
That euery Prince that he hath plast, maie long in quiet raigne. 15 

Finis.L. V. 

IfQ/" a contented mynde. 

all is doen and saied, in the ende thus shall you finde, 
The moste of all doeth bathe in blisse, that hath a quiet minde: 
And clere from worldly cares, to deame can be content, 20 

The swetest tyme, in all his life, in thinkyng to be spent. 

The bodie subiect is, to fickle Fortunes power, 
And to a million of mishapps, is casuall euery hower: 
And death in tyme doeth chaunge it to a clodde of claye, 
When as the mynde whiche is deuine, runnes neuer to decaie. 25 

Companion none is like, vnto the mynde alone, 

For many haue been harmde by speache, through thinking fewe or none: 
Fewe oftentymes restraineth words, but maks not thoughts to cease, 
And he speaks best that hath the skill, when for to holde his peace. 

Our wealth leaues vs at death, our kinsmen at the graue, 30 

But vertues of the mynde, vnto the heauens with vs we haue: 



ofdaintie deuises. 8 1 

Wherefore for vertues sake, I can be well content, 

The swetest tyme of all my life, to deme in thinkyng spent. 

Finis. LVaux. 
[90.] If Trie before you trust. 5 

'"PO counsell my estate, abandonde to the spoile, 

Of forged frendes whose grosest fraude, it set with finest foile. 
To verifie true dealyng wights, whose trust no treason dreads, 
And all to deare thacquaintance be, of suche moste harmfull heads. 
I am aduised thus, who so doeth frende, frende so, 10 

As though to morrowe next he feared, for to become a fo. 

To haue a fained frende, no perill like I finde, 
Oft fleryng face maie man tell best, a mischief in the mynde: 
A paire of angels eares, oft tymes doeth hide a serpents harte, 
Vnder whose gripes who so doeth come, to late coplaines y smart. 15 

Wherefore I doe aduise, who so doeth frende frende soe, 
As though to morrowe next, he should become a mortall foe. 

Refuse respectyng frends, that courtly knowe to faine, 
For gold that winnes for gold, shall lose, the selfsame frend againe: 
The Quaile needs neuer feare, in foulers netts to fall, 20 

If he would neuer bende his eare, to listen to his call. 
Therefore trust not to sone, but when you frende frende soe, 
As though to morrowe next, ye feard for to become a foe. 

Finis. L. Vaux. 
[91.] ^He renounceth all the affectes of hue. 25 

T Ike as the Harte that lifteth vp his eares, 

To heare the hounds, that hath hym in the chase: 
Doeth cast the winde, in daungers and in feares, 
With fliyng foote, to passe awaie apace. 

So must I fly of loue the vaine pursute, 30 

Whereof the gaine is lesser then the fruite. 

1U And 


82 TheTaradise 

And I also must lothe those learyng looks, 
Where loue doeth lurke still with a sub till slaight: 
With painted mocks, and inward hidden hooks, 

To trapp by trust, that lieth not in waite. 5 

The ende whereof, assaie it who so shall, 
Is sugred smait, and inward bitter gall. 

And I also must flie suche Sirian songs, 
Wherewith that Circes, Vlisses did enchaunt: 

These wilie Watts I meane, with filed tongs, 10 

That harts of steele, haue power to daunt, 
Who so as hauke, that stoppeth to their call, 
For moste desart, receiueth least of all. 

But woe to me that first behelde those eyes, 

The trapp wherein I saie, that I was tane: 15 

An outward salue, whiche inward me destroies, 
Whereto I runne, as Ratt vnto her bane. 
As to the fishe, sometyme it doeth befall, 
That with the baite, doeth swallowe hooke and all. 

Within my breast, wherewith I daiely fedd, 20 

The vaine repast of amorous hot desire: 
With loytryng lust, so long that hath me fedd, 
Till he hath brought me to the flamyng fire. 
In tyme at Phenix ends her care and carks, 
I make the fire, and burne my self with sparks. 25 

Finis. L. Vaux. 
[92.] \Beyng in sorrowe he complaineth. 

Hk^-Istrust misdemes amisse, whereby displeasure growes, 

And time delaied, finds freds afraied, their faith for to disclose: 
Suspect that breede the thought, and thought to sighes conuarte, 30 

And sighs haue sought a floud of teares, wher sobbs do seke y hart. 



ofdaintie deuises. 8 3 

Thus harte that meanes no harme, must feede on sorrowes all, 
Vntill suche tyme as pleaseth the iudge, the truth in question call: 
Though cause of greate mistrust, before that iudge appeare, 
My truthe and mercie of my iudge, I trust shall set me cleare. 5 

Report these rimes at large, my truthe for to detecte, 
Yet truthe in tyme shall trie it self, and driue awaie suspecte: 
Beleue not euery speache, nor speake not all you heare, 
For truthe and mercie of the iudge, I trust shall set me cleare. 

Finis. L. V. 10 

[93.] \Beyng in hue, he complaineth. 

T^Nforst by loue and feare, to please and not offende, 

Within the words you would me write, a message must I sende: 
A wofull errande sure, a wretched man must write, 
A wretched tale, a wofull head, besemeth to endite. 15 

For what can he but waile, that hath but all he would. 
And yet that all, is nought at all, but lacke of all he should: 
But lacke of all his minde: what can be greater greif, 
That haue& lacke that likes him best, must neds be most mischief. 

Now foole what maks thee waile, yet some might saie full well 20 

That hast no harme but of thy self, as thou thy self canst tell: 
To whom I aunswere thus, since all my harmes doe growe, 
Vpon my self, so of my self, some happ maie come I trowe. 

And since I see bothe happ, and harme betids to me, 

For present woe, my after blisse, will make me not forget thee: 25 

Who hath a field of golde, and maie not come therein, 
Must Hue in hope till he haue forse, his treasure well to winne. 

Whose ioyes by hope of dreade, to conquere or to lose, 
So greate a wealth doeth rise, and for example doeth disclose: 
To winne the golden flese, stoode lason not in drede, 30 

Till that Medeas hope of helpe, did giue hym hope to spede. Yet 


84 the ^Paradise 

Yet sure his minde was muche, and yet his feare the more. 
That hath no happ but by your helpe, maie happ for to restore: 
The ragyng Bulls he dread, yet by his Ladies charme, 
He knewe it might be brought to passe, thei could doe little harme. 5 

Vnto whose grace yelde he, as I doe offer me, 
Into your hands to haue his happ, not like hym for to be: 
But as kyng Priamus did binde hym to the will. 
Of Cressed false whiche hym forsooke, with Diomede to spill. 

So I to you commende my faithe, and eke my ioye, 10 

I hope you will not be so false, as Cressed was to Troye: 
For if I be vntrue, her Lazares death I wishe, 
And eke to thee if I be false, her clapper and her dishe. 

Finis. R.L 

[94.] ^Beyng in trouble, he writeth thus. 15 

IN terrours trapp with thraldome thrust, 
Their thornie thoughts to tast and trie: 
In conscience cleare from case vniust, 
With carpyng cares did call and crie. 

And saied God, yet thou art he, 20 

That can and will deliuer me. Bis. 

Thus tremblyng there with teares I trodd. 
To totter tide in truthes defence: 
With sighes and sobbs, I saied God, 

Let right not haue this recompence. 25 

Lest that my foes might laugh to see, 
That thou wouldest not deliuer me. Bis. 

My soule then to repentaunce ranne, 
My ragged clothes berent and torne: 

And did bewaile the losse it wanne, 3 

With lothsome life so long forlorne. 
And saied God yet thou art he, 
That can and will deliuer me. Bis. 


ofdaintie deuises. 8 5 

Then comfort came with clothes of ioye 
Whose semes were faithfull stedfastnesse: 
And did bedecke that naked boye, 

Whiche erst was full of wretchednesse. 5 

And saied be glad for God is he, 
That shortly will deliuer thee. Bis. 

Finis. 5". M. 

[95.] \Eeyng troubled in mynde, he 

writeth as followeth. 10 

'"PHe bitter sweate that straines my yelded harte, 

The carelesse count, that doeth the same embrace: 
The doubtfull hope, to reape my due desarte, 
The pensiue path, that guids my restlesse race. 

Are at suche warre within my wounded brest, 15 

As doeth bereue my ioye and eke my rest, 

My greedie will, that seks the golden gaine, 
My luckles lot, doeth alwaie take in worthe: 
My mated mynde, that dredes my sutes in vaine, 

My piteous plaint, doeth helpe for to set forthe. 20 

So that betwene twoo waues of ragyng seas, 
I driue my daies in troubles and desease. 

My wofull eyes doe take their chief delight, 
To feede their fill vpon the pleasaunt maze: 

My hidden harmes that growe in me by sight, 25 

With pinyng paines doe driue me from the gaze. 
And to my hope I reape no other hire, 
But burne my self, and I to blowe the fire. 


[96.] ^Looke or you leape. 30 

F thou in suertie safe wilt sitt, 

If thou delight at rest to dwell: 

Spende no more words then shall seme fitt, 

JL.iH. Let 


86 The ^Paradise 

Let tonge in silence talke expell. 

In all thyngs that thou seest men bent, 

Se all, saie nought, holde thee content. 

In worldly works degrees are three, 5 

Makers, doers, and lookers on : 
The lookers on haue libertie, 
Bothe the others to iudge vpon. 
Wherefore in all, as men are bent, 
Se all, saie nought, holde thee content. 10 

The makers oft are in fault founde, 
The doers doubt of praise or shame: 
The lookers on finde surest grounde, 
Thei haue the fruite, yet free from blame. 

This doeth persuade in all here ment, 15 

Se all, saie nought, holde thee content. 

The prouerbe is not South and West, 
Whiche hath be saied, long tyme agoe: 
Of little medlyng cometh rest, 

The busie man neuer wanteth woe. 20 

The best waie is in all worlds sent, 
Se all, saie nought, holde thee content. 
Finis Jasper Haywood. 

[97.] ^He bewaileth his mishappe. 

IN wretched state alas I rewe my life, 25 

Whose sorrowes rage torments with deadly paine: 
In drowned eyes, beholde my teares be rife, 
In doubtfull state, a wretche I must remaine, 
You wofull wights enured to like distresse, 
Bewaile with me my wofull heauinesse. 30 

What stonie harte suche hardnes can retaine, 
That sharpe remorse, no rest can finde therein: 



ofdaintie deuises. 8 7 

What ruthlesse eyes so carelesse can remaine, 

That daiely teares maie pitie winne. 

For right I seeke, and yet renewe my sore, 

Vouchsalfe at length my saftie to restore. 5 

My loue is lost, woe worthe in woe I dye, 
Disdainfull harte doeth worke suche hatefull spite: 
In losse of loue a wretche must ioye to dye, 
For life is death, now hope is banisht quite. 

O death approche bereue my life from me, 10 

Why should I liue opprest with woe to be. 

Finis. R.H. 

[98-] ^fhe complaint of a Synner. 
QHeauenly God, Father dere, cast doune thy tender eye, 

Vpon a wretche that prostrate here, before thy trone doeth lye: 15 

O powre thy precious oyle of grace, into my wounded harte, 
let the dropps of mercie swage, the rigour of my smarte. 

My fainting soule suppressed sore, with carefull clogge of sinne, 
In humble sort submitts it self, thy mercie for to winne: 
Graunt mercie then O sauiour swete, to me moste wofull thrall, 20 

Whose mornfull crie to thee O Lorde, doeth still for mercie call. 

Thy blessed will I haue despised, vpon a stubborne minde: 
And to the swaie of worldly thyngs, my self I haue enclinde: 
Forgettyng heauen, & heauely powers, where God and saincts do 
My life had likt to tread the path, y leads the waie to hell, (dwel 25 

But now my lorde, my lode starre bright I will no more doe so: 
To thinke vpon my former life, my harte doeth melt for woe. 
Alas I sigh, alas I sobbe, alas I doe repent: 
That euer my licencious will, so wickedly was bent. 

Sith thus therefore with yernfull plain, I doe thy mercie craue 30 

Lorde for thy greate mercies sake, let me thy mercie haue: 
Restore to life the wretched soule, that els is like to dye, 
So shall my voyce vnto thy name, syng praise eternally. 



88 TheTaradise 

Now blessed be the Father first, and blessed be the Sonne, 
And blessed be the holie Ghoste, by whom all thyngs are doen: 
Blesse me blessed Trinitie, with thy eternall grace, 
That after death my soule maie haue, in heauen a dwellyng place. 5 

Finis. F.K. 

[99.] ^fhe fruitejhat spryngesfrom wilful! wites y is ruthe,and ruins rage: 
And sure what heedelesse youth committes, repentaunce rues in age. 

I Rage in restlesse ruthe, and ruins rule my daies, 
I rue (to late) my rechlesse you the, by rules of reasons waies: 10 

I ran so long a race, in searche of surest waie, 
That leasure learnde me tread the trace, that led to leud decaie. 
I gaue so large a raine, to vnrestrained bitt, 
1 That now with proofe of after paine, I waile my want of witt: 
I trifeled forthe the tyme, with trust to self conceiptes, 15 

Whilst pieties vse prickt forth my prime, to search for sugred bai- 
Wherein once learnde to finde, I founde so sweete a taste, (tes. 

That dewe foresight of after speede, self will estemed waste. 
Whiche will, through wilfulnesse, hath wrought my witlesse fall, 
And heedelesse youthes vnskilfulnesse, hath lapt my life in thrall. 20 

Whereby by proofe I knowe, that pleasure breedeth paine, 
And he that euill seede doeth sowe, euill frute must reape againe. 
Let suche therefore, whose youth, and pursses are in Prime, 
Foresee & shun, the helplesse ruthe, whiche sews misspence of time. 
For want is nexte to waste, and shame doeth synne ensue, 25 

Euil speding proofe hath hedeles hast, my self hath proued it true. 
When neighbours next house burnes, tis tyme thereof take hede, 
For fortunes whele hath choise of turnes, which change of chases 
My saile hath been aloft, though now I beare but lowe, (breds. 

Who dims to high selde falleth soft, dedst ebbe hath highest flowe. 30 

Finis. q> Yloop. 

^Imprinted at London by Henry Disle y dwellyng at the 
Southwest doore of S. Paules Churche. 





The Taradise ofdaintie deuises. 

[100.] Who wayteth on this wauering world, and veweth each estate y 
By tryall taught shall learne it best, to Hue in simple rate. 

the vale the sclender shrubbe, is hid from all mishap, 
When taller tree that standes aloft, is rent with thunder clap. 5 

The Turrets tops which touch the cloudes, are beat with euery blast, 
Soone shiuered are their stones with storme, and quickly ouer cast. 
Best bodyed tree in all the wood, for tymber beame is found, 
And to the axe the sturdiest Oxe, dooth yeeld and fall to ground. 
The highest hill dooth soonest feele, the flash of lightnings flame, 10 

And soone decayes the pomp and pryde, of high renowmed name. 
Of all the heard the huntman seekes, by proofe as dooth appere, 
With double forked arrowe head, to wound the greatest Deare. 
The hautiest head of all the droue, enioyes the shortest life, 
And staines the slaughter house with blood, at pricke of butchers knife. 15 
Thus what thing hyest place atteynes, is soonest ouerthrowne, 
What euer Fortune sets a loft, she threates to throw it downe. 
And though no force resist thy power, nor seeke thee to confound, 
Yet dooth the payse of weighty things, decline it selfe to ground. 
For restlesse tipe of roulling wheele, example hath it tryde, 20 

To heauy burden yeelde it must ful soone, and slip asyde. 
What vayles the rich his bed of down, y sighes for sleplesse thought, 
What time in couch of flock the poore, sleepes sound & feareth nought. 
At homely boord his quiet foode, his drinkes in treene be tane, 
When oft the proud in cuppes of gold, with wine receiue their bane. 25 

The bed, the boord, the dread in dout, with trayne to be opprest, 
When fortune frounes, their power must yeelde, as wyre vnto y wrest. 
[Who so thou be that sits alow, and tread the valleyes path, 
Thou needes not feare the Thunder bolts of mighty loue his wrath] 
If Icarus had not presumed to high to take his flight, 30 

He had not yet ben drowned in Seas, that now Itarion hight. 
If Phaeton had not enterprised to guide his fathers seate, 
His fires had not enflamed the world, nor ben destroyed with heate. 
But who so climes aboue the meane, there is no hope of stay, 


The Taradise 

The higher vp the sooner downe, and nearer his decay. 
Then you that here in pompe or place, to guide the golden mase, 
Let crowne and Septer both obay the meane of Vertues race. 
For neither shall renowmed Vertue see the pit of hell, 5 

Nor yet in toombe of Marble stone, she may abide to dwell. 
[And in that Tombe full brauely dect When that she shall depart, 
God send her rest and all thinges well, according to desart.] 
But from Sepulcher flies she hence, beyond the skies aboue, 
And glistering in the blisful stares, she raines with mighty loue. 10 

FIN I S. lasper Hey wood. 

[101.] He perswadeth hisfreend, 

from the fond Afectes of hue. 

Tf/HY art thou bound & maist go fre, shal reason yeld to raging wil ? 

* Is thraldom like to libertye? wilt thou exchange thy good for ill? 15 
Then shalt thou learne a childish play, and of each part to tast and proue: 
The lookers on shall iudge and say, loe this is he that Hues by loue. 

Thy wittes with thoughts, shall stand at stay, thy head shall haue but heauy rest. 
Thy eyes shal watch for wanton prayes, thy tongue shall shew thy harts request. 
Thy eares shall heare a thousand noyse, thy hand shall put thy pen to payne: 
And in the ende, thou shalt disprayse, thy life so spent, for such small gaine. 

If loue and list might euer cope, or youth might runne in reasons race: 22 
Or if strong sute might win sure hope, I would lesse blame a louers case. 
For loue is hotte, with great desire, and sweete delight makes youth so fond, 
That little sparkeswill proue great fyre,and bring free harts to endlesse bond. 

First count the care and then the cost, and marke what fraude in faith is found: 
Then after come and make thy bost, and shew some cause why thou art bound. 
For when the wine doth runne full low, you shall be faine to drinke the lies: 
And eate the flesh ful well I know, that hath ben blowne with many flies. 

We see where great deuotion is, the people kneele and kisse the crosse: 30 
And though we find small fault of this, Yet some will gilld a bridles bosse. 
A foole his bable will not change, not for the septer of a king, 
A louers life is nothing strange, for youth delightes none other thing. 

FINIS, fho. Churchyard. 


ofdamtie deuises. 

[102.] A replie to M. Edwards MAY. 

Read a maying rime of late delighted much my eare, 
<J It may delight as many moe, as it shall reade or heare. 
To see how there is shewed, how May is much of price, 5 

And eake to May when that you may, euen so is his aduice. 
It seemes he meant to may himselfe, and so to vse his skill, 
For that the time did serue so well, in May to haue his will. 
His onely May was ease of mind, so farre as I can gesse, 
And that his may his mind did please, a man can iudge no lesse. 10 

And as himselfe did reape the fruites, of that his pleasant May, 

He wils his freende the same to vse, in time when as he may. 

He is not for him selfe it seemes, but wisheth well to all, 

For y he would they should, take May in time when it doth fall. 

So vse your May, you may, it can not hurtful be, 15 

And May well vsed in time and place, may make you mery gle: 

Modest maying mettest is, of this you may be suer, 

A modest maying quietnes, to Mayers doth procure. 

Who may and will not take, may wish he had so done, 
Who may and it doth take, may thinke he tooke too sone. 20 

So ioyne your May with wisedomes lore, and then you may be suer, 
Who makes his May in other sort, his vnrest may procuer. 
Some May before May come, some May when May is past, 
Some make their May to late, and some doe May posthast. 
Let wisedome rule I say your May, and thus I make an ende, 25 

And May, that when you list to May, a good may God you sende. 

[103.] An Epitaph vpon the death of Syr Edward Saunders. 
Knight, Lord chee/e Baron of the Exchequer. 

V Muses weare your mourning weeds, strike on y fatal Drome 30 

Sound Triton out the trumpe of fame, in spite of Parcas dome. 
Distill Parnassus pleasant drops, possesse Pierides plase, 
Apollo helpe with dolefull tune, to wayle this wofull case. 


The Taradise 

Wring hard you hands, waile on you losse, lament the fate that fell, 

With sobs and sighes to Saunders say, oh Saunders now farewell. 
Whom Phcebus fed with Pallas pappe, as one of Sibils seede, 

Loe here where death did rest his corpes, the vermine foule to feede. 5 
Whom Impes of loue with Necter sweete, long in Libethres noursht, 

Behold how dreadful death him brought, to y whence he came first. 
Lycurgus he for learned lawes, Rhadamanthus race that ranne, 

A nother Nestor for aduise, Zalucus fame that wanne. 
A Damon deare vnto his freend, in faith like Phocion found, 10 

A Cafo that could counsel giue, to prince a subiect sound. 
Not Athens for their Solon sage, not Rome for Numa waile, 

As we for Saunders death haue cause, in sods of teares to saile. 
Not Sparta card for Chilos death, ne proud Prienna prest, 

To weepe for Bias as we wayle, for Saunders late possest. 15 

His learned pathes his talentes rare, so now by death appeares, 

As he that Salomon sought to serue, in prime and youthful yeeres, 
His counsel sad, his rules, his lawes, in country soyle so wrought, 

As though in Cuma he had benn, of sage Sibilla taught. 
His vertuous life was such I say, as Vertue did embrace, 20 

By Vertue taught in Vertues schoole, to grow in vertues race. 
Might tender babes, might orphants weak, might widows rere y cry, 

The sound thereof shoulde pearce the cloudes, to skale y empire sky. 
To bid the gods to battel bend, and to dissend in sight, 

Though ffarre vnfit, and mates vnmeete, with mortal men to fight. 25 
Too late (alas) we wish his life, to soone deceiued vs Death. 

Too little wit we haue to seeke, the dead agayne to breath. 
What helplesse is, must carelesse be, as Natures course doth shewe, 

For death shal reape what life hath sowen, by nature this we know. 
Where is that ferce Achilles fled, where is king Turnus shroude, 30 

What is be come of Priamus state, where is Periander proude: 
Hector, Hanno, Hanibal, dead, Pompei y Pirrhus spild, 
ioy CiruSy Casar slaine, and Alexander kild. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

So long there Fortune fast did floe, and charged Fame to sound, 

Tyll frowning Fortune foyld by fate, which fawning fortune found: 
Shun Fortunes feates, shake fortune of to none is fortune sound, 

Sith none may say of Fortune so, I Fortune faithful found. 5 

Beholde where Fortune flowed so fast, and fauoured Saunders lure, 

Till fickle Fortune false again did Saunders death procure. 
Lo clothed could in cloddes of clay, in drossy dust remaine, 

By fate returnd from whence he came, to his mothers wombe againe. 
Who welnigh thirtie yeeres was ludge, before a ludge dyd fall, 10 

And iudged by that mighty ludge, which ludge shall iudge vs all. 
The heauens may of right reioyce, and earth may it bewayle, 

Sith heauen wan, and earth hath lost, the guide and arke of vaile. 
There gaine is much, our losse is great, there mirth our mone is such, 

That they may laugh as cause doo yeeld, and we may weepe as much: 15 
O happy he, vnhappy we, his hap doth aye encrease, 

Happy he, and haplesse we, his hap shall neuer cease. 
We Hue to dye, he dyed to Hue, we want, and he possest, 

We bide in bands, he bathes in blisse, the Gods aboue him blest. 
Being borne to Hue, he liued to dye, and dyed to God so plaine, 20 

That birth, that life, that death, doo shew, that he shall Hue againe: 
His youth to age, his age to death, his death to fame applied, 

His fame to time, his time to God, thus Saunders liued and dyed. 

happy life, O happier death, tenne times happy he, 

Whose hap it was, such hap to haue, a ludge this age to be. 25 

Oh ioyfull time, oh blessed soyle, where Pallas rules with witte, 

noble state, sacred seate, where Saba sage dooth sitte. 
Like Susan sound, like Sara sad, with Hesters mace in hand, 

With ludiths sword Bellona like, to rule this noble land. 

1 had my will, you haue your wish, I laugh, reioyce you may, 30 

1 wan now much, you gaine no lesse, to see this happy day. 
Wherein I dyed, wherin you Hue, Oh treble happy cost, 
Wherein I ioyed in glory great, wherin you triumpth most. 


The "Paradise 

Kneele on your knees, knock hard your brests, sound forth y ioyful drome 

Clap loude your handes, sound Eccho say, the golden world is come. 
Reioyce you Judges may of right, your mirth may now be such, 

As neuer earst you Judges had, in England mirth so much. 5 

Here Cuma is, here Sibill raignes, on Delphos seat to sitte, 

Here shee like Phcebus rules, that can Gordius knot vnknitte. 
I liued to nature long ynough, I liued to honor much, 

I liued at wish, I died at will, to see my country such. 
As neither needes it Numas lawes, nor yet Apollos sweard, 10 

For M auger Mars, yet Mars shalbe of this our Queene afeard. 
O peerlesse pearle, O Diamond deer, O Queene of Queenes farwell, 

Your royall maiestie God preserue in England long to dwell. 
Farwell the Phtznix of the world, farwel my soueraigne Queene, 

Farwel most noble vertuous prince, Mineruas mate I weene. 15 

No luel, Gemme, no Gold to giue, no pearles from Pactolus lo, 

No Persian Gaze, no Indian stones, no Tagus sands to show. 
But faith and will to natiue soyle a Hue and dead I find, 

My hart my mind, my loue I leaue vnto my prince behind. 
Farwel you nobles of this land, farwel you Judges graue, 20 

Farwel my felowes, frends and mates, your Queene I say God saue. 
What rise in time, in time doth, fal, what floweth in time doth ebbe, 

What Hues in time, in time shall dye, and yeelde to Parcas webbe. 
The sunne to darknes shalbe turnd, the starres from skies shall fall. 

The Moone to blood, the world with fire shalbe consumed all. 25 

As smoke or vapour vanish streight, as bubbles rise and fall. 

As clowdes do passe or shadow shiftes we Hue, we dye so all. 
Our pompe our pride, our triump moste, our glory great herein, 

Like shattering shadow passe away, as though none such had bin. 
Earth, water, ayre, and fire, as they were earst before, 30 

A lumpe confused, and Chaos calld, so shall they once be more. 
And all to earth, that came from earth, and to the graue descend, 

For earth on earth, to earth shall goe, and earth shall be the end. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

As Christ ascended vp in clowdes, so Christ in clowdes shall come, 
To iudge both good and bad on earth, at dreadful day of dome. 

From whence our flesh shall rise again, euen from the drossy dust, 
And so shall passe I hope, vnto the mansion of the iust. 
FINIS. Lodowick LLoyd. 

[104.] Of a Freend and a Flatterer. 

y^Trustie frend is rare to find, a fawning foe may sone be got: 

A faithful frend bere stil in mind, but fawning foe regard thou not 
A faithful freend no cloke doth craue, to colour knauery withal: 10 

But Sicophant a Goun must haue, to beare a port what ere befal. 
A nose to smel out euery feast, a brasen face to set it out: 
A shamles child or homly geast, whose life doth like to range about. 
A fauning foe while wealth doth last, a thefe to rob and spoile his freend: 
As strong as oke til wealth doth last, but rotten sticke doth proue in the 15 

Looke first, then leape, beware the mire: 

Burnt Child is warnd to dread the fire: 
Take heede my freend, remember this, 
Short horse (they say) soone curried is. 

FINIS. M. Edwardes. 20 

[105.] If thou desire to Hue in quiet rest, 
geue eare and se but say the best. 

T/ thou: delight, in quietnes of life, 

Desire: to shonn, from brails, debate and strife, 

T0 Hue: in loue with god, with frend and foe, 25 

In rest: shalt sleepe: when others cannot so. 

Giue eare: to all, yet doo not all beleeue, 
And see: the end, and then do sentence geeue: 
But say: for truth of happy Hues assind, 

The best: hath he that quiet is in mind. 30 

FINIS. M.Hunnis. 


The "Paradise 

[106.] A dialog betwene the auctour and his eye. 


MY eye why didst thou light on that, whiche was not thyne? 
Why hast thou with thy sight, thus slaine an harte of myne? 5 
thou vnhappie eye, would God thou hadst been blinde, 
When first thou didst her spie, for whom this grief I finde. 


Why sir it is not I, that doe deserue suche blame, 

Your fancie not your eye, is causer of the same: 10 

For I am readie prest, as page that serues your ease, 
To searche what thyng is beste, that might your fancie please. 


I sent thee forthe to see, but not so long to bide, 

Though fancie went with thee, thou wert my fancies guide: 15 

Thy message beyng doen, thou mights retourne againe, 
So Cupid Venus sonne, no whit my harte should paine. 


Where fancie beareth swaye, there Cupid will bee bolde, 
And reason flies awaie, from Cupids shafte of golde: 20 

If you finde cause thereby, some deale of painfull smarte, 
Alas blame not your eye, but blame consent of harte. 


My harte must I excuse, and laye the fault on thee, 

Because thy sight did chuse, when harte from thought was free: 25 

Thy sight thus brought consente, consent hath bred my grief, 
And grief bids bee content, with sorrowe for relief. 

FINIS. M.Hunnis. 


of daintie deuises. 

[107.] No paines comparable to his attempt. 

Like as the dolefull Doue, delights alone to bee. 
And doeth refuse the bloumed branche, chusyng the leaflesse tree. 
Whereon wailyng his chaunce, with bitter teares besprent, 5 

Doeth with his bill, his tender breaste ofte pearse and all to rent. 
Whose greeuous gronyngs tho: whose grips of pinyng paine, 
Whose gastly lookes, whose bloudie streams out flowyng fro ech vain. 
Whose fallyng from the tree, whose pantyng on the grounde, 
Examples bee of myne estate, tho there appere no wounde. 10 

FINIS. W.Hunnis. 

[108.] He repenteth hisfollie. 

ALacke when I looke backe, vpon my youth thatz paste, 
And deepely ponder youthes offence, and youths reward at laste. 
With sighes and teares I sale, O God I not denie, 15 

My youth with follie hath deserued, with follie for to die. 
But yet if euer synfull man, might mercie moue to ruthe, 
Good Lorde with mercie doe forgiue, the follies of my youthe. 

In youth I rangde the feelds, where vices all did growe, 
In youth alas I wanted grace, suche vise to ouerthrowe, 20 

In youth what I thought sweete, moste bitter now do finde, 
Thus hath the follies of my youth, with folly kept me blind 
Yet as the Egle casts her bill, whereby her age renueth, 
So Lorde with mercie doe forgiue, the follies of my youth. 

FINIS. M.Hunnis. 25 


[109.] Tihe fruite offeinedfrendes. 

N choise of frends what hap had I, to chuse one of Cires kind (blind 
whose harp, whose pipe, whose melody could fede my ears & make me 
Whose pleasant voice made me forget, y in sure trust is gret deceit. 

In trust I see is treason founde, and man to man deceitfull is, 30 

And whereas treasure doeth abounde, of flatterers there doe not misse: 
Whose painted speache, & outward show, do seme as frends & be not so. 


The Taradise 

Would I haue thought in thee to be, the nature of the Crocadill: 
Whiche if a man a slepe maie see, with bloudie thirst desires to kill: 
And then w teares a while gan wepe, the death of him thus slain a slepe 

fauell false, thou traitor borne, what mischief more might y deuise 5 
Then thy deare frend to haue in scorne, & hym to wound in sundry wise 
Whiche still a frende pretends to bee, and are not so by proofe I see. 
Fie, fie, vpon suche trecherie. W. H. 

If suche false Shippes doe haunte the shore, 
Strike doune the saile and trust no more. M. Edwardes. 10 

[no.] Verses written of 20. good precepts , at the request of his 
Especiall goodfreend & kinseman y M. Robart Cudden of 
Grayes Inne. 

/~\Lde frendship binds (though faine I would refuse) 

In this discourse, to please your honest mind: 15 

For trust me frend, the counseling words I vse, 
Are rather forst of cause, then come of kind. 

Your theames are short, and yet in substance large, 

As of the least, some would a volume write, 

The first, Sarue God, a seruice of such charge, 20 

As should not be, forslowed day or night. 

For what we do is present in his eye, 

Well doing then, he must with grace regard: 

And vsing course: if he ill doing spye, 

He can not but, the leude with wrath reward. 25 

Obey thy Prince^ or Tyborne coole thy pride, 
The head commaunds, the feete to goe or stay: 
So we our prince, euen as our head and guide, 
In what she wils, of dewty must obey. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

Like well thy frende, but trye him are thou loue, 

For frends, we may, to JEsopes tongues compare: 

The faithful frend, no fortune can remoue, 

The fayre mouth foe in neede, doth feede thy care. 5 

Shun many words, a sentence short and swete, 
For lauish speach, is cause of much vnrest: 
It makes men oft, their freendes in sorrow meete, 
And beast aplyde, fayre words, syld bides the test. 

Auoyde anger, or looke to Hue in woe, 10 

The harbraine lade, is far more spurd and beat: 
Then cooler horse, which meaner mettel shoe, 
The like reward the hasty man doth geat. 

Appease debate, an honest worke in troth, 

Much phisicke oft, increaseth sickly qualmes: 15 

Recounting wronges, so many makes so wroth 

As Hues, leagwes, armes, are often dealt for almes, 

Be merciful haue Diues scourge in mind, 

None Hues so iust, but some way doth offend: 

Then cruel man what fauor shouldst thou find, 20 

When thou thy eares to pitie will not bend. 

Slaunder no man, mirth is a leach to mone, 

Health, phisick helpes, fortune restoreth welth: 

But honest fame, by slaunder spoyld and gone, 

Health, wealth, nor myrth, can satisfy the stealth. 25 

Report the Truth, once there one tryal standes, 
Note wel, the fall of good Susannas foes: 
Vpon thy lyfe oft lyeth life and lands, 
A wayghty charge, least thou the truth disclose. 

Take heede of drinke, therin much mischefe lyes, 30 

It doth disclose the seacrets of the breast: 
What worse account, then for none to be wise, 
When none is past to be estemed a beast. 


The Taradise 

Disdayne no man, misse Judgement often blindes, 

All is not fyre, like flame, that seemes to blaze: 

Once homely weades, oft hides more gallant mindes, 

Then gawdy cotes, which sets each eye to gase, 5 

Thy secreates keepe, or make thy selfe a slaue, 
The babling foole, is made a iesting stock: 
When closely men account, and credit haue, 
Then beast y thou, thy tongue with sylence locke. 

Try are thou trust, thy fayth least falcehod quite, 10 

The Crocadill with teares doth win her praye, 
Tthtflattrer so, doth seeme a saynt in sight, 
To cut thy throte, in absence if he may. 

Cherish the poore, a worke in nature due, 

Brute beastes releue, the feable of their kind: 15 

Then man for shame, with sucker see thou rue, 

Of men dystrest, the sicke, the lame, or blind. 

Ayde honest mindes^ and prayse shal pay thy meede, 

The subtil wretch for pence, with fraude will fishe: 

The honest man, had rather starue in neede, 20 

Then by deceit, to feede dishonest wish. 

Shun wanton Dames, as Sirens they intice 

Both body and purse, they witch wound and wast, 

And in the end (for all this sawcy price) 

There sweete delites, of sower repentance tast. 25 

Sucker souldiers. They watch to keepe thy wealth, 
In wars they serue, that thou in peace maist feede: 
Then if throwe lacke, the souldier Hue by stelth, 
I wish a churle fayre hanged in his stead. 

Strangers fauor thy fortune is vnknowne, 30 

In youth or age, none Hues but needes a freend: 

And vsing grace, if thou be ouerthrowne, 

Thou yet mayst hope, thy greefe with grace to end. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

Prouidefor age. or looke to dye with greefe, 

Some forst throw shame ther aged freends do ayde: 

But sowre lookes, so salues Ms sweete releefe. 

As day and night, with sighes they are dismayde. 5 

fhinke on thy end. the tyde for none doth waight, 
Euen so pale death, for no mans wil doth stay: 
Then while thou mayst thy worldly reckning straight, 
Least when thou wouldest Death doth goodwil dismay. 

G. Whetstones. Formce nulla fides. 10 

[in.] tfhat Loue is requited by disdaine. 

TN searche of thyngs that secret are, my mated muse began, 

What it might be, molested moste the head and mynde of man. 
The bendyng brow of princes face, to wrathe that doeth attende, 
Or want of parents, wife or childe, or losse of faithfull frende. 15 

The roryng of the Canon shot, that makes the peece to shake, 
Or terrour suche as mightie loue, from heauen aboue can make. 
All these in fine maie not compare experience so doeth proue, 
Vnto the torments sharpe and strange, of suche as be in loue. 

Loue lookes a loft and laughs to scorne all suche as grefe anoye. 20 

The more extreme their passions be, the greater is his ioye. 
Thus Loue as victor of the felde, triumps aboue the rest, 
And ioyes to see his subiects lye, with liuyng death in brest. 
But dire disdaine letts driue a shaft, and gauls this braggyng foole, 
He plucks his plumes, vnbendes his bowe and sets hym newe to scole, 25 
Whereby this boye, that bragged late, as conquerer ouer all, 
Now yelds hym self vnto disdaine his vessall and his thrall. 

FINIS. W.Hunms. 

[i J2.] Of a contented state. 

TN wealth we se some wealthie men, abound in wealth moste welthely 30 
In wealth we se those men again, in wealth do Hue moste wretchedly. 
And yet of wealthe hauyng more store, 
Then erst of wealth thei had before. 


The "Paradise 

These welthy men do seme to want, thei seme to want y most thei haue 
The more postes, y more thei craue, the more thei craue y greater store 
That moste thei haue, thei thinke but skant, 
Yet not content, wo be therefore, 5 

The simple men that lesse wealth haue, with lesser wealth we se contet, 
Content are thei twixt wealth and scath, a life to lead indifferent. 
And thus of wealth these men haue more, 
Then those of whiche we spoke before. 

FINIS. W.Hunnis. 10 

[i i j.] Bethinking hym self of his ende, writeth thus. 

WHen I beholde the baier, my laste and postyng horsse, 
That bare shall to the graue, my vile and carren corsse. 
Then saie I seely wretche, why doest thou put thy truste, 
In thyngs eithe made of claye, that sone will tourne to duste, 15 

Doest thou not see the young, the hardie and the faire, 
That now are paste and gone, as though thei neuer were: 
Doest thou not see thy self, drawe hourly to thy laste, 
As shafts whiche that is shotte, at birds that flieth faste. 

Doest thou not see how death, through smiteth with his launce, 20 

Some by warre, some by plague, and some with worldlie chaunce: 
What thyng is there on yearth, for pleasure that was made, 
But goeth more swifte awaie, then doeth the Sommer shade. 

Loe here the Sommer floure, that sprong this other daie, 
But Winter weareth as faste, and bloweth cleane awaie: 25 

Euen so shalt thou consume, from youth to lothsome age, 
For death he doeth not spare, the prince more then the page. 

Thy house shall be of claie, a clotte vnder thy hedde, 
Vntill the latter daie, the graue shall be thy bedde: 

Vntill the blowyng trumpe, doeth saie to all and some, 30 

Rise vp out of your graue, for now the ludge is come. 
FINIS. L.Vaux. 





The Taradise ofdaintie deuises. 

[i 14.] Written upon the death of his especial/ good friend Maister lohn Barnabie y 

who departed this life at Bensted in the countie of Southampton 

25. lanuary. 1579. ALtatis. 78. 

71/TIne owne good father thou art gone thine eares are stopt w clay 5 

Thy gost is fled, thy body dead, thou hearste not what I say. 
Thy dearest friends may sigh & sobb, thy children cry and call, 
Thy wife may waile and not preuaile, nor doe thee good at all. 
Though reason would we should reioyce, & trickling teares restraine, 
Yet kindlynes and friendlynes, enforce vs to complaine. 10 

Thy life was good our losse the more, thy presence cherd our hart, 
Thy lacke and absence turnd therefore, our solace into smart. 
I found thee both a kindly friend, and friendly father too, 
JSarnafatC lacks breath, cruel death & couldst thou part vs two. 
But death derides my wo full words, & to my saying saith, 15 

Thou foolish wight I did but right, I force nor friend nor faith. 
The Lord of life & Lord of death, my threatning hand did let, 
Els when y he in cradell lay, I might haue claimd my debt. 
His corps is clad in cloddes of earth, his soule doth soore on hie, 
Before the throne of God aboue, whose seruaunt he did die. 20 

And thou his friend & she his spouse, and they his children shall, 
Behold the father friend and mate, whose absence greeues you all. 
But he nor can, nor will returne to thee to her or them, 
For heauen is his, he Hues in blisse, ye dwell with mortall men. 
Ye dwell in darke & dreadfull denne in prison pent are yee, 25 

He Hues in light, and all delight, from thraldome franke and free. 
Wishe not that he should come to you for then you doe him wrong, 
But wishe that ye may goe to him, the blessed saintes among. 



The "Paradise 

[115.] No ioy Comparable to a quiet minde. 

lothsome race pursued by slippery life, 
J Whose sugred guile doth glistering ioy present: 

The carefull ghost oppressed sore with strife, 5 

Yeeldes ghostly grones from painefull passions sent. 
The sinfull flesh that beares him here in vewe, 
In steede of life doth dreadfull death pursue. 

The way he seeth by touche of merites grace, 

Wherein to runne alas he gladly would: 10 

But filthy fleshe his wretched dwelling place, 

Doth so rebell at that which doe he should. 

That silly soule who feeles his heauie neede, 

Can onely will but naught performe in deede. 

The will through grace doth oft desire the good, 15 

But all in vaine for that the fleshly foe: 

Yeeldes forth such fruites as sinnes hath bred in bud, 

And blindly suckes the sapp of deadly woo. 

Esteeming showes of fickell fancies knowen, 

And scorning fruite by grace, eternall so wen. 20 

Though eye doth see that death doth swallow all, 

Both life and lust and euery sound delight: 

Yet wretched fleshe through sinne is made so thrall, 

That nought it markes apparent thinges in sight. 

That might him traine, to care of better grace, 25 

Both doth his bale with greedy lust imbrace. 

Then sins desert and all things weare away, 
That nought remaine but fruite of grace or sinne: 
God build in vs such conscience as can say, 

This fruite not mine but sinne that dwelt me in. 30 

For why to sinne I dayly do in sight, 
That vnto Christ I may reuiue my spright. 
FJNJS. q>.Candish. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

[116.] A Complaint. 

TF Cressed in her gadding moode, 
Had not gone to the greekish hoste: 

Where she by Diomede was woode, 5 

And wonne from him that loude her most. 
She had not fallen to such mischeefe, 
Nor turned froylus to such greefe, 

Nor Diomede had not vpbrayed, 

To worthy Troy/us, Cressed spoyle. 10 

Nor these two worthies had not frayed. 

So oft ech others fame to foyle: 

If Catterwaling Cressed coy, 

Had taried with her loue in Troy. 

No Troians foe, nor cruell Greike, 15 

Had triumphte ouer her good name: 

If she had not gone forth to seeke, 

The Campe where women winne no fame, 

She had bene calde no common Gill, 

If she in Troy had tarry ed still. 20 

She had not knowne the Lazars call, 

With Cuppe and Clap her almes to winne: 

Nor how infectiue scabbe and scall, 

Do cloth the Lepre Ladies skinne, 

She had no such distresse in froy, 25 

But honour, fauour, wealth, and ioy. 

Howbeit she could not tarry there, 

But needes forsooth a gadding go, 

To feele the tast of Straungers chere, 

Nise noueltie lo prickt her so. 30 

She could not hold where she was well, 

But strayed and into ruin fell. 


The Taradise 

I pleasure not to blaze her blame. 

Nor chiding cannot mend her mis: 

But all good women by her shame, 

May learne what Catterwaling is. 5 

For wandring women, most men say, 

Cannot be good and goe astray. 

It is not womens excercise, 

To straye or gadde in field or towne: 

Men count them neyther good nor wyse, 10 

They blot and blemish their renowne. 

They hurt their fame, they please their foe, 

And greeues their friend to see them so. 

FINJS Troylus. 

[117.] A Reply e. 15 

gadding moode, but forced strife, 
Compelled me retyre from Troy: 
If froylus would haue vowde his wife, 
We might haue dwelt in former ioy. 

No Diomede nor greekish wight, 20 

Had sought my blame or his despight. 

If ought the feeble force of mine, 

Could haue withstood the Kingly heast, 

If flowing fluds of stilled rine, 

Had pittie found in Troians brest, 25 

I had not bene Antenors prise, 

Nor thus bene thrall to noted vise. 

The blome of blame had not bine spread, 

The seede of shame had not bine sowne: 

If Knightly prowes his minde had lead, 30 

By rightfull force to keepe his owne. 

I had not thralled bine to ill, 

If he in Troy had kept me still. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

My heauie hart and dolefull case, 

Which craues your pi tie not your spight: 

Full well you know hath had no place, 

If he had garded well his right. 5 

I see your curtesie small, your store, 

That blaze my plague to make it more. 

You say in Troy I woulde not bee, 

With gadding minde you charge me still: 

When well you knowe that hie decree, 10 

Did send me forth against my will. 

Sith thus you triumph at my fall, 

Ye ought to tell the cause withall. 

If nought you ioy to blaze my blame, 

You woulde not hunt for termes of spight, 15 

Nor faine me cause of all the same, 

Small honour wonne in such a fight. 

For they that noble minded bee, 

Will rue the case and pittie mee. 

I well allowe your finall clause, 20 

To gadde and runne doth blot the name, 

But lay the fault vnto the cause, 

And graunt him gilthy of the same. 

Who bred the bud that pleased my foe, 

That greeued my friendes and hurt me soe. 25 

FJNJS. Cressida. 
[118.] A description of the world. 

rrrHat is this world, a net to snare the soule, 

' ' A mas of sinne, a desert of deceite, 

A momentes ioy, an age of wretched dole, 30 

A lure from grace, for flesh a lothsome bayre. 

Vnto the minde a canker worme of care, 

Vnsure, vniust, in rendring man his share. 


The Taradise 

A place where pride orerunnes the honest minde, 

Where rich men ioynes to robbe the shiftlesse wretch, 

Where bribing mistes doe blinde the Judges eyes, 

Where Parasites the fattest crums do catch, 5 

Where good desartes which chalenge like reward, 

Are ouer blowne with blastes of light regard, 

And what is man? dust, slime, a puffe of wynde, 

Conceaude in sinne, plaste in the world with greefe, 

Brought vp with care, till care hath caught his minde, 10 

And then till death vouchsafe him some releefe. 

Day, yea nor night, his care doth take an ende, 

To gather goods for other men to spende. 

Oh foolish man that art in office plaste, 

Thinke whence thou camste, and whether thou shalt'go, 15 

The haute hie Okes, small windes haue ouercast, 

When slender weedes in roughest weather groe, 

Euen so pale death oft spares the wretched wight, 

And woundeth you, who wallow in delight. 

You lusty youthes that nourish hie desire, 20 

Abase your plumes, which makes you looke so bigge, 

The Collyers Cut the Courtiers Steede will tyre, 

Euen so the Clarke, the parsons graue doth digge, 

Whoso happe is yet here long life to winne, 

Doth heape God wot, but sorrow vpon sinne. 25 

And to be short, all sortes of men take heede, 

The Thunderboltes the lofty towers tare, 

The lightning flashe consumes the house of Reede, 

Yea more in time all earthly thinges will weare, 

Saue only man, who as his earthly time is, 3 

Shall Hue in woe, or else in endlesse blisse. 



ofdaintie deuises. 

[119.] Being in Loue y he complaineth. 

91/Y haute desyre, to hye that seeketh rest, 

My feare to find, where hope my help should giue, 

My sighes and plaintes sent from vnquiet brest, 5 

The hardned hart that will not truth beleeue, 
Bids me dispayre, and Reason saith to me, 
Forsake for shame, the sute that shameth thee, 

But when mine eyes behold the alluring cayes, 

Which only me to Cupids spoyle haue trainde, 10 

Desyre a new doth worke his wonted wayes, 

Thus shall I freeze, and yet I frye in payne, 

quenchlesse fyre to quayle and quick agayn. 

Such is the flame, where burning loue doth last, 

As hye ne low can beare with reasons bitte, 15 

And such is loue, wherein is setled fast, 

That naught but death can ease his feruent fitte, 

Then cannot I, nor loue will me forsake, 

Sweete is the death, that faithfull loue doth make, 

FINIS. M. Edwardes. 20 

[i 20.] \An Epitaph vpon the death ofsyr William Drury> Knight, Lord Justice 
and Gouernour of Yreland, deceased at Waterford the 
thyrd of October. An. Do. 1579. 

^N place where wantes Apollo with his Lute, 

J There peeuish Pan may prease to pipe a daunce, 25 

Where men of skill and learned Clarkes are mute, 
There Fooles may prate, and hit the truth perchaunce, 
Why spare I then to speake, when all are mumme, 
And vertue left forgot in time to come. 

Giue pardon then to him that takes in hande, 30 

Though neuer taught with Poets pen to write, 

Will yet presume, to let you vnderstand, 

No straunge euent, although a sieldome sight, 

Which late I saw, a dolefull tale to tell. 

And followeth thus, then marke how it befell. 35 


The Taradise 

I saw Report in mourning weede arayde, 

Whose blubbered eyes bewray de some secret greefe, 

Besprent with teares, with sighes and sobbes he sayd, 

You martiall wights abandone all releefe, 5 

Come wayle with me, whose losse is not alone, 

When you your selues haue greatest cause to mone. 

For Drurie he, the choyse of all your trayne, 

Your greatest guyde, and lampe of clearest light, 

The only man Bellona did retayne, 10 

Her Champyon chefe, and made syr Mars his knight. 

Euen he is now bereaued of his breath, 

Tis you, tis you, may most lament his death. 

Then might I see, a warlik crew appeare, 

Came marching on with weapons traylde on ground, 15 

Their outward show bewrayde their inward cheare, 

Their droms and tromps did yeeld a dolefull sound, 

They marched thus in sad and solemne sort, 

As men amasde to heare this late Report. 

And in the midst of this their heauy muse, 20 

I might perceiue in sight a worthy Dame, 

Who by her speech and tenure of her newes, 

I knew her well, and saw twas Lady Fame. 

With Tromp in hand, and thus me thought she sed, 

You worthy wights, your Drurie is not dead. 25 

He liueth he, amongst the blessed route, 

Whose noble actes hath purchaste endlesse fame: 

Whylste world doth last, no time shall weare him out, 

Nor death for all his spight abridge his name, 

But Drurie still for euer shall remayne, 3 

His Fame shall Hue, in Flaunders, Fraunce, and Spayne. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

The Germanes eke, Italyans, and the rest, 

Can well discourse of Druries deedes at large, 

With whome he serude, a Champyon ready prest, 

At all assaultes, the formost to giue charge, 5 

In many a fraye, himselfe he did aduaunce, 

Tweene Charles of Rome, and Henrie King of Fraunce. 

In vayne to vaunt, the credite he attaynde, 

In natiue soyle, where he was knowne so well, 

And Brute hath blowne, what glory he hath gaynde, 10 

In Scotish Land, where they themselues can tell, 

In Edenbrough he wan there Mayden tower, 

By fyrst assault, perforce the scotishe power. 

But Ireland thou, thou thrise accursed soyle, 

Thy luck is losse, thy fortune still withstoode, 1 5 

What mischiefe more, to worke thy greater spoyle, 

Then losse of him that ment thee greatest good, 

Yet canst thou say, syr Druries noble name, 

In Ireland still shall bide in lasting fame. 

Wherefore you worthy wightes, leaue of to wayle, 20 

Your Drury liues, his fame for aye shall last, 

His vertues byde, though wretched lyfe do fayle, 

And taking then her Tromp, she blewe a blast, 

Which sounded more his prayse, then I can write, 

Or with my tongue expresse in order right. 25 

Then might I heare the Souldyers giue a shoute, 

The sounde whereof, redounded in the skie, 

Great ioy was made amongst the armed route, 

With streined throtes then all at once they cry, 

He liues, he liues, our Drurie is not deed, 30 

His vertues rare, by Fame shall still be spread. 

The ^Paradise 

In order then, themselues they did retire, 

Their weapons vaunst, with Ensignes braue displayde, 

What would you more? Report is made a Iyer, 

Syr Drurie Hues, sufficeth what is sayde. 

What though his Corpes entombed be in clay, 

His vertues shyne, that neuer shall decay. 

Viuit postfuncera virtus. 

By Barnabe Ritche. Gent. 




The Taradise ofdaintie deuises. 

[121.] Golden precepts. 

I Erhaps you think me bolde that dare presume to teache, 
As one y runns beyond his race, & rowes beyond his reach, 
Sometime the blinde doe go, where perfect sights doe fall, 5 

' The simple may sometimes instruct, the wisest heads of al. 

If needefull notes I giue, that vnto vertue tend, 
Me thinkes you should of right, vouchsafe your listning eares to lend: 
A Whetstone cannot cut, yet sharpes it well we see, 
And I though blunt, may whet your skils, if you attentife bee. 10 

First these among the rest, I wish you warely heede, 
That God be seru'd, your prince obayed, & freends releeu'd at neede: 
Then looke to honest thrift, both what and how to haue, 
At night examine so the day, that bed be thought a graue. 

Seeke not for others goods, be iust in worde and deede, 15 

For got with shiftes, are spent with shame, beleeue this as thy creede 
Boste not of Natures giftes, nor yet of parents name, 
For Vertue is the onely meane, to winne a worthy fame. 

Ere thou doest promise make, consider well the ende, 
But promise past be sure thou keepe, both with thy foe and freende: 20 
Threat not reuenge to much, it shewes a crauens kinde, 
But to preuaile, and then forgiue, declares a noble minde. 

Forget no freendships debt, wish to requite at least, 
For God and man, yea all the world, condems the vngratefull beast: 
Beare not a frendly face, with hart of ludas kisse, 25 

It shewes, a base and vile conceipt, and not where valure is. 

Flye from a faunyng flurt, and from a coggyng mate, 
Their loues breedes losse,their prayse reproch,their fredship breeds but hate, 
Seeke not to loose by wiles, that law and duetie bindes, 
They be but helpes of Banckrupts heads, and not of honest myndes. 30 

The motions of the flesh, and Collers heate restraine, 
For heapes of harmes do dayly hap, where lust or rage doth raigne: 
In diet, deede and wordes, a modest meane is best, 
Inough sufficeth for a feast, but riot findes no rest. 

The Taradise 

And so to make an end, let this be borne away: 
That vertue alwayes be thy guide, so shalt thou neuer stray. 


[122.] 1f/ prayse of the Snayle. 

TpHe deepe turmoyled wight, that Hues deuoyde of ease, 

Whose wayward wittes are often found, more wauering then the seas : 
Seekes sweete repose abroad, and takes delight to rome, 
Where reason leaues the Snayle for rule, to keepe a quiet home. 

Leape not before thou looke, lest harme thy hope assayle, 
Hast hauocke makes in hurtfull wise, wherfore be slow as Sayle: 
Refrayne from rash attempt, let take heede be thy skill, 
Let wisedome bridle brainsicke wit, and leasure worke thy will. 

Dame reason biddes I say, in thynges of doubt be slacke, 
Lest rashnesse purchase vs the wrong, that wisedome wills vs lacke: 
By rashnesse diuers haue bene deadly ouercome, 
By kindly creepyng on like Snayle, duke Fabe his fame hath wonne. 

Though some as swift as haukes, can stoope to euery stale, 
Yet I refuse such sodayne flight, and will seeme slow as Snayle: 
Wherefore my prety Snaile, be still and lappe thee warme, 
Saue enuies frets mauger their fumes, thers few shall do thee harme. 

Because in some respect, thou holdes me to be wise, 
I place thee for a Presedent, and signe before mine eyes: 
Was neuer any yet, that harme in thee could find, 
Or dare auow that euer Snaile, wrought hurt to humaine kinde. 

I know dame Phisicke doth, thy friendly helpe implore; 
And crau's the salue from thee ensues, to cure the erased sore: 
Sith Phisicke then alowes, the vertues in degree, 
In spight of spight I weare thee still, that well contenteth me. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

[123.] \A young Gentleman willing to trauell into jorreygne partes 

being intreated to state in England: Wrote 


seekes the way to winne renowne, 
Or flieth with winges of high desire 
Who seekes to weare the Lawrell crowne, 
Or hath the minde that would aspire, 
Let him his natiue soyle eschewe 
Let him goe range and seeke anewe. 10 

Eche hautie heart is well contente, 
With euery chaunce that shall betide, 
No happe can hinder his intent. 
He steadfast standes though Fortune slide: 

The Sunne^aith he doth shine aswell 15 

Abroad as earst where I did dwell. 

In chaunge of streames each fish can Hue, 
Eache fowle content with euery ayre: 
The noble minde cache where can thriue, 

And not be drownd in deepe dispayre: 20 

Wherefore I iudge all landes alike 
To hautie heartes that Fortune seeke. 

To tosse the Seas some thinkes a toyle, 
Some thinke it straunge abroad to rome, 

Some thinke it griefe to leaue their soyle 25 

Their parentes, kinsfolkes, and their home. 
Thinke so who list, I like it not, 
I must abroad to trye my Lott. 

Who lust at home at carte to drudge 

And carcke and care for worldly trashe: 30 

with buckled shooe let him goe trudge, 
In stead of launce a whip to swash. 
A minde thats base himselfe will showe, 
A carrion sweete to feede a Crowe, 


The Taradise 

If lason of that minde had binne, 
Or wandring Prince that came from Greece 
The golden fleece had binne to winne, 

And Pryams Troy had byn in blisse, 5 

Though dead in deedes and clad in clay, 
Their woorthie Fame will nere decay. 

The worthies nyne that weare of mightes, 
By trauaile wanne immortall prayse: 

If they had liued like Carpet knightes, 10 

(Consuming ydely) all their dayes, 
Their prayses had with them bene dead, 
where now abroad their Fame is spread. 

[124.] A wittie and pie as aunt consaite. ' 15 

fonde delight, what fancies straunge, 
what deepe despight, what sodaine chaunge: 
what stilling strife, what deepe debates, 
Doe runne so rife, in doltishe pates. 

Who vewes and sees, and takes no heede, 20 

who seekes degrees, and can not speede: 
In steade of ioyes, shall reape such woes, 
As breed annoyes, twixt frendes and foes. 

who wiuing wantes, and Hues alone, 

when thriuing scantes, is ouerthrowne: 25 

who seekes to thriue, and finde no way, 
May chaunce to striue, and marre the play. 

who spendes his wealth, and winnes the wine, 
Doth hurt himselfe, and helpe the swine: 

who hauntes the house, where Ale is sold, 30 

May gayne a croust, and lose his gold. 


ofdaintie deuises. 

Who spinnes by spight, and reeles to woe, 
Who takes delight, in roling so: 
Doth dubbe himselfe, a drousie hedde, 
And bringes drousie foole to bedde. 5 

Who rides a loft, and cannot rule, 
Who sitts not soft, and keepes his stoole: 
Doth both content, themselues with wrong, 
But wisemen will not vse it long. 

FINIS. I.H. 10 

[125.] Maister Edwardes his I may not. 

TN may by kinde Dame Nature wills, all earthly wights to sing, 
In may the new and coupled foules, may ioy the liuely spring: 
In May the Nightingall, her notes doth warble on the spray, 
In May the birdes their mossie neastes, doe timber as they may. 15 

In May the swift and turning Hare, her bagged belly slakes, 
In May the little sucking Watts, doe plaie with tender Flaxe: 
All creatures may, in Maie be glad, no may can me remoue, 
I sorrow in May, since I may not, in May obtaine my loue. 

The stately Harte in Maye doth mue, his olde and palmed beames, 20 
His state renewes in May, he leapes to view Appollos streames: 
In Maie, the Bucke his horned toppes, doth hang vpon the pale, 
In Maie, he seekes the pastures greene, in ranging euery Dale. 
In Maie, the vgley speckled Snake, doth cast her lothsome skinne, 
In Maie, the better that he may increase his scaley skinne: 25 

All thinges in May I see, they may reioyce like Turtle doue, 
I sorrow in Maie since I may not, in May obtayne my loue. 

Now may I mourne in fruitfull Maie, who may or can redresse, 
My male is sorrow since she that may, with holdes my maie a freshe: 
Thus I must may in pleasaunt Maie, till I may May at will, 30 

with her in Maie, whose may my life, now may both saue and spill. 

The Taradise 

Contented heartes that haue your hope, in May you may at large, 
Vnfolde your ioyes, expell your cares, and baske in pleasure barge: 
Saue I alone in Male, that may lament for my behoue, 
I mourne in Maie, till that I may, in May obtaine my loue. 5 


[126.] 'The complaint of a sorrowful/ Souk. 

f\ Soueraigne salue of sinne, who doest my soule behold, 

That seekes her selfe from tangling faultes, by striuing to vnfold, 
What plea shall I put in, when thou doest Summons send: 10 

To iudge the people of the yearth, and giue the world and end, 
When euery deede and worde, yea euery secret thought, 
In open vewe of all the worlde, shall vnto light be brought. 

So many Judges shall against me sentence giue, 

As by example of good woorkes, hath taught how I should Hue: 15 

So many pleaders shall confound my carefull case, 
As haue in one by sound aduise, sought to engraft by grace. 
So manie shall that time, against me witnesse beare, 
As haue beheld my fruitlesse faith, and saw my sinnes appeare. 

Whereon whils I do muse, in my amazed minde, 20 

Froward thoughts, familiar foes, most fiers assaults I finde: 
My conscience to my face, doth flatlie me accuse, 
My secret thoughts within my eares, do whisper still these newes. 
Mine auarice and briberie, rtiy pride doth bragge me downe, 
Mine enuie frets me like a file, at other folks renowne. 25 

Concupiscence inflames, and lusts my limmes infect, 
My meat doth burthen, and my drinke my weaknesse doth detect: 
My slanders rend my fame, ambition doth supplant, 
My greedinesse is not content, but makes me waile for want. 
My mirth but flatterie is, my sorrowes are vnkinde, 30 

Sith pleasures runne me out of breath, and greefs suppresse my minde. 

ofdaintie deuises. 

Behold my God, whose might, male me a freeman make, 
These were my freends, whose counsels curst, I was content to take: 
These were the lawlesse Lords, whom I did serue alwaie, 
These were the maisters whose madde hests, I did too much obaie 5 

Behold my faults most foule, which follie first did frame, 
In louing them I should haue loathed, whens breedeth all my bane. 

Now I do looke aloft, with bashful blushing face, 
On glorie thine, that so I maie discerne my owne disgrace 
My manie spots and great, must needs encrease my gilt, 10 

Vnlesse thou wash them in the bloud, that for my sake was spilt. 
Forgiue the faults O Lord, which I from hart repent, 
And graunt my daies to come, maie be in thy sweet seruice spent. 

FINIS. I.Heiwood. 

[127.] ^Alluding his state to the prodigall child. 15 

e wandring youth, whose race so rashlie runne, 
Hath left behinde, to his eternall shame: 
The thriftlesse title of the Prodigall sonne, 
To quench, remembraunce of his other name. 

Mate now deuide, the burthen of his blame, 20 

with me, whom wretchlesse thoughtes entised still: 
To tread the trackt of his vnruly will. 

He tooke his childes part, at his fathers handes, 
Of Gods free grace, his giftes I did receiue: 

He traueld farre, in many forraigne landes, 25 

My restlesse minde, would neuer raging leaue. 
False queanes did him, of all his coine bereaue, 
Fonde fancies stuft my braine with such abuse: 
That no good hap could seeke to any vse. 


The Taradise 

They draue him out, when all his pense was spent. 
My lustes left me, when strength with age was worne, 
He was full fayne, a Fermars hoggs to tent: 

My life misled, did reape deserued scorne, 5 

Through hunger huge, wherewith his trips were torne, 
He wisht for swaddes, euen so wisht I most vayne, 
In fruitlesse pleasure, fondly to remayne. 

Now to come home with him, and pardon pray, 

My God I say, against the heauens and thee, 10 

I am not worthy, that my lippes should say: 
Behold thy handie worke, and pitie me, 
Of mercy yet my soule, from faultes set free. 
To serue thee here, till thou appoint the time, 
Through Christ, vnto thy blessed ioyes to climbe. 15 

FINIS. LHeiwood. 




THE following list includes all the unmistakable misprints in the texts of the 
nine Elizabethan editions of the Paradise, and all the important variations in 
the other Elizabethan editions from the specific text that I have reprinted, 
especially all the actual variants in diction. Mere orthographical differences, 
unless they are unusual, are not noticed. The list does not, of course, enumer- 
ate cases of broken type (unless they obscure the identity of the words in 
question) or, except in a very few cases, of words and letters that have slipped 
out of alignment; nor does it note any but the more obvious of those doubtful 
cases in which a letter may appear to be c or u but is more probably a broken 
e or an inverted n. No notice is taken of differences in punctuation (to do 
this would require a whole volume), or in capitalization except in some special 
cases, or in typography and faulty spacing (unless, as at 36.14, a change of 
type implies a misprint, or unless, as at 5.24 or 6.25, a hiatus is unmistakable). 
Nor is any attempt made (except in the case of duplicate numbers, as at 21.2, 
25.17, 26.25, etc., and in a few cases of obvious misprints, like those at 17.22, 
28.7, 41.2, 55.27, 105.7, 21) to readjust the defective numbering of poems or 
folios, or the faulty signature-lettering, in any edition except the first. 
The nine editions are represented by italic capital letters, as follows: 

A = 1576 D = 1585 G = 1596 (undated) 

B = 1578 E = 1590 (?) H = 1600 

C=i58o ^=1596 7 =1606 

According to the system I have used, a reading followed by C occurs in the 
edition of 1580 only; if followed by JS+ or 57, it occurs in all the editions 
from 1578 to 1606; if followed by BCF + or BCF-I, it occurs in the editions 
of 1578, 1580, and those from 1596 to 1606. Thus, an entry like "renuing is 
B+" indicates that renuing is is the reading, but not necessarily the exact 
spelling, in all the editions from 1578 to 1606 inclusive. 

The editor regrets the length to which the collations of the nine texts have 
run. He trusts, however, that students and scholars will recognize the neces- 
sity and the value of these collations, and will understand that making them 
was a duty, not a pleasure. 

The figures refer to pages and lines of the text. 

3. i To] fib DE: 1-4.23 om. F+ 

6 J] I throughout B-E (but there the text is in roman type, not italic) 
8 small volume] smale volnme B 

10 Gentlemen] Gentlmen E: 10-11 togeather] togither C, together DE 

1 1 trauell] trauaile C-E 
13 since] sine B 

15 my] of my DE 


3. 17 them] this E 

12 accounted] accornpted B, accoumpted DE 

4. 2 ditties] dittis B 

3 aswell] as wel B-E 

6 .5.] fiue DE 

7 instrument] Instruements E 

8 consydering] considring E: purposed] porposed B 

10 it] Om. C-E 

1 1 aucthours] authours BCE: sake] sakes DE 

21 L.] Lordshyp DE 

22 good] Om. E 

23 D] Dizle DE 

5. i i.] No number in A-\- 

2 Saint] S. B+\ Barnards] Bernardes D, Barnardes FG (s upside down) 

4 wayfaring] wauering F+ 

5-6, 13-14, etc. D-G indent the italic lines throughout the piece, but E-G depart 
from the rule at 5.5-6 and 6.26-27: 5 cuius, prosperitas] Last s in each up- 
side down in FG: ?] Upside down in A 

6 eius] s upside down in FG: vasa] vasi H+: figuli] figula B: quae] 
que BC 

7 WHY] AHy E 

10 perpetuall to remayne] perpetual! to r e maine F y perpet uall to rem aine G 

1 1 as] as an F-\- : earthen] yearthen D 

12 fortunes] Fortune EFG 

13 litteris] s upside down in FG: glacie] glacia B: vanae fallaciae] venae 
fallabiae B y vanae fallasiae C 

14 Fall ax] Fall sax B: premijs] praemiis D, prsemijs E-H, prsemjis /: 
virtutis] vertutis B: quae] que BC: nunquam] nunqnam /: fidu- 
ciae] fiducie C 

18 fond] fo d E: falsheds] falshed B, falshoodes E+ 

20 neuer] Om. D-G 

21 Magis] s upside down in FG 

22 Falsis] Falcis E-H: insanijs, voluptatibus] Last s in each upside down in 
FG: falsis quoquae] falsisque D/, falisque E-H 

23 trifeling] trifely D: truethles] truthles B-DF+ 

24 highest] high est / 

26 conceytes] conceiptes D 

27 to artes] toartes F 

6. 2 Die vbi] Dick vbi , Dicvbi /: Salomon] Salomon D, Salomon / (both 

capitals are upside down): Samson] Sampson B-\- 

3 pulcher] purcher C: Absolon] Absoln B 

4 the J ] that HI 

5 Whose] Who C 

6 Samson] Sampson B+: Line closely trimmed in G 

7 Line entirely cut of in G: cause] case 7 

10 diues, totus] s upside down in FG: splendidus] splendibus E-H 

1 1 clarus] clarius D, claris E-H: Aristoteles] Aristotelus D, Aristotilus E-H 

12 Caesar] C<rsar A: renowmed] renowned C+ 

15 chest] Chist E+ 

18 vermium] verminum FG: extolleris] s upside down in FG 

1 9 eras] s upside down in FG: diu poteris] One word in D 
21 sunne] soone CD 

24 dost] doest C-GI 


6. 25 Most] M ost 7: in] to BC 

26 This line and the next should be indented in EG: Quam] Quern D-H 

27 Quse] Que B: prsemia] primia E-H: ad] at C: deuia] eruia B 

28 renowme] renowne B+ 

29 shadowe] shadowes D+: thinne] thine BC 

7. 2 endles] enlesse B 

4 faeni] foeni D+ 

5 leue] leui D-}-: hominem] hominum B+ 
8 dooth] doeth FG: or] a + 

1 1 is '] is the 7 

13 [2.] M? WWOT^ in A, 5. 5+ : I] J C 

1 6 perfect] pefect C 

17 theffect] the effect 7 

21 foe] foes 7 
23 lose] loose 7 

25 leaue] Hue 7)+ 

26 yf you] ifyou FG 

28 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS // 

8- i [3-] M? number in A, 3. B+ : faythfull] Om. E+ 

2 Poem arranged as seven long lines in B-\- 

5 Not] uot C: sclender] slender C+ 

10 Not] No BC: prisons] prisoners Z? + 
16 Finis,] FINIS. M. BCE+, FINIS 1 . M. D 

1 1 [4-] No number in A, 12. B+ : some] Om. E+ 

1 8 First line of each stanza indented in D, first and the last two lines in E+ 
20 tast] tost B 

22 Were] Where D+ 

23 Who would] Would 7 

24 vnsure] vsurie HI 

25 flee] flit BC, flie D+ 
31 match t] match BC 

36 Finis] FJNJS C: E. S.] W. R. BC, W. Hunis D-GI, W. //unnis # 
9. I Fol.] T'A/j /j the only instance of its use in A; in B it is repeated with each f oho 
number to Fol. 25, in C throughout 

2 [5-] J - ^+ : ar e] are but Z)-h 

3 First line of each stanza indented in D: the 2 ] t he 7 

5 blowen] blowne C-f-: that] th t F y and in G the a is very faint: Lines 
5-6 are indented in A only 

6 to] to co 7: past] p st F, and in G the a is very faint 

7 Haue] H ue F (a. blurred out): vayne] vaino FG 

8 maist] maiest B, shalt C-f- 

9 thy x ] the E+ 

10 aske] as ke AB 

1 1 earth] yearth D 

12 also from] alsofrom 7 
1 6 Shall] Shall I 

1 8 mowen] mowne HI: neuer more] euermore F+ 

19 FINIS] FJNJS C, FINIS FG: D. S.] D. ,S- ^, W. Hunis 

20 [6.] 2. yf, 6.5-f-: Edwardes] s upside down in E 

21 Stanzas indented in D-G 

22 bird streines] birdstrains 7 

23 thorne] throne B 

24 which] with E+ 


9. 27 probably should not be indented in H 
28 limme] linnne A 
31 whyles] whilst HI 

10. 6 whyles] while E~\- 

8 Finis] FINIS. M. Edwardes 5D+, FJNJS. M. Edwardes C 

9 C7-] 3- ^> 7- ^+ : make] makes EFG: fooles] s upside down in I 

10 Stanzas indented in D+: In] Jn BC 

1 1 sclender] slender D4- 

12 askt] aske C, asked D+: knee] knnee B 
15 to] t f + 

17 qd] quoth D-G, //, quod / 

1 8 counsell] connsell A 

21 shoes] shewes B-\- 

22 desire] desires HI 

23 shiuering] sheuering BC 

26 doeth] doth + 

27 againe, alway] alway againe F-\- : geues] giue C-f- 

28 luckie] Inckie A 

29 whyle] whiles E+ : hotte] whot E y hote HI 

30 in steade] insteede FGH 

31 gapes] gape B (corrected by an old hand to gapes ) 
33 makes] make C-f- 

11. 2 should be indented in HI 

3 growe] grown C-\- 

4 trueth] truth B-DI 

5 with] mith / 

6 no x ] not J9-f 

7 Falkeners] Falkners D+ 

8 should not be indented in FG: woordes be] wodrdes be A , wordesbe F: 
wrought] wrough A 

9 experience] exparience H 

10 M.] FIN/S. M- B, FJNJS M. C, FINIS M. D-H, Finis. M. 7 (s upside 

1 1 [8.] 4. y/, 8. -//, w0 number in I: In] Jn C, n I 

12 First, fifth> and sixth lines of each stanza indented in E-\- 

13 teares] tcares G apparently: head in] headin / 

15 why] Av.hy I 

1 8 betost] be tost FG: In D the indention is wrong either here or at line 24 

19 flee]flye C+ 

23 by] my B+ 

24 should be indented in E-H 
27 betost] be tost E-H 

12. 2 [9.] 5. A, 9. B+: For] Eor DFG 

4 In] Jn C: Chris tes] Last s upside down in I 

5 D indents the first line in each stanza, E+ indent the first line and the last two 
7 day] da y / 

9 mans] man B 
10 saintes] sainctes CDE 

1 6 wandred] wandered E 

21 aucthour] authour B+: all] Om. D-f 

22 should be indented in FG 

23 glorious] Om. HI 

29 Finis] s upside down in I: K] Kindlemarsh J9-G 



T 3- I 5] I n B the figure should be 4 

2 [10.] 6. A y 10. B+: Easter] For Easter B+: day] dcy B 

3 Stanzas arranged as four long lines in B+ y with paragraph indention in D; 
E+ do not divide into stanzas except by making a separate line of this glorious 
day in each case 

6 appesed] appesd B+ 

1 2 corse] corpes E-G, corps HI 

17 needest] needst 7: be] to be D-G 

19 no] not B 

20 the] th' / 

21 vprysen yet] vprised it D, vpraised it E-\- 
30 mayst] mayest D-GI 

34 Finis] FINIS, qoth BC 

14. 2 [ii.]7. Ay 11. B+ 

3 ease] cease F+ 

4 thorough] through B+ 

9 pricking] pinching D, cm. E+ 
13-14, 15-16, 20-21, 22-23 each one line in B-\- 

15 Not] Nor B-\~: precious stone] precious stones EHI 9 precions stones FG 

27 M. Kindlemarsh] F. K. BCE+, F. Kindlemarsh D 

28 [12.] 8. Ay 13. J9-f: shippe] hippe CD (and the S is also upside down) 

30 Stanzas indented in D+ 

31 trueth] truth B-DFG 

15. i dayntie] daintyc FG 
2 oft] ought F+ 

9 oft] ought BCD 

10 eye] eyes E-|- 

1 1 thy] thine HI 

12 oft] ought BCD 

13 tickle] tickling / 

1 6 euer] neuer FG fn scratched out with a pen in G) 

1 8 thy a ]theFG# 

23 wanton] won ton FG 
27 wyll from] will from E 

29 thee] the #C, thce H 

3 1 Of freendship] Offreendship EFGI: comes] come EFG 
33 dooest] doost E-H 

1 6. 2 or] ere /// 

4 boy] body D 

5 vngratefull] ingratefull E+ 

7 wagges with] waggeth with the E+ 
1 1 lose] loose F+ 

14 Finis] FJNJS C: Heywood] //aywood H 

15 [13.] 9. Ay 14. #+: stay] time E+ 

1 6 D indents the first line of each stanza y E+ indent the first one and the last two: 
If] Jf BC: Fortune] Fortune A: tickle] ticekle G 

20 Fortunes] Fortunes A y Fortune E+: sly] flye E+: deseytes] de- 
ceipte Dy deceit E+ 

21 you] thou HI: bide] abide B+ 

22 setled Rocke] setledrocke 7 
26 thinges] thinge BC 

30 deceitfull] deceptfull D 

31 Foitune] Vertue B+ 


1 6 32 fast] ftast E (or the t may be another f): 32-33 should be indented in E-G 

34 Finis] FJNJS C, FIMS FG 
17. i dayntie] Daintyc FG 

2 [14.] 10. A, 15. B+: Promise] Promise FG 

3 D indents the first line of each stanza, E+ indent the first one and the last two: 
In] Jn BC: accompt] account F+ 

4 Among] Emong DE 
8 oft] ought B-E 

12 Aste]Asto+ 

15 O] Of F+ : league] leagues HI 

1 6 is] as 5+ : imployed] imployde E+ 

17 that 2 ] what HI: wonne] doen D, doon FG, done HI 

1 8 destroyed] destroyed G 

19 slaunders] slaunderous + 

20 That] That alwayes B+ 

21 Finis] FJNJS C: R. Hill] R, //ill H 

22 [15.] ii. A, 1 6. B-D, 19. E+ (the 9, which is evidently a 6 upside down, is 
corrected in ink to 6 in F): woordes, deedes] s upside down in AF; so in 
deedes in GH 

23 D+ indent the first line of each stanza, and E+ the last two lines of the three 
full stanzas also 

26 turned] turnd B+ 

29 binde] blind F+ . 

31 should be indented in HI: O faithlesse] Of faithlesse , Oh faithlesse FH, 
Offaithlesse G, h faithlesse / 

32 That] The T is far out of line in I 

34 way] where +: satisfye] satis-fie H 
] 8. 2 hath not] hat hnot / 

3 other hath not] hath not bind B, hath not bine C+ 

4 is] not B+i ought] oft I 
6 of] off E+ 

1 6 lose] loose E-\- 

19 [16.] 12. A, 17. B+: First line of each stanza indented in D, first line and 

last two in E-\- 

20 delayed] dela yed FG 
23 sowe] see B+ 

25 dooth] yoth /: seelly] selly EC, silly D+ 

26 rome] ronne E y runne F+ 

28 dooth] do B-G 

29 of] to FG: the] Om. BC 

30 in vayne] Om. B+ 

19. 2 should be indented in I: dogge] Doog FG 
5 fled] fed B+ 
8 should be indented in HI 

15 losse] holes F+: woonderous] wondrous F+ 

16 fetred] fettered E+ 

17 that] thac A 

18 I]toF+ 

19 lose] loose E-\- . 

22 time] tune C (or the u may be an undotted i, cf. 20. 3J: is] Om. EFG 

23 vnpaid] vnpayed B-H 

26 Finis] FJNJS C 

27 [17.] 13. A, 1 8. +: instabilitie] vnstabilitie E+ 



19. 28 First line of each stanza indented in D, first line and last two in E+ 

29 wandring] wauering E+ 

30 And] & EFG: markt] marke DFHI, make EG 

20. 3 time] Looks more like tune in C,for the dot over the \ is indiscernible (cf. 19.22,) 

5 And] nd/ 

6 repentant] repentance E 

7 aske] as ke AH 

8 daunted] dauuted D 

9 ignorance] igno r aunce D 

10 And] Ind / 

12 trueth] truth B-DHI 

13 should be indented in E and followed by a space before the next stanza 

14 dydst] diddest B-D 

15 in] in the B+: thy] the E+: didst] diddest D 

1 6 wounding] woundiug E 

20 by power, to lyfe] to life by power E+ 

21 of grace] Om. B+-. restorest] restordst F+: to] to perfect D+ 

22 life] selfe HI 

25 gilth] gilt D-//, guilt / 

26 nowe since] nowsince E 

32 Finis] FJNJS C 

21. i deuises] Last s upside down in I 

2 [18.] 14. A, 19. B+ (in E+ it is the second 19): is] in / 

3 in] in in E 

4 D indents the first line of each stanza, E+ indent the first line of each and the 
last two lines of the second and third 

6 conseyte] conceipt D-G, conceit HI 

8 blast] blaze Z?+: rolling] rouing /?+ 

9 Serpent] serpents B-\- 

13 deemed] deem 'd F-{-: spring] spping E 

15 meaning] meauing H 

1 6 is to me] seemes to be B+: 16-17 evidently should be indented in E+ 

17 faithfully] faithfully E 

22 false dissembling] falcee dissmbling G 
25 lose] losse B+ 

27 plainenesse] plainesse FGH 

33 foorth] out B+ 

22. 3 redoundeth] renoundeth B, redouneth E: vnto] to E+ 

5 conscience] consience E 

6 bringes] bring F-\- 

7 fruitelesse] frutilesse E 

9 tryed freendes] tryall soone B-\~ 

11 alway] alwaies E-\- 

12 Finis] FJNJS C: F. K.] F. K. FG 

J 3 [ J 9-] 1 5- ^> 2O - ^?+ (* n D the number stands beside line 14) : aspire] aspiae E 

14 aduaunced] adnanced 7 

15 In B+ the first four lines of each stanza are arranged as two long lines; in E+ 
the title is printed as a single line 

1 6 richesse] riches BCE+ 

17 The] Nhe E: wealthy] earthy 7 

1 8 mainteyne] maintayue B 

19 still,] Perhaps still, in A: 19-20 are imperfectly indented in HI 
21 of franticke] offrantick 7 



22. 22 of] af FG: learning] learning E 
23 trueth] truth B-DHI 

26 is] it C: learninges] learning B-G: fruite] frnit 7 
28 and] and* D 

31 weedes] weedees A 

32 Of learnyng] Oflearning FG 

23. 2, 4, 8, 10 The first letters of each line are cut off in B: 2, 4, 6 The commas at 

ends of lines are badly blurred in A y but all three of them appear in B-D and 

the last two in E+ 

3 souldiers in] souldionrs iu C apparently 
6 skant] skaut B apparently 
9 fraught your] fraught your FG 

13 Learning] lea rning E 

14 K] Kindlemarsh D 

15 [20.] 1 6. yf, 2I.5+ (in D it is the first 11} : flitting] fleeting E+: fyndes] 

s upside down in FG 

1 6 beareth] bearteh C 

17 In J5+ the first four lines of each stanza are arranged as two long lines; in B 
the first few letters of every long line are cut of 

25 flees] flies E+ : about] aboue BC 

26 net] uet B apparently 

28 deceiued] deceiude I: with] by F+ : subtil] snbtil A 

29 Ye] Cut of in B; Yea C+ 

24. 5 Trone] throne + 

11 [21.] 17. A, 22. B+: is] s upside down in I: vnto] to E-\- 

12 D indents the first line of each stanza, E+ indent the first line and the last two: 
our] vur 7 

1 6 should be indented in E 
19 pretendes] pertendes BC 
21 brethren] bretheren FG 

23 these] these H (apparently, or possibly a broken ej 

24 of] in D-r- 

33 man] mau F 

25. 4 Of Freendship] OrTriendship 7 (and perhaps EF): groweth] growes BC, 

commeth E+ 

10-15 In B the first few letters in each line are cut of: 10 man 1 ] man A 
12 That] Th at D: such] with G: freendly] freeudly E 

14 ioyne] ioy E+i me] thee B+ 

1 6 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS FG: K] Kindlemarsh D+ 

17 [22.] 18. A, 23. BC, 2i. a D y 3I. 1 E+: Respise finem] Remember thy ende 
B-Ey Rememper ende FG, Remember the ende HI (the r is curiously defective 
in I) 

1 8 In B+ the first four lines of each stanza are arranged as two long lines; in B the 
first few letters of every long line are cut of 

19 Or, his] Om. EFG: Cresvs] Cressus E+ (last s upside down in I) 

20 Hercules] //ercules H 

25 The] that DE 

26. 3 sitte] sltte A apparently 

6 oft] ought BC 

7 seeldome] sildome H 

10 The] To 7: thing] thinges B+ 
12 that] y E, the F+ 

15 happy] hapyie FG 



26. 23 ende exceedeth] endexceedeth / 
24 Finis] FJNJS C 

2 5 C 2 3-] T 9- ^> 2 4- #+ (*' + # *'* ^ w0^ 24): Z)+ pn/ M* title in one 
line: He] He H: freend] frendes + 

26 effectes] Affectes + 

27 B+ are arranged in stanzas of four long lines: maist] mayest D-G 

28 reason] reasou A 
34 Hues] liuea E 

27. 2 Thy] The E 

3 Thy head] the head E, th yhead FG 

5 shewe thy] sho thy E-H> shothy / 

6 thousand] M. C 
9 The] thy B-H 

10 leue] loue B+: might] migh H: neuer] euer B+ 

11 Nor] or B+: to] might B+: runne] ruune FG apparently: from] 
in B+ 

12 Nor] Or B+ 

17 hartes] hart E+: bond] bonds D: B-\- have two additional stanzas 
signed FINIS. Tho. Churchyard (printed on p. 100 above) 

1 8 Finis] s upside down in I 

*9 C 2 4-] 20 - ^> 2 5- -> 2 7- F+ : F// //tf q/ each stanza indented in D; first y 
fifth, and sixth in E-H; fifth and sixth only in I 

20 lenght] length B+: touche] tonch H: the 2 ] their B+ 

21 f 2 ] and D, & + : battring] battering FG 

22 stope] stoope BE+ 

26 doo] they D+ 

27 aloft] Om. D+ 

28 pursue] present B+: y] that D-G: like] the D+ 

29 case] cause FG: which] that HI 

30 knowen] known -f- 

31 rine] riue AI 

32 if my] ifmy E: turne] torne $+ 

33 had] hath EC, haue D-f 

28. 2 strikes] stricks B: should] must HI 
3 fortunes] Fortunes H 

5 wracked] wrackhed F 

6 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS FG: Edwardes] Ewardes B, Edwardes I (s up- 
side down) 

7 [25.] 21. A, 26. BCE, 28. DHI (in D it is the first 28J, 82 (misprint for 28,) 
FG. you] thou E+ 

8 In] Jn C 

9 whose] whos^ D 

1 1 simple] Obscure in I because of an undotted i and a broken m : eare] care E+ 

12 is] in E-r-: pact] part D+: plainenesse] plainesse FG 

13 stinging] stingiug E 

14 Through] Throngh FI 

1 5 beleeue] belie ue / 

17 eche] cche D apparently: strangers] stiraungers F 

19 dangerous] dangers HI 

21 dayly] daly FG: a trap] atrap G 

22 the] their D+ 

23 sleightes] slightes BCFG, flights EH, f tightes / apparently 

24 To serue] Toserue / 

[us 3 


28. 25 venime] venoume D+ 

26 should crie] shouldcrye E 

28 Finis] FJNJS C: D. S.] D. S. D 

29 [26.] 22. A, 27. BCD, 29. E+: complayneth] complayueth B 

30 If] Jf BC: be] he / 
32 be] is #C 

29. i deuises] Last s upside down in I 
2 sore 2 ] full D-G, made 7/7 

6 woord and deede was] words & deedes were J9+ 

7 from] for + 

8 deserud] deserue 5+ 

9 through '] by + : through 2 ] throgh DH 
10 my 1 ] me 7 

1 5 greefes] greefe E+ : do] dooth F+ 

1 6 Finis] FJNJS C, INIS E 

17 [27.] 23. A, iS.BCD (in D it is the second 28 ), 30. E+ (in E it is the first 


1 8 wherein] whereiu F: finde] ifnde F (with if upside down) 

22 I] to D+ 

23 louing] liuing #-f- 

24 mishappes] mi shaps I 

25 of hell] ofhell FG 

27 Among] Amongst E-\- 

28 pleasure] pleasures /// 

29 cheefe] great B+ 

30 captiue] captaine BF+ 

31 to proue] t proi / (w/uz/ looks like an undotted i is clearly the first half of a 
broken uj 

34 seeged] siedged 7 

35 corse] coarse -f: it] my E+ 

36 carkes] crackes D+ 

37 hop] hope B+: or] of D+: breede] breake D+ 

38 Finis] FIN7S B, FJNJS C: F. M.] In I half of the M is cut off: He] 
The e /j <fc//y blurred in A (see the Notes); in BCE the key-word is 30. Hauing, 
in F+ it is 32. Hauing 

30. 2 [28.] 24. A, 30. B-E (in E it is the second 30,), 32. F+ : Hauing] 7/auing H 

4 mishap] mis hap C 

5 In] Jn BC 

8 make] take D+ 

9 twentie] xx 7 

14 The] Then B+: thus] this B+ 

1 8 fret] feat B+ 

19 as] is F+ 

21 one] ene A 

22 Among] Amongst BCE+, Emongst D: lookes] loke D+: sease] 
cease 7 

25 can not] cannot wel B-\- 
27 were 2 ] weare E 

30 brought] bronght 7 

31 constant] Constance .F+ 

32 should be indented in FG 

33 whele] wh eel 7 

34 raysde] raised B+: height] high B+: greater] Om. E+ 



31. i dayntie] daintyc FG: deuises] Last s upside down in I 
2 my] by B+ 

4 The printer's mark of indention shows plainly in I 

8 vertues] vertnes A: her] hers F+ 

ii [29.] 25. A> 3 1./? CD, 33.+: the] the late 7: Queenes] s upside 

down in AFG 
13 Stanzas indented in D-G 

15 light] life D+ 

1 6 by 3 ] vy H 

1 8 match] match t D+: might] right 7 

21 weeries] weareth F+ 

24 which] that B+ 

25 loue] loues F+ 

27 on] ou C 

28 hartes] he rtes F (only a broken line of the a is left) 
31 waide] wayed D-f: state] st at 7 

33 Finis] FINIS E (S upside down) 

32. i In D this heading falls on the wrong (right-hand) page 

2 [30.] 26. A, 33. CD, 35. E+: His] //is // 

3 Stanzas indented in D-f-: Fraud . . . Fortune] Framd in the front of 
forlorne hope /?-f 

4 to abide] tab ide /?, tabide CD 

5 lodge] lodgde C, lodg'd D-f: lare] lake C, lore F+ 

6 delaide] delayed D-G 

7 sprites] spirits HI 

9 The printer's mark of indention shows plainly in I 
10 and] aud B 

13 found] feund 7 (perhaps a broken o) 

14 this] the D+: ground] gronnd FG 

1 5 evidently should be indented in D: sprites] sprits BC, spirits HI: heauen 
doo] heauedo 7 

1 6 y] the B: to wayle aye woont] aye woont to waile C+: woont] 
woout A (possibly ', but probably a bad n) 

17 doth] doo E+ 

1 8 sea soyle] seasoyle E 

19 in] in the D 

21 Finis] FJNJS C 

22 [31.] 27. A, 34. BCD, 36. E+: Of Fortunes] Offortunes E 

23 Stanzas indented in D-f: passing] passiug FG: lose] loose 7 

24 seas] sea 7 

25 fishe] fiish H 

26 Fortune loe] Fortunel oe 7: bountie] bonntie A, bouutie B 

27 common] connnon AC, commou B: case] cause F+ 

28 in']to+ 

30 casteth at] caste that 7 

33. "2 shee 2 ] shec A (or ehe a broken ej 

4 partiall] parciall D, particall FG 

6 or 1 ] of F+ : men] me E+ 

7 I] I had HI 

10 Finis] FJNJS C 

11 [32.] 28. A, 36. BCD, 37.+: Triumph] Triumpth B: greatest] 
greates B: do beare] dobeare 7 

12 Triumph] triumphs E+ 



33. 13 Stanzas indented in D+ 

14 small and] smalla nd A: vertue] vertues D 
17 In] lu A 

19 aduauncd] aduaunced C+ 

23 haue] hane A 

24 Cresus] Cressus E+ (in H the second s is so broken as to look almost like 1) : 
we] he B+ 

26 his] the I 

30 law doe] fauor B+ 

31 the] t he I 

33 Is] See the note on this line 

34. 2 accompted] accounted HI: Ceasars] Caesers , Caesars C-H y Cesars / 
3 vanquist] vanquest D, vanquisht E+: wrekefull] wreckfull D+ 

7 desires] desire E+: that,] Comma doubtful in A 

8 soueraigne] soneraigne FG 

9 A] An C+ : heauenly] In FG the second e is curiously broken 

10 vertue] vertu E 

1 1 her] er A 

12 shew then vnto] shining into B-G> shining vnto HI 

13 shine] blaze B+ : where] whera E: shrined carkesse] shrinedc ark ass e E 

14 Finis] FIN/S , FJNJS C: Edwardes] s upside down in I 
J 5 [33-] 2 9 ^> 3 6 - > 37- CA 3 8 - -i~ : Stanzas indented in D+ 

16 will be] be , wouldbe /: accompted] accounted F+ 

23 wisedome] wisedeme H 

24 counted] compted DE 
26 aduaunce] aduauce E 
28 sower] sowre / 

31 dissolueth] dissalueth C: masse] mosse E+ 

35. 2 should be indented in FG 

5 That euery] that eurey E 

7 represse] expresse E: presuming] presuming H apparently: will] will F 

10 rules] rule HI: true] trne B 

12 art] ar C (the t is blurred out) 

14 Finis] FJNJS C, FINI*? / 

1 5 [34.] 30 A , 38. 5CZ), 39. E+ : F/rJ/ //* of each stanza indented in D; first, 
fifth, and sixth lines in + 

17 to] Om. BC 

20 daily] dalye FG 

22 sucke] soke B+ 

23 cancred] cankered /: doth] Blurred out in E 

24 can resting] canresting D 

26 there] theoe E: 26, 27 should be indented in E-G 

27 doe] downe B+ 

28 should be indented in DHI 

29 aluring] a luring D+ 

36. 2 worldly] worldy B 

7 And] Aud A : although it] atthough it A, althongh he B 
9 purge] pure E+ 

1 1 to 1 ] so F+ 

13 should be indented in E: shame] shun + 

14 Hill] //ill H 

15 [35.] 31. A y 39. BCD, 40. +: Sundrie men] Sundry men FG, Sundrie- 
men /: affectes] s upside down in AFGI 


36. 1 6 Stanzas indented in D+: In] Jn EC: pleasure] pleasnre A 

17 after] after trauaile B: minde] minn B 

1 8 training] trianing FG 

19 shotte] shaft F+: aright] a right D 
20, 21 apparently should not be indented in E+ 

22 Minerua] Minerna B: in] iu A: chattering] clattering HI: doth] 
Broken beyond recognition in B: aduaunce] a duaunce B 

25 their] in their E: therof] Blurred out in E 

26 ride or trie] trie or ryde C+ 

27 accompt] account BCE+, attempt D 

28 sound] sounds F+: musickes] musickes A 

29 science] sentence C+ 

30 pleasure] pleesure , pleasur e / (a printer s lead fills the space between e and 
the next word): releefe] celeefe B (but probably a broken r) 

32 Musicke] Musicks F+i still] skill HI 

33 That] The /: whirling] whliring A: Spheres] Speres E 

37. 4 Then Fame] Thenfame /: one] an B+ : case] cause HI 

6 Minerua] Mimerua E 

7 geues] giues a B-EHI: sweete] aswecte FG: other] others B+ 

10 releeue] reuiue B+ 

11 solempne] solemne DF-h, sollemne E 

14 Finis] FJNJS C, Finis / fs upside down): Hill] //ill H 

J 5 [j6.] 32.^; 15-38.14 in A only: experience] experience A 

33 in Venus] inV enus A 

38. 2-14 in A only 

J 5 [37-] 33 ^> 41- BCD, 42. E+: sufferance] sufferaunee FG 

17 we see] Om. B-\- 

19 trie] ttie D 

20 panges] pagnes B, pangues CDE: the 2 ] my F-f 

21 where] where FG 

27 would] wonld G: might] Very bad m in E 

28 there] they D-J-: deeme] dee me E 

29 trothe] truth / 

31 needed not] needednot E 

35 It were] If twere FG: deeme me] deememe FG 

36 Finis] Om. BC, Finis / (s upside down): E. S.] L.Vaux B+ 

37 38. Being] 34 Being A 

39. 2 [38.] 34 ^; 2-17 in A only 

3 in] iu A 

1 8 [39-] 35 ^> > number in B; 18-40.33 in AB only: Stanzas indented 
tn B 

19 Remember] Rememher A 

40. 2-33 in AB only: 2 earth aright] yearth a right B 

4 might] wight B 

22 aright] a right 5 

27 dying] dyting A, diyng 5 

29 him] In A an undotted i makes the word look like hun or hnn 

34 B adds FINIS. T. Marshall: 40. All] 36 All ^ 

41. I 27] Should be 33 in A 

2 [4?-] 39'^ (*' ^ 9 " inverted 6), 43. 5+ (;H /? i/ jj the first 43): 
thinges] s upside down in FGI 

3 Z>-// *W*/ the first line in each group of long lines: Although] Al though 
BE, Althongh FG 



41. 5 Time] tune F+ (and in E an undotted \ makes the word look something like 

tune) : againe] agaiue A: to] the E+ 

6 constraind] constrained CD 

7 taste] cast D 

9 should be indented in H: though] thou D, then E+ : Zephirus] 
Zephitus E apparently > Zephirus FG fs upside down) 

10 nature] neuer C+: branch] brance / 

1 1 fruites] frnites /: buds] bushes E+ 

12 Somers] sonnners C apparently 

14 wherein] werin E, wherein 7 

1 5 should not be indented in I 

1 6 Phebus] Phjebus B-D y Phoebus EHI, Phoebus FG 

17 boistrous] boisterous CD 

18 seely] siilly FG, silly EHI: heaues] haues / 

22 doth] doe D-G: woe] woe E apparently 

24 liuelest] liuely JD+: bloud] bioud A 

25 Experience] Erperience C 
27 heauens] heauen F+ 

31 but a] but D, all but F+ 

33 K] Kindlemarshe D+ 

34 [4 1 -] 37 ^> 44- ^~t~ : Gentle woman] Gentlewomam E 

35 Stanzas indented in D-G: I] J EC: faire] f aire FG 

36 siluer] sil uer FG 

37 curtesie] curteous D+ 

42. i 28] Should be 34 in A 
2 the] in D+ 

4 Cousloppe] Couslippe B-H y Co wslip / 

5 and] and the I 

6 should be indented in FG: Woodbines] Woodbine F+ 

7 flowres] flowere F-h 

8 Among] Emong D, Emongst E, amongst F+ * choose] chose D: 
those] these E+ 

9 resembling] re sembling FG; louers] lou ers C 
1 1 skie] skys E 

1 6 kisse] gesse HI 

17 liuely] louely B-\- 

18 And] Aud A: garland] garlond B: 18, 22 should not be indented in HI 
20 my] uiy FG 

23 gyftes] gyftss A 

24 sweete] Om. D+ 

26 Finis] FJNJS C: ML] F. B+ 

27 [42.] 38. A 9 45. B+: Stanzas indented in D+ 

28 IQjfBC 

29 greefe] gr eefe H 

31 mishap] mishhap E: are] is B+ 

43. i deuises] Last s upside down in H: 29] Should be 35 in A 

2 hope] help F+ 

3 happes] happ J5+ 

4 can prolong] canprolong E: assure] procure B+ 

5 Entire line in A only 
14 is] as E+ 

16 hearbe] heaebe E 

17 leme] Gent F (or possibly Gem with the m broken) 



43. 1 8 Gallens] Galens / 

21 Nor] For C-G: drugge of] druggeof A^ drugges of HI 

22 greefe] greefes E+ 

24 should be indented in HI 

25 outfound] not found E+ 

27 And healeth] And helpeth ///, Andhelpeth FG: scarre] scarce EC 

28 festred] fostred D+ 

29 ordeynd] ordayned B-E 

31 which] that B+ 

32 not] uot D 

37 By] In D+: haute] hant EC, haunt D+ 

44. i 26] Should be 36 in A 
2 inward] inwards E 

10 paines] panges $+ 
13 trauaile] trauel / 

1 6 rest] nest H 

1 8 gaine] gaiue H 

20 paide] payed DE: goth] goeth D-G, goes HI 
27 of deadly] ofdeadlye FG 

31 hazard] hazaed D: loose] lose D 

33 obtained] obtained F+ : among] emong D 

34 for] from C+ : trauaile] trauell / 

35 Doth] Death D 
37 doth] doo HI 

45- * 3 J ] Should be 37 in A 

6 torment] torments HI 

7 murthermg] murdring F+: enforce] euforce E: owne decay] own- 
decay E 

8 thou from] thoufrom 7: my 1 ] thy F+ 

10 lingering] lingring E-E: lothed] lothsome B+ 
12 whiles] whilest 7 

17 nothing] nothinss (ss upside down) FG 

19 While] With D+: loe] lot HI 

21 In] Is D-G: must] mnst A 

22 Ifolde]IfoldFG 

24 of future] offuture FG 

25 truthlesse] trthlesse E: trust] In C a broken t makes it look like crust: 
times reward] time sreward I 

27 forsweare] forswsre F (apparently, or the s is a blurred e): FINIS added 
in E+ 

28 [43.] 39 2 A, 47. BCD (in E it is the first 47), 46. E+ : Stanzas indented in D+ 

3 I] J C 

3 1 for] or E (but the f may simply be blurred out) 

32 ouerpressed] oppressed E+ 

36 doth me] dothme E 
46. i 32] Should be 38 in A 

2 happe] hay D 

9 the] thy E+ 

1 1 choose] chose E-E 

12 fred] feed C, fedde D+ (in G the word is changed in ink to fred) 
1 5 are] is E 

17 daungerd] dangered 
19 or] the E+ 


46. 20 asked] as ked B 

22 withhold] withold /: her] ther BC, their D+ 

23 Meanst] Meanest E+ 

24 carpet] carpel B-GI, Cupids H 

25 Knowest] Kuowest A 

26 headles] headlesse B-E, heedlesse F+ 

28 wyl] wilt B+ : saint] faint CD 

29 freend] friends HI: wholy] holie FG 

30 drawes] drewes J5, drewe C+ 

31 Twas] T'was E 9 T was FG 

32 mayst] mayest D+: houndes] hounde B+ 

33 She] The E+: seely] silly C+ 
47- l 33] Should be 39 in A 

5 Best] But F+ 

7 Dost] Doest D: vnkindled] vnkinled E 
13 Suppose] Suppuse 7 

1 5 loy tring] loytering -f- : dangers] daugers B> danger HI 

17 the] thy E+ 

1 8 should be indented in FG 

19 lesson] lessen D+ 

20 though] thongh A: lingering] lingring F+ 
24 gaynesay] gayuesay A: entend] pretend E+ 

28 Sest]SeestC+ 

29 lewe] few D 

30 sightes] sighes D+ 

31 repaid] repayed ZMr 

32 my] uiy A: nayd] nayed D+ 

48. i 30] Should be 40 in A 

2 paise] praise C+: waide] wayed D+ 

3 laide] layed D-GI 

4-12 in A only, but written in G in a contemporary hand 

13 Finis] FJNJS C: is] s upside down in I 

14 [44.] 40 A, 47. 2 B, 49. CD, 48.+: eris] s upside down in I: Felix] 
Foelix C+ 

15 amissus] a missus B y amissas C+ 

16 Stanzas indented in D+ 

1 8 talentes] taleutes D 

19 Both skin] Bothskin D 

20 gather] rather E+ 

26 There] Their E+ : and] aud yf: profering] proffring FGH 

31 them] from F+: haunt] hannt A 

32 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS D 

49. i For sharp change in typography here, see the note on this line 

2 [45.] 41. A, 48. BCD (in EC it is the first 48 J, 47. E+ : Stanzas indented in 

3 be thought] bethought B 

6 truthe] trueth BC 

8 stedfastly] stedfast doth HI 

9 should not be indented in HI: altereth] altreth E-H 
10 doeth] doth BCI, did D-H 

14 The entire line is omitted in HI 

1 5 should be indented in EG 

1 6 moued] mooude F+ 


49. 17 lightly] likely F+ 

22 scale] scale B (or perhaps a bad t) y zeale E+ 

24 stanche] stauche A-D 

25 exception] exceptiou 5, rxception C 

26 frende at nede] freends at last F+ 
31 wealth so] wealthso F 

50. 3 ruste] trust D+ 

5 gainst] against BCD 

7 botes] bootes C+ 

8 Finis] FJNJS C 

9 [46.] 42. A, 49. BE+, 50. CD: irae] ir ACDI, ire -//: amoris] 
amor is /: redintigratia] redinti gracise J5, redinte gratio CD, redinte 
gratia //, redintegratia jFG, redintegratio / 

10 D indents the stanzas; E-\- do not divide into stanzas , but after every six lines 
they indent two lines like a refrain: In] Jn C: bedde] Om. FG: Cf. 
the note on this line 

1 1 before] vefore / 

12 sang] sung F+: sore 2 ] sweete B+ 

13 rest] cease B+ 

15 She rocked it] Yet rocked she HI: vntill] til that B+ 

1 6 Then did] Thendid E: the] this B+ 

17, 25, 33 is the renuyng] renuing is B-\-: In E+ each of these lines> with the 

one that precedes //, is indented like a refrain 
1 8 should begin a new stanza in B- 

24 and] aud D 

26 ne 1 ] nor +: aright] a right DF-H 

27 thei] the B (in A the dot over the i is hardly discernible): might.] Period 
doubtful in A 

29 makes] make BH 

30 leaue] leaued BE 

31 liued] liu'd F+: tyme] time, and dayes H 

33 faithfull] faith ful B: frendes] friende s / 

51. 2 nor] ne / 

4 but] bnt A: must] much / 

6 works] worke B+ 

8 her 1 ] Om. BCD: reherst] rehear st / 

9, 17 is the renuyng] renuyng is D+: In E+ these lines are indented like 

those at 50.17, 25, 33 
10 route] roote / 

12 crouch] couche D+ 

13 armes] arme B+ 

14 aloufe] a loofe DF-H 

17 of faithfull] offaithfull / 

1 8 M.] FJNJS. M. C, FINIS. M. BD+: Edwardes] s upside down in I 

J 9 C47-] 43- 4B (in B it is the second 43,), 51.' CD, 50. E+: B-D indent the 
first line of each stanza; E+ are not divided into stanzas, but after every four 
lines they indent two 

20 doeth] doth BCF+, doe DE 

23 greffe] grefe B+: this] his D-f 

25 shorteneth] shortneth B-EHI 

26 straunge] stronge F+ 

32 swetely] swiftly I: ronne] runue D 

34 wights] nights HI: dawes] drawes B+ 



52. 7 alwaie] alwaies F+ 
10, II doeth]doth B+ 

13 what panges] Om. B+: thereby] thereby daily HI 

14 dales] dale Z)-G, life HI 

15 and] as B+ 

1 8 a] the B+ : lake] lacke D-H 

19 awaie] annoy FHI 

24 disolued] dissolu'd //, dissolude 7 

25 armed] arm'd D, arm'd E-H, armd /: the'] that HI 

26 founde] frund G 

30 [48.] 44. //, 4.5+: F/rtf line of each stanza indented in D, first line and 
last two in EG y last two in HI 

31 aunswereth] annswereth J9, answered E+ 

32 sethyng] sighing D+ : sower] sorow B+ (in D the fast o looks more like s) 

53. 2 skaldyng] scolding 7 

4, 10, 1 6, 22 you doe] that you J5+ 

7 harmth] harmeth B-E, harm'th F+ 

8 grounde] groand F+ 

9 eyne] eies E+: to 2 ] with E+ 

1 1 white] w hite 7 

12 Where] When D+ 

13 pleasures] pleasure E-\- 

14 walles ... to] where the walles of wealth lye BCD, where ... lay + 

15 is] s upside down in A 

1 8 should be indented in E: doeth] will B+ 

19 There] Where B+: can] will F+ 

21 loe] loc A (but perhaps a broken ej, low F+ : maie] maie, A possibly 
25 me] m e B 

27 doeth] dooth B+ 

30 line] lines 5+ 

31 was] is 5+ 

32 yongth] youth B+ 

33 well] weake B+ 

54. 4 sounde] Blurred hopelessly in I 

5 Musicke] musikcue FG 

6 Their] There 7 

10 to] that E y all F+ 

12 laied] layde BCE+: in] iu 7 

15 my] your +: heeres] heares B-D, heires , haires F+ 

1 6 L. V.] W. Hunis BC, W.H. D-G7, W.//. // 

i? C49-] ^<?w *' ^ ow ^* wo /;>/ ^ or ^ ^ A ^^ taken from the Gorgeous 

Gallery, p. 52 
19-29 in A only 
22, 23 and] aud A 

30 [50.] Title and number not in A, but they are in B+> where the number is 52; 
D indents the stanzas; E+ do not divide into stanzas, but after every four 
lines they indent two 

31 lenger] linger C+ 

33 Sins] Since C+: fortune] fortuue B: 33, 35 doeth] doth 5+ : 33 giue] 
hiue FG 

36 tourned] turnd HI: vpsidoune] vpsidowue 5, vpside downe E+ 

37 A ffrende] Affrende A 

55. I deuises] denises H apparently: 47] 47, A apparently 



55. 2 A ffrende] Affrende A, A freende B+ 
3 And] Ind 7 

7 my] mine HI 
9 yearth] earth B+ 

1 6 All] 111 7 

20 is] as EFG 

21 her] his B+ 

22 she] he B+: alwaie] al way G 

26 S.] Om. G (evidently slipped out); out of range in I 

2 7 C5 1 -] 47- A y 53-&E+, 54- C, 45. (probably a misprint for 54.) D: Prudens] 
Prudence D+ : Damacles] s upside down in FG 

28 trone] throne B+ 

30 groud] In G half of n and all of d have slipped out 

31 and] And B+: flashy] flashly C+: lightnings] lightning B-EHI, 
lightening FG: on] and E+ ' turrets] tnrrets C: reboud] roboud A 

56. 2 in their] int heir B 

3 Scisily] Scisili BC, Scisile D, Scisilie -//, Scicily 7 

4 singe] sings 5C, sindge + 

5 this] thts A 

10 brightnes] brightest F+ 

12 and] aud B 

13 proferd] proffered + 

14 rest] life + 

17 would] could 5-f- 

18 his 2 ] this FG 

24 daintie] daiutie A 

27 dounward point] downwardpoint F: had] Om. D 

28 peised] poised F-f- 

30 aboue] 7w 7 M* o /j blurred curiously 
35 enough] euough FG 

57. 4 Finis] FJNJS C: B+ add M. Edwardes 

5 [5 2 -] 48. ^^C (7 5C it is the second 48;, 55. D, 54. F+: Fortitude] 
Fortitude FG: ^Egipt] ^Egypt 5C, Aegipt , Egipt FG/f, Egypt 7 

6 Eche one] Echone G 

7 doe th] doth + 
9 Venus] V enus D 

13 stout] st oute H: deede] deedes HI 

14 sely] silly C-h 

17 stucke] stock 7: consumyng fire] consumingfier FG 

19 semed] seemde F+: might] migh B 

21 haue hym] him haue B-\- 

22 So] S 7: a woorke] aworke 7 

23 destroied] destroide 7 

24 meanes] meaues B 

26 finely] finly E: suche] with E-\- 

27 might] migh t 7 

28 laied] layd B-DHI 

30 lewres] louers D+ : these] those + : easly] easily + 
33 Venus] V enus D: euery chone] euerychone D, euerych one 7 

35 not] Ow. D 

36 pleasures] pleasure not D, pleasure EFG: toyes] ioyes 7 (apparently, but 
perhaps a broken tj 

58. 2 sleight] flight CFG 


58. 4 bote] botc B (or perhaps a broken ej, byt C, bit D+: cleane] cleaue C 
6 and] aed H 

8 neuermore] more D, euer more EFG 

11 Finis] FJNJS C: B+ add M. Edwardes 

12 [53.] 49. A, 58. B, 56. CD, 55. +: lustice] Justice E: Zaleuch] 
Zalench B apparently 

13 rulers] rules E 

14 boteth] booteth C+ 

15 cSteining] continyng B: egall] equall C+ 

16 lawes] Ladies D 

17 /j indented in D 

20 was he] he was F+ 

21 ran] came +: by] in F+ 

22 emong] among CD, amongst E+: there was] therewas A 

23 outcries] ontcries A 
26 muche] mnche A 
30 ease] cease F-f- 

32 shoote] shoute C+ 

33 quoth] q> B: fulfilde] fufilde A 
35 his shalbe] hisshall be E 

59. i deuises] Last s upside down in A: 45] Should be 51 *w /^ 

2 pronoucde] pronounced B+: but] bnt C: doen] done C+ 

3 eyes] eyes* FG: mo] more D+: were] W9J9 FG, was HI: betwene] 
betweena FG: the father] thej Fathr FG 

5 now] lo B+: iuster] truster HI 

6 his] hi FG: belike] be like E+ : y] the B+ 
8 caught] canght FG 

10 Finis] Finis A, FJNJS C, EINIS FG: B+ add M. Edwardes (s upside 
down in D) 

11 C54-] 50- 4, 59. B, 57. CD, 56. +: Spurina] S upside down in D: 
Ladies] s upside down in ACDFGI 

12 D clumsily indents the first of the two long lines in each case: thee haue] 
theehaue E 

15 deadly] deahly FG 

1 6 beau tie] beanty 7: twere] tware J5CD 

17 seke] seekes +: her 2 ] their HI 

24 doeth] doth C+ 

25 to a ] do F+ 

28 hym] her FG 

29 She] So CD: happest] happiest D+: fauour] fanour A 

30 knowyng] kno wing D, knowing FG 

31 hids] hides + 

32 rage] range J5+ 

33 these] those E+ : of their] oftheir A 

35 skotch] scorcht BCD, schorsht FG, scratcht HI 

60. 4 be] he be B+ 

5 filthie] filihie B 

6 y] that D 

7 My] Me B+: him] him in D 

10 q> F. M.] M. E. JSC, M. Edwardes D+ 

11 [55.] 51. A, 60. 5, 58. CD, 57. E+: bunche] braunche D+ 

12 the] that E+: godds haue] God hath /: are] or B+ 

13 Were as] Where as B-E, Whereas FG 


60. 15 spriggs] springes E+: wailing] waylinp FG 9 willing HI 
1 6 sone] some DE 

19 lust,] Comma very faint (and doubtful) in A: nor] n broken curiously in D 

21 vnfrendly] vefriendlie FG 

22 Cowslopps] cowslippes E+: sometymes] sometime D+ 

23 Gelliflower] Gilliflower E+ 

26 flower] flowers E+: as] or B+ 

27 tickle] fickle HI 

29 with our] withour F 

30 those] chose DE, choose F+ 

31 of freds] offreendes F: foes] foze B 

33 authour] aucthour BC: saied] sayd C+ : in flowers] inyowers FG 

35 salue] saue HI: yeldeth] yeeideth / (apparently, but probably the i is a 
broken \) 

36 Eche] See the note on this line 

61. i deuises] Last s upside down in I 

2 salue] saue HI 

4 fly] flyes B+: the 1 ] their F+ 

5 my] m y FG 

6 that] the E+ 

8 there is] thereis E: yeilds] yeids A: doe] doeth B y doth C+ 

10 Eue] Ewe D-G (the e is blurred out in F), Ewgh HI: serues] seme CD, 
sernes FG 

n, 12, 1 6, 22, 27, 28, 32 doeth] doth C+: n some] soone F apparently: 

other] orther FG 

14 wisht] wish HI: deserue] deserues E+ 
1 8 so is had in prise] is so sad in price D+ 

21 where withall] therewithall F-\- 

22 lent] leane D+ 

24 And therefore] andtherefore F 

25 When] W hen G 

27 That B.] Tha tB. A 

30 I 2 ] and BD+, & C 

31 sarue] serue B-\- 
33 loth] 1 oath 7 

36 will, doeth] will, doth CDF+, willdooth E 

37 B.] be /: about] aboue CD 
39 Now] Wrong type in A (see Notes) 

62. 2 [56.] 52. A) 6i.B; poem in AB only 

4 profoundly] prfoundly B 
8 clerely] plainly B 

12 wandreth] wandereth B 

29 Where] See the note on this line 

63. * C57-] 53- *> te* B y 59. CD, 58. +: In] Jn C 

3 In B-G the poem is arranged as two indented but unseparated stanzas of six 
lines each; in HI it is printed without break of any kind: the] y mind B+ 

5 minde] mynds B+: therfore] in store B+ 

7 release] relief B+: delights] delig hts A 

8 sences] sences all HI 

9 Musick] mesick G: praie] pray, the fish HI: the foule] yfowl /: 
doeth] doth C+ 

1 1 saued] saude B-D 

12 A] Oh BCHI y Of D-G: the sterne] starne D: doth] doeth B 


63. 13 Musick] Of musick BC, Oh Musick JD+ 

14 doest] dost CEHI, doth FG: wiseman] wise ma F+ 

15 M Edwards] Om. B+ 

1 6 58.] Poem in A only; title and number not in A but inserted Jor uniformity by 
the editor 

17-64.20 in A only 

64. 2-20 in A only; 2 should be indented in A 
7 conquere] conqnere A 

21 C59-3 55- ^j 64. B 9 61. CD, 60. E+ : Stanzas not separated in E+ 
22, 28, 31 doeth] doth C-f- 

23 fleyng] fleing C, fliyng D, flying -H he doeth] he doth C, doth he D-f- 

24 Berrie rounde] berrier ound , burrough round HI 

27 start, and still] flie B-\- 

28 C should leave a stanza-space before this line: to]no.D-r-: pursue] pur- 
sure C 

29 the] his D-r- 

32 Thus then] Then thus B-\- 

33 Since] Sith +: trenched] trcahed A (or perhaps treahed), trencht E-\-: 
saith] saieth -f- 

65. 4 request] require B + 

5 is in] in his D-f- : laied] laid D-h 

6 corse] course E-*r 

7 behold] bebold A 

8 W. H.] FINIS. M. Hunnis B fs upside down), FJNJS. M. Hunnis C, FINIS. 
W. Hunnis >+ 

9 [60.] No number in A~\- : Hope] If Hope D, //ope // 

10 Stanzas indented but not separated in E+i In] Jn C: hoiseth] hoisteth 
E, hoizeth HI 

11 sickly] sicke BCD, sickest +: n, 19 doeth] doth C-J- 

19 pain] paines D-f: semes] seeme v -r- 

20 In hope] hope FG y Hope HI: profe] propfe B 

21 helth 2 ] heath C 

22 W. H.] FINIS. M. Hunnis B, FJNJS. M. Hunnis C, Finis. W. Hunnis DEI, 

23-66.8 [61.] in A only; no number in A 
66. 2-8 in A only 

4 as myne] asmyne A 

9 [62.] No number in A+ : Title arranged as one line in ECE-\- : He] //e H 
n, 12, 13, 14, 17, 28 doeth] doth C-f 

13 blustryng] blustering D+ 

14 smell] smeell FG: cast] c ast E 

15 declares] del ares H 

1 6 for] of F+ : fight] sight E+ 

17 waies] iaws B-\- 

18 liueth]lieth E+ 

19 thousands] thousauds A 

20 forme] tyme B-\- 

21 vowed] vowde D+ 

22 remaine] remaines BC: assignde] assingde B 

29 Wherefore] Therefore HI 

30 that] then B-G 

32 doe] doth E~\- 

33 M.] FINIS. M. BD+, FJNJS. M. C 


66. 34 Shall] See the note on this line 

67. 2 [63.] No number in A+ : He] His B, 1f He D, He H 

3 Stanzas indented but not separated in E-\-i youth] ruth J9+: shall 
fansie] shallfancie FG: forsake] fo rsake A 

4 lose] loose -f 

6 thoughts] thought B+ 

8 ayer] heire B-EH y haire FG 

9 dragg] drauge / 

10 yearth] earth CE+ 

12 for] of B+: ruth] truth /: cast] tast C 

13 harte] heares BCD, haires E+ 

14 fickle] feeckle FG 

17 your . . . purtende] and that to be pretende B-\- 

18 let] and F+' enemie] enemies D+: defende] defeude A 

19 stnue] stroue B 

20 is indented in I: to 1 ] Om. F+ 

21 M. H.] M. Hunnis BC, W. Hunnis D-H y M. Huunis / 

22 [64.] No number in A+ : No] If No D 

23 Stanzas indented but not separated in E+: I] J CFG: would 3 ] thinke 
FG, wish HI 

25 bloudy] boldned B+ 

26 speache] speeches D: speaks] speake EFG 

27 lurck] larke /: alowe] allowe HI 

29 In frendly] Infriendly /: looks] looke D+ 

30 hath] haih A: receiued] receiude B-\- 

68. 2 flatteries] flatterie B+ : my] the + 

3 glittereth] glittreth E 

4 finde] trye B+ 

5 hath] haue D+: Panters] Panter BC, Painters HI 

6 sleight] slightes E-H, sleights / 

8 dares] dare B+ 

9 sone] saue BE y shall F-\- 

11 Finis] FINIS B (S upside down), FINI6 1 FG: BC add M. Hunnis, D+ 
W. Hunnis 

12 [65.] No number in A+i Title from B; so C+: E+ indent but do not 
separate the stanzas 

13, 16 doeth] doth C+: 13 trauell] trauaile HI 

14 staie] Rendered somewhat obscure in B by the undotted i 

17 make his] makehis D 

1 9 Or] And B+ : a] in F+ : the] a B+ 

20 trauaileth a space] frameth hym self a pace B-E, ... a place F+ 

21 should be indented in HI 

22 An] And C: Flie] Flee B-D 

23 there] htere B: to] t o / 

24 corse] course E+ 

26 pains] paine B-\- 

27 suche] In A the c may be s (badly blurred): trauell] trauaile F+ 

28 are] aer A 

29 W.Hunis] FINIS. M. Hunnis B, FJNJS. M. Hunnis C, FINIS. W. 
Hunnis D+ 

30 [66.] No number in A+: Title from B; so C+: E+ indent but do not 
separate the stanzas 

31 sleights] sleghts #, slights C+ 



68. 32 most] ni oste B: doth] doeth BC 

69. 2 Enforceth] Enforeceth FG 

7 heads] heeds I: seeks] seeke DE 

1 1 seeks] leeks B (unless the 1 is a very defective sj, seeke / 

12 one] on B+: doe] we doe B-E 

1 6 Finis] FJNJS C 

17 [67.] No number in A+ : Title from B; so C+ : He] If He D 

1 8 B+ indent the stanzas, but BE+ do not separate them: painted speache] 
paintedspeech I (and perhaps E) 

21 for] by B-G: great] good +: vertues] vertuts B 

22 since] sure B-G 

23 disdaine] Disdaiue B 

24 degree] degrre B 

25 that] shall E+: shall] shew HI 

27 begger borne] Beggerborne B: among] emong B 
31 lightnyng] lightniug FG 

70. 2 furies] furtes E: stopp] stay B+ 

4 Finis] FJNJS C, EINIS FG: M. B.] M. Hunnis BC, W. Hunnis D+ 
5-24 [6%. ~\ in A only; no number in A 

25 [69.] No number in A+\ to] his mishapp to BC, of his mishap to D+: 
replieth] complaineth B+ 

26 No indention of stanzas in D; neither indention nor separation in E+, where 
the lines are aligned rather unevenly: The] TThe FG 

27 what] What BCE+ : thinges] thing + : shal] hath B+ : nature] 
natures J9+ 

28 My Ladie] My Loue B-EH, My loeu FG, Myloue / 

29 truthe] trueth E-G 

31 eche] ethe A 

32 not this] this not BCD 

71. 2 her] here BCD: reclaime] recliame FG: stope] stoope B+ 
9 Her] Should be indented in A: would] should BCD 

10 Suche] Snch H 

11, 12 saied] said C-f-: 11 doe] not BCD 

12, 24 doeth] doth C+ 

13 is] in EFG 

15 straunge] strannge G 

16 no] uo H 

23 gaine] gaines + 

24 betimes] The undotted i suggests betunes in E: thy] the F+ 
28 will 3 ] wili F: 28-30 torn out of G 

30 M.] FINIS. M. B-FHI 

31-72.24 [70.] in A only; no number in A: At this point B+ have a poem by the 
same title but by another author 

72. 2-24 in A only 

3 ease] A possibly case 

2 5 C? 1 '! No number in A-FHI: 25-74.7 torn out of G: E+ do not sepa- 
rate into stanzas, but after every four lines they indent two lines 

27 sometyme] sometune C (but cf. 71.24, above) 

28 fade] vade EFH 

29 ouer] Om. BCD 

31 knoweth] knowes EFHI 

34 But] See the note on this line 

73. 2 light] sight EFHI: 2-32 torn out of G 



73. 3 tonge] tougue F 

6 should be indented in EF: serue] serues EFHI 
* 7, 9, 1 8 doeth] doth C-FHI 

10 you] ye EFHI 

12 Finis] Finis A: Vaux] VEUX E 

13 [72.3 M> number in A+i If The fruites] The fruite B-FHI: of 
fained] offained F 

14 Stanzas not separated in B; poem arranged as two six-line stanzas in C+: 
In] Jn C: happ] happy A: Cirenes] Cires EC, Sirens DEFHI 

1 6 noise] voice B-FHI: was] is B-FHI 

17 founde] fonnde B 

22 the] that D 

23 flatterer] fauell B-F, fable HI: mischief] michiefe E: deuise] aduise 

25 art] are EC 

26 vpon suche] vponsuch / 

27 Finis] Om., and two more lines added after W. H., in B+ : W. H.] W.#. H 
z% C?3-] No number in A+: Title in B-FHI is A dialogue betwene a 

Gentleman and his Loue: Stanzas not indented in D+ 
31 that craue] that I craue B-FHI 

74. 2-7 torn out of G 

6 A.'] B. BC: kill] kill / 

7 beshrewe] bethrewe B, be shrew F 

1 1 thereof] therefore FGHI 

15 A.']B. BC 

20 your] yonr A 

21 truthe] trueth F-G, true /: shall well] well shall E+ 

23 then] than D 

24 A. 1 ] B. BC: not,] Comma doubtful in A 

25 Be shrewe] beshrewe B+ 

26 Some] Should be indented in A-C 

30 speds] speedes C+ : length] leugth A 

31 armed] armde B+ 

32 will I] I will /: flitt] fit FG 

75. i deuises] deuifes A; last s upside down in I 

4 close] true B+: finde] fiude H 

5 you shall] thou shalt E+: your] thy E+ 

6 O] A F+ 

ii Finis] FJNJS C: M. B.] M. Edwardes BE+, M, Edwarde s D 

12. [74.] No number in A-\-\ Title in B+ is Exclamyng vpon his vnkinde 

Loue, his frende replieth wittely: BC indent only the first line of each 

stanza, D+ indent no lines at all 
13 thus] s upside down in A 
15 doest] doost E+ 
19 haue] hath B+ 

22 and] if E+ 

23,33 H M.]M U.B+ 

24 gall] al / 

28 must] most C 

29 thy 1 ] her B-G 

31 beats] baits B+ : sure] sur e H: the] thee B+ 

76. 2 doe] did F+ 

5 bearest] hardst BCD, hadst E+ 



76. 10 thou] tho u A 

14 againe] gaine B+ 

15 the] thy E+ 
20 thy] thine E+ 

22 Finis] FJNJS C 

23 No number in A+: If in A only: louers] Louer s D 

24 I] J C 

25 I] I haue E+: for to enioye] Om. D+: finishe] finnish E 
28 embrace] embrac e / 

30 it is] is it E+ 

32 pangs] pangues CDEI: make] makes D+ 

33 deuise] denise H 

77. 2 sourse] course B+ 

5 Finis] FJNJS C: F. K.] FK. A 
6-78.4 [76.] in A only; no number in A 

78. 2-4 in A only 

5 C77-] N number in A+: U in A only: E+ indent but do not separate 
the stanzas 

11 folowed] followe B+: on] one FG 

12 agone] agoe B-G 

13 resounde] I resounde D, I doo resound + 

17 Daphnes] Daphne s A 

1 8 which mournyng] which monrnyng A, whichmourning / 

19 you 1 ] with F+: wights] wight s C 

20 heares] haires +: happs] hap B+: showe] shoe HI 

21 On] Of D+ : doeth] doth C+ 

25 man] mau C: triumps] triumphs B+ 

28 earthly] yearthly BC: ioyes I] I ioyes FG 

29 hid] hide B+ 

30 Ah a alantida] Ah a lalalantida B-H; Ah, alalalantida 7 

79. 4 Finis] FJNJS C 

5-29 [78.] in A only; no number in A 
29 Findyng] Wrong type in A (see Notes) 

80. 2 [79.] No number in A+\ If in A only: E+ do not separate the stanzas, 

but E-G indent every first, fifth and sixth line, and HI every fifth and sixth 
3 In quest] Inquest BD, Jnquest C: my relief] my beliefe EG, beleefe HI 

5 langour] laugour C, languour F+: is suche] suche, as B+ 

6 watrishe] watrie DEI, waterie FGH: 6, 20, 25 doeth] doth C+ 

7 this] blisse HI: deuine] define C+ 

8 should be indented, like line /, in FG 

10 feare,] Comma very faint (and doubtful) in A 

12 doubtfull] donbtfull A 

25 warmth] warmeth D 

27 Finis] FJNJS C: R. H.] R. Hall B, R. Hill CDE, H. Hill FGI, H. Mil H 

28-81.22 [80.] in A only; no number in A 

81. 2-22 in A only 

23-82.18 [8 1.] in AB only; no number in AB 

82. 2-1 8 in AB only 

9 Of forse] Offorse A 

1 8 V] Vaux B 

19 [82.] No number in A+: If in A only: Title in C+ is Coelum non 
solum: E+ do not separate into stanzas, but they indent every fifth and sixth 



82. 20 If] Jf C: desire] desires 

21 Or reasons] Orreasons A (apparently -, but the first r may be \): raines] 
raignes B-G 

22 sigh ts] sighs B + 

23 signes] sighes D+ 

25 through] though E+ 

28 Pallas] Pallace C, Pallas FG 

29 amate] a mate C-f- 

30 yearth] earth C+ : doeth] doth C+ 

31 no] uo D: Gods] God B+ 

33 sights] sighes C+ 

34 A silent] Asilent A 

83. " 2 A silent] Asilent A: doeth] doth C+: selde] seeld C-G, sild HI 

3, 8 doeth] doth C+: 3 to] the + 

4 Phebe] Phoebe DE y Phaebe FG, Phaebe H: disdainde] disdaine D-G 

5 yearth] earth CE+: Endimions] Edimions BCD 
7 reason] reasou C 

12 aduaunce] aduauuce B 

13 sithyng] sighing D+ 

14 Amidds] Amidst C+: my] thy F+: chaunce] channce B 
1 8 Finis] FJNIS C, EINIS FG: M. B.] E.G. B+ 

19 [83.] Afo number in A+\ H /* yf only: E+ do not divide into stanzas ', 
but they indent every fifth and sixth line 

26 Bewraie thy] Bewray thy FG: thou] thy B + 

27 thy 2 ] thee FG 

28 doen] done CD///, doon E-G 

84. 3 toile] toile / 

7 case] cause D+ : waights] wights FG 
14 yearth] earth CE+ 
1 6 letts] let F-h 
18 still] still E 
1 9 should be indented in FG 

20 should not be indented in FG 
23 neede] needde C 

26 Finis] FJNIS C: E.] L. HI 

27 [84.] No number in A+ : 1f in A only: 'The poem is arranged in stanzas 
of four long lines in B+, but in E+ the stanzas are not separated 

28 I] J C: as seme] as I seeme C, as I seeme DF+ 

29 Nor] for F+ 

30 you] yon C 

31 pensiue] pensine E 
33 Haniball] //anibal H 

85. 4 In H a bold printer s-mark obscures the indention: Caesar] Cesar BCI: 

presented] preserued D-G 
5 Pompeyes] Fompeis FG 
7 floud] flould B 
9 others] other B+ 
13 Caesars] Cesars BCI: teares] grief B 

18 a]inD+ 

19 in] a D+: Pompeyes] Pompeis FG 

22 a fate] afate A 

23 profixe] prefixe B+ 
28 O.] Ox. BCD 



85. 29-86.17 [85.3 in ABC only; no number in ABC: 1f in A only: this] 

thus BC 
30 doeth] doth C 

86. 2-17 in ABC only 

3 g etts 3 g tts C 

6 doeth] doth C: doth] doeth B 
10 while] whiles C 
1 1 my] the BC 
13 hope] Om. B, ioy C 
17 O.] Ox. BC 

18-29 [86.] in A only; no number in A 
19 wonders] wondes A 23 slepe,] Comma doubtful in A 
30 Beyng] Wrong type in A (see Notes) 

87. 2 [87.] No number in A+: If in A only: C does not indent the stanzas, 

E+ do not separate them 

4 truthe] trueth E-H 
6 doe] doeth B, doth C 
9 should be indented in D 
ii woe]we+: thy] the B+ 

13 yearth] earth C+: and 2 ] ayd C 
15 my taint] mytainte E 

1 6 truthe] trueth E-H 

19 emongs] amongest C, emongest D, amongst E+ 

19-21, 26 are imperfectly indented in E, 20-21, 26 in FG, 20-21 in HI 

20 dome] doome C+: name] uame / 

21 persue] pursued F+ 

25 haue] hath B+ 

26 though] thought F+ 

27 Finis] FJNJS C, Finis 7 (s upside down) 

28 [88.] No number in A+i If in A only: C does not indent the stanzas, 
E-\- do not separate them 

29 Ceder] Cadar FG: vnder] vnto B+ 

30 danger] daungers D 

31 Who] O 7: then] them E-H: deuoide] de uoyde C 

32 Doeth] Doth C+: not yet] yet not E+: knowe] knew C (or else a 
curiously defective oj 

88. 2 sustaine] sustaiue A 

6 Of brittle] Ofbrittle A 

7 in] iu A 

8 stepps] steepes C+ (perhaps, but the dubious t may be an 1): grefes] greefe 
C+: cares] care J9+ 

9 assingde] assignd C+ 

11 might 1 ] nighe BC, night D-H, nights 7: might 2 ] steps B+: storme] 
storms H 

12 be we] we be 7 

13, 24 doeth] doth C+ 

14 let] ler C: vp] bp 7: our] onr FG 
1 5 raigne] ragine E 

1 6 Finis] FJNIS C: L. V.] W. H. BC, W. Hunnis D-G, om. HI 
17 [89.] No number in A+ : If in A only: Of a] Ofa F 
1 8 C does not indent the stanzas, E+ indent but do not separate them: doen 
. . . saied] done . . . sayd C+ : in] Om. E+ 



88. 19 of all] ofall E: doeth] doth C-G, doe HI 
21 in'] of C+: his] this B+ 

28 not] no C+ 

29 he] ste he C, stay he D: speaks] speake s CEI 

30 should not be indented in C, but should be in F+ 

31 we] Om. BCD 

89. i deuises] deuifes A 

2 Wherefore] Therefore F+ 

4 Finis] FINIS C, FINIS H 

5 [9-] No number in A-\-\ 1f in A only: E+ indent but do not separate 
the stanzas 

6 my] mine E+ 

7 it] is D+ 

8 dreads] treades D+ 

9 thacquaintance] th' acquaintance D, the acquaintance E+ 
10, 14, 15, 16, 28 doeth] doth C+ 

1 1 morrowe] m orrowe A: feared] fear'd E+ 

13 mantell] man tell + 

15 coplaines] bewayles C+ 

17 should] fear'd for to E+ : mortall] Om. E+ 

19 gold, shall] goldeshall FG: lose] loose + 

20 in] the D+: netts] uetts A 

21 Ifhe]Ifhe7: his 2 ] hi FG 

23 ye] you E+ 

24 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS FG; in E the first \ is either broken or in a smaller jont 

2 5 [91-] No number in A+i If in A only: affectes] effectes DHI, affects 
FG fs upside down) 

26 Stanzas not separated in E-\- 
28 and] ann FG 

30-31 apparently should not be indented in E+ 
31 fruite] friute A 

90. 2 must] most FG: learyng] leuring FG 

3, 1 8 doeth] doth C+: 3 a] his B+\ slaight] slaite B, sleight C+ 
5 in waite] inwaite B 

7 Is] As BCD 

8 also] Om. B+: suche] with EFG, those HI 

9 that] thac C: enchaunt] inchanut FG 

12 stoppeth] stoupeth B-\- 

14 those] these B-E 

1 6 An] And E+: outward] ontward B 

19 doeth] doth B+ 

20 daiely fedd] dayly feed FG+, daylyfeede F 

22 loytryng] loytering CDEI 

24 at] as B+: Phenix] Phsenix E-H, Phoenix I 

25 burne] bnrne A 

26 Finis] FJNIS C; in FG the F is badly broken 
27-91.10 [92.] in A only; no number in A 

91. 2-10 in A only 

10 Finis] Finij A 

11 C93-] No number in A+: If in A only: C does not indent the stanzas, 
E+ do not separate them 

13 must I] I must C+ 

14 wofull errande] wofull err & /: man] uian H 



91. 15 wretched] wrecched B: endite] eudite B 

17 is] it HI: nought] nonght H 

1 8 greif] greif A (undotted i) 

19 That] Than/// 

20 yet] this HI 

11 That] Thou HI: hast no] hasteno B, haste no C 

28 lose] loose E+ 

29 doeth 1 ' 2 ] doth C+ 
^o winne] wiune I 

31 that] Om. D+: of helpe] of health CDEHI, of health FG 

02. C harme] hame B 

6 yelde] yel'd E 

7 hands] bands /: haue his] Om. D+ 

8 Priamus] Priamus FG y Priamus / (s upside down): binde] yeeld C+ 

13 to] in B+: I] thou B+ 

14 Finis] FINIS B> Finis / (s upside down in each case) 

1 5 [ 94 .] No number in A+ : II in A only: thus] s upside down in FG 

1 6 Stanzas indented but not separated in E+ : In] Jn C: terrours] terrous 
H: thraldome] thraldomes / 

17 thornie] thoruie A, thronye E+ 

1 8 case] cause B+ 

19 cares] teares B+ : did] d d E (i blurred out) 
20, 24, 32 saied] sayd C+ 

22 should be indented in C 

23 truthes] truethes E: defence] defeuce B 

27 wouldest] wouldst E-\- 

28 My soule] Mysoule A 

29 berent] all rent B+ 

93. 4 that] the B+: boye] boe D 

5 Whiche] That 5+ 

6 saied] sayd C+ 

7 Bis] Biss C, om. D+ 

8 Finis] FJNJS C, FINIS D, Finis I (s upside down): T. M.] W.H. BC, 
W. Hunnis D+ 

9 C95-] N number in A+ : If in A only: Title arranged as one line in D+ : 
troubled in] troubledin B: he] Om. P + 

10 as] s upside down in FG 

12, 1 8, 20 doeth] doth C+: 12 embrace] emrace B 

1 6 doeth] doth D+ 

17-96.31 torn out of E 

1 8 worthe] wroth C 

20 for to set forthe] to set itforthe B, to set it forth CDF+ 

23 should be indented in C or else 17 should not be indented 

26 doe] to HI 

28 and] an d FG: to] doe BCDF+ 

29 Finis] FINJS C: 1. H.] I. Haiwood B+ 

30 [96.] No number in A+\ If in A only: Stanzas not indented in C 

31 wilt] will / 

33 shall seme] shallseeme / 
94. 2-23 torn out of E 

5 works] workers / 

6 Makers] Markers F+ 

1 1 makers] markers F+ 



94. 12 doers] deers D ( apparently y but probably a bad o) 
15 doeth] doth C+ 

18 be] bene DF+: saied] sayd C+ 

19 rest] great rest DF+ 

20 wanteth] wanted F-f- 

23 Finis] FJNJS C, Finis H, Finis I (s upside down): lasper] J. C+ 
24-95.12 [97.] in A only; no number in A 

95. 2-12 in A only 

J 3 [98.] No number in A-DP + : 13-34 torn out of E: If wo/ in BCF+ 
Synner] S upside down in A: Title in D HThe complaynt of a Sinner. And 
song by the Earle of Essex vpon his death bedde in Ireland; in F+ The com- 
plaint of a Sinner, and sung by the Earle of Essex vpon his death bed in 
Ireland: Stanzas not indented in C 

15 trone] throne B, face CDF+: 15, 21, 27 doeth] doth C+ 

16 thy] and FG (corrected in ink in G to thej 
22 despised] despis'd F-f- 

25 life] Blurred out and feete inserted in ink in G: likt] like BCDF+ 

27 my former] myformer / 

30 yernfull] earnefull C, carefull DF+: plain] plaint BCDF+ 

31 mercies sake] mercie sake FG/7, mercysake 7 

32 is like] islike 7 

96. 2-3 1 torn out of E 

3 doen] done C+ 

4 Trinitie] Trim tie F (the undotted i before t makes the n look like m; in G the 
dot is very faintly visible): thy] thine 777 

6 Finis] FJNJS C, Finis FG (in F the absence of dots over the \s and the oblitera- 
tion of the top of the n makes the word look like FuusJ: F. K.] F. Kindle- 
marsh BCD, om. F+ 

7 [99-] No number in A+: ^ in A only: fruite] frnite A: wites] 
wits B-\-\ ruins] mine D 

8 heedelesse] headlesse CDF-}-: rues] s upside down in I: age] rage FG 

9 I] J C: ruthe] youth CDF+: ruins] ruine 7 
10 rue] rule F+: rechlesse] restlesse DF-f 

12 tread] trade D: led] lead CD, leades F+ 

15 trifeled] trifled B+: conceiptes] conceites BCF+ 

1 6 prime] tyme CDF+: search] seeke CDF+ 
1 8 That] That G: dewe] due BCDF+ 

22 And he] Andhe A : doeth] doth C+ : sowe] sooe FG 

23 youth] yonth A 

24 sews] sues BCDF-\-: misspence] mispent DF+ 

25 doeth] doth C+ 

26 hedeles] needelesse 7: hath 2 ] haue BCD: proued] proude 7 

28 breds] breede BCDF+ 

30 to] so CZ)F+: selde] seeld CDF+: dedst] deadst CDF+ 

31 Finis] FINJS C, FINIS FG: q>~\ quod 7 
32-34 in A only 

99. 2 [100.] 2. B+\ estate] The last e is almost blotted out in F 

4 sclender] slender CD, tender E+ 

5 tree] trees E+ 

7 shiuered] shiuerd E-H 

8 wood] world C 

9 axe] In EFG the x is so imperfect as to suggest r: Oxe] oke D-j- 
10 feele] fill 7 



99. 1 1 renowmed] renowned C+ 

12 the heard] theheard FG: huntman] Hunts-man E+ 
14 enioyes] enioyest CD, enioyeth E+ 
1 6 is] are EFG 

1 8 thy] the F+: nor] and C+ 

19 payse] praise CE+ 

21 burden] burthen C: asyde] asype C (d upside down) 

22 his] The i is blurred out in D: y] the D+ 

23 time] In E the undotted \ makes it look as much like tune (cf. 20.3) 

24 foode] foote D 

25 with wine] withwine FG: receiue] recciue B (apparently, but the c may be a 
broken ej 

26 the 2 ] they D+ 

28-29 are added from C; also in D+: 28 tread] treads HI: valleyes] 
valleycs H apparently, valloyes 7 

30 presumed] presumed B, presum'de E+ 

31 drowned] drounde E+: Itarion] Jtarion C, Icarian D, Icarion HI 

32 Phaeton] Pheton D, Phaeton E-G 

33 ben] In E the b is out of range and apparently of a smaller font: with he ate] 
withheate C 

100. 2 sooner] sonner B 

3 or place] are plaste C+ : guide] giue HI: mase] mace C+ 

4 crowne] Cro wne / 

5 renowmed] renowned CE+ 

6 may] shall C+: dwell] dw ell I 
7-8 are added from C; they are also in D+ 
9 from] from the F+ 

10 blisful] blis ful B: raines] raignes C+ 

1 1 FINIS] FINJS C: Heywood] //aywod / 

12 [101.] 24. B+ (in E+ it is the second 24): He] #e H: freend] 
frendes E+ 

13 In D+ the title is in one line 

14 maist] mayest D-G 

17 liues] liuea E 

1 8 Thy] The E: thy] the , th y FG 

19 shew thy] sho thy E-H, shothy / 

20 thousand] M. C 

21 thy] the / 

22 runne] ruune FG 

25 harts] hart E+ : bond] bonds D 

26 the x 2 ] thy E+ : then] the G: fraude] frand FG 

28 lies] 'lies B apparently, lees F+ 

29 flesh] fl e sh / (and made rather obscure by an f that looks like t ) 
31 gilld] gilt Z>+ 

33 none] no E+ 


101. 2 [102.] 29. BC, 3i. 2 ]+, no number in D: A] IfA D 

3 Stanzas indented in D+ : J] I D+ : my] mine F+ 

4 it shall] shall it F+ 

5 is^itFG 

6 euen] The first e is rather dubious in E 

7 he] be FG 



101. 8 time] Rendered obscure in E by an undotted \ (cf. 99.23); t me G: his will] 
h is wi 1 / 

1 6 vsed] vs'd EHI y vs d FG: you] yon C 

17 mettest] meetest C+ 

18 to Mayers] In E a printer's lead Jills the space between the words 

19 done] doen D, doon E-G 

24 May posthast] make post hast D+ 

25 wisedome rule] wisedme rnle 7: an ende] anende B 

26 May '] pray HI 


28 [103.] 32. BCD y 34. E+: Epitaph] Epitap h / 

29 Knight] In E+ this word stands at the end of the preceding line: Baron] 
Boron j9, Barren HI: Exchequer] Exchequer E, Exchequer I 

30 In E-\- all the lines begin flush: weare] were FG: fatal] fatal 1 D 

31 Parcas] Pareas D+ 

32 Pierides] Periades FG, Periades HI 
1 02. 2 you x 2 ] your C+ 

3 sighes] sithes E 

4 Phaebus] Phoebus EH I, Phoebus FG: Pallas] Pallas FG (s upside down): 
pappe, as] papas I: of Sibils] of Sibils FG 

6 loue] Joue C: noursht] nurst E+ 

5-7 The last words of these lines are considerably out of range in I 

7 how] their F: y] the D, there + 

8 Lycurgus] Lycurgns H: Rhadamanthus] Radamantus DE y Rodamantus 
FG, Rodomantus HI 

9 A nother] An other C+ : Nestor] Nector D-G, Nectar HI 
10 Phocion] Phocion FG 

13 sods] fods B (apparently) and C, floudes D+ 

14 Not] Nor C+: ne] nor Z)+-' Prienna] Prienua C, Prienna FG 

15 for 2 ] our D-h 
17 and] ond D 

19 Cuma] Cum I (the a is blotted out): Sibilla] Sibella H 
23 thereof] wherof E+ 
26 deceiued] deceiues D+ 

28 must] most Z)+ : shewe] she we B 

29 sowen] sowne E-\- 

30 fled] fldd E, sword F-j- 

31 Priamus] Priamus FG: Periander] Periander FG 

32 Hector, Hanno, Hanibal] A II have italic capitals in //, with roman small letters: 
Pompei] Pompei FG: Pirrhus] Pyrhus FG 

33 Caesar slaine] Caesarslaine 7 

103. 2 So long] Solong 7: Fortune] fortunne 7 

3 fate] face C: found] fonnd B 

4 feates] feakes DE, frekes FG, wrekes HI 

7 false] once E+ 

8 could] cold D+ 
ii ludge 1 ] Indge B 

13 wan] hath wan , hath wun F+ 

14 There] The D 

17 haplesse] happilesse F+ 

19 Gods] God E+: aboue] In D the space between this word and the next one 

is filed with a printer s lead 
21 doo] to E+ 



103. 28 Hesters] //esters H 

29 ludiths] Judiths C 

30 haue] had E+ 

31 wan] winne F-f* 

32 you] yon 7 

33 should be indented in E: triumpth] triumph C+ 

104. I In D this heading falls on the wrong (right-hand) page 

4 y u ] y ul > y ou 7 

5 y u ] y ur D+: England] Eugland FG 
9 I']andD+ 

10 it] is F+ : Apollos sweard] Apolios sweard E, Opolios swoord FG, Opolois 
sword HI 

1 1 Mauger] manlie F+ 

12 farwell] farwe / 

1 6 Gemme] Gennne EC perhaps: Pactolus] Pactolos C+: lo] low E-H; 
in I a very small fragment of what was apparently a w is visible 

17 Indian] ludian FG: stones] stone D+ : to show] toshow E 

19 my 3] the E+ 

21 felowes] fellewes FG: Queene] King / 

22 doth 3 ] both / 

23 Parcas] Parcus C-G7, Parcus H 

24 skies] s kies H 

26 vanish] vanisheth E+ 

28 triump] triumph C+ 

29 shattering] shattring E-\- 
31 calld] called HI 

105. 2 in 1 ] the D+ 

3 dome] dcme C (apparently, but perhaps a broken o) 

6 LLoyd] L. Loyd FG, Loyd HI 

7 [104.] 40. BCD, 41. EFG, 14 (misprint for 41) HI 

8 Trustie] Faithfull F+ 

9 foe] so D 

10 colour] coler D, culler E+ 

11 Goun] Gun CD, gowne E+ 

13 shamles] shamefull F+: child] chile / 

14 wealth] breath / 

15 til] while C-f: sticke doth] stickedoth / 
16-20 are half blurred out in B 

17 warnd to] warn'dto FG 

20 FINIS] FJNJS C, Finis / (s upside down) 

21 [105.] 51. B-G (in CD it is the second 51 j, 15 (misprint for 51) HI 

25 in loue] inloue FG 

26 shalt] shall E+: others] other FG 

27 is indented in D 

28 geeue] ge cue B 

29 truth] trueth FG: Hues] In I the 1 is so broken as to look like \ 

31 FINIS] FJNJS C, FINIS D, FIN/S FG: M. Hunnis] W. Hunis D-G, 

W. Hums H, W. Hunnis 7 (s upside down) 
.o6. 2 [106.] 63. B, 60. CD, 59. + : dialog] Dilogue E: auctour] Authour D+ 

3 Auctour] Aucthour D-G, Author HI 

4 didst] doest D, doost E-G 

13 Aucthour] Auctour C, Author HI 

1 6 doen] done C+: mights] mightst C-G7, might'st H 



1 06. 17 sonne] soone E 

19 bee bolde] behold / 

21 cause] ease + 

23 Auctour] Aucthour D-G, Author /// 

27 bids] bid /: bee] me F+ 

28 FINIS] FJNJS C: M.] W. D+ 

107. 2 [107.] No number in B-FHI: 2-108.10 torn out of G: comparable] 

comparable C 

4 And] Aud D: 4, 6, 31 doeth] doth C-FHI 

5 wailyng] wayliug F 

6 rent] reut B 

7 grips] gripes C-FHI: pmyng] pinching EFHI 
9 the 1 ] tije E: pantyng] painting 7 

1 1 FINIS] FINIS B (S upside down), FiNIS F: Hunnis] s upside down in I 

12 [108.] No number in B-FHI: Stanzas indented but not separated in EFHI: 
He] //e H 

13 youth] yonth FH: thatz] thats DEFI, that's /7 

14 youthes] youth F: and] snd F 

17 euer] euery F: synfull man] fmfullman F 

19 In youth] Inyonth F: rangde] randge FH 

20 In youth] in yonth F 

22 folly] foliye E (apparently, but perhaps a broken \): kept] keepe FHI 

25 FINIS] FJNJS C, F7NIS D, EINIS F: M.] W. D-FHI: Hunnis] s 
upside down in F 

26 [109.] Afo number in B-FHI: of feined] offained F 

27 7w C+ this poem is arranged in three stanzas of six, seven, and two lines respec- 
tively; the stanzas are separated in D only: In] Jn C: Cires] Sirens D- 

30 founde] fonnde B 

1 08. 2-10 torn out of G 

4 the] that D 

5 fauell] fable HI: y] thou C-FHI: deuise] aduise FH, aduiso 7 

7 are] art D-FHI 

8 W.H.]W.77. 77 

9 /j wo/ indented in EFHI EIIO.] in B only; no number in B 

109. 25 satirfy] satis fy B 
32 for none] fornone B 

no. 8 closely] closesly B 

9 sylence] syleuce B 

in. 2 greefe,] greefe,, 5 

10 G] Wrong font (roman) in B 

n [i 1 1.] No number in B+ : requited] required D 

12 In]JnC 

14, 1 8 doeth] doth C+ 

15 faithful!] faithfull 7 

17 loue] Joue E, lou FG (practically, for the e is almost invisible): can make] 

canmake FG 
20 ts not indented in C; in E there is no space between the stanzas: a loft] afoft 

22 triumps] triumphes C+ 

25 to]atFG 

26 bragged late] braggedlate 7: conquerer] conqureour E 


in. 27 vessall] Vassall C+ 

28 FINIS] FJNJS C, Finis I (s upside down) 

29 [i 1 2.] No number in B+: Of] If Of C: state] estate E+ 

30 In CD the poem is separated into three jour-line stanzas: In] Jn CFG 
112. 2 want ] want $ EHI, wanty FG e t 

3 postes] posses CD, possesse E+ : y a ] y H 

4 That] The E+ 

8 haue] had F+ 

11 [113.] No number in B+: thus] s upside down in FGI 

12 Stanzas not indented in C; indented but not separated in E+ : baier] Beare 
F+ : postyng] hosting C 

13 corsse] coarse E-\~ 

14 saie I] I saye F+: seely] sillye E+: doest] doost E+ 

15 eithe] either D, thats E+ (the first three letters are blurred out in H): that] 
and -f 

16, 1 8, 20 Doest] Doost E+ 

19 whiche that is] the which are E+ 

20 should be indented in I: through smiteth] dooth strike through E+: 
launce] Lannce FG 

21 with] by C+ 

22 yearth] earth C+ 

23, 27, 30 doeth] doth C+: 23 Sommer] sununer / 

24 sprong] sproug D 

25 weareth] withereth E+ 

26 from] feom C 

31 your] the DEI, thy F-H 


115. 2 [114.] No number in C+: Title arranged as four lines in D; divided some- 
what differently from C in I: Written] If Written D: Maister] M. /: 
lohn] John E 

3 Southampton] Southhampton HI 

4 25.] the 25.of E+ : -flLtatis] s upside down in I: 78] 76 D, 79 E+ 
6 hearste] hearest E+ 

9 Though] T hough G: restraine] resteaine E 

1 1 Thy] T hy G 

12 and] aud C: turnd] turne /// 

14 Barnabie] Bernabe HI: couldst] couldest FGH 

15 saying] sayinges I 

1 6 Thou] Thus D-G, Tush HI: nor '] no D+ 
19 in] with D+: earth] the yearth D 

23 to 2 ] or E+ 

27 you 2 ] ye D+ 

28 among] emong D 


u6. 2 [i 1 5.] No number in C+ : No] TfNo D 

3 Stanzas indented in D; indented but not separated in E+ : Jn] In D-H y If / 

4 doth] with E+: glistering] glittering F+ 

5 The carefull] Thecareful / 

6 ghostly] ghastly E+ 
8 In] lu C 

1 2, 26 Doth] Doeth D 

13 feeles] feedes E+ 

14 naught] not / 



116. 15 The] Thy D+ 

19 know en] knowne D+ 

20 sowen] sowne E+ 

26 his] him E+ 

27 sins] since D+ 

30 dwelt me in] dwelt in me DE, dwell in me F+ 

31 do] die HI 

32 That] Thai C 

33 FJNJS] FINIS D+ : qf] quod I 

117. 2-1 18.14 [ii6.]/w C only; no number in C 
19 common] commou C 

118. 15-119.26 [117.] in C only; no number in C 
31 is indented in C 

119. 27 [118.] No number in CDF+: 27-120.32 torn out of E: Stanzas in- 

dented in DF+ 

28 this] the F+ 

29 sinne] sinnn FG 

31 bayre] baite DF+ 

1 20. 2-32 torn out of E 

3 men ioynes] menioynes FG 

4 eyes] eyen DF-/7, ey ne / 

7 blowne] bio wen DFG 

8 slime] sime //, sinne 7 

15 camste] earnest 7 

1 6 haute hie] houtie FG, hautie HI 

21 Abase] Abate 777: makes] make HI 

22 Collyers] In I the second \ is so broken as to obscure the identity of the word: 
tyre] trie FG 

23 Euen so] Euenso C 

24 Whoso] whose DF+: happe] happe so DF+: winne] wiune 7 
28 lightning] lightening FG 

32 FJNJS] FINIS DF+ : G. G.] G. Cask DF+ 

121. 2-20 [119.] in C only; no number in C 
13 agayn] agayu C 

21-124.9 [120.] in C only; no number in C 
123. ii In] lu C 

127. 2 [121.] No number in DE y 23. in F+: precepts] s upside down in FG 

3 The large block-letter P is in D only; from the fourth stanza on, HI abandon the 
policy of stanza-indention, but H re lapses momentarily at line 27 

4 beyond 1 ] beyound 7 

10 skils] wit FHI: if you attentife] ify ou attentiue 7 

19 should be indented in FG: doest] doost E+ 

26 valure] valour 7 

27 apparently should not be indented in H 

28 Joues] loue F+ 

29 loose] lose E: law] la w FG 

30 Banckrupts] Banckrouts E+ 

128. 3 indented in HI 

4 Ar. Bourcher added in FG, A.(and A,)Bourcher in HI 

5 [122.] No number in 7), 24. 1 in E+: ^ in D only 

6 THe] TAe 7 

7 then the] thgthe E 
10 thou] you HI 



128. ii be slow] beslow /: Sayle] Snaile E+ 
1 2 heede] head FG 

15 vs']0w. F+ 

1 8 should be indented in D: some] Fame /: stale] stall / 

20 lappe] lay E+ 

21 enuies] enuious E+ : m auger] manger 7 

26 helpe implore] helpimplore E 

27 crau's] craues E-\- 

28 vertues] verutes FG 

1 29. 2 [i 23.] No number in D+ : f i D only: partes] s /><& ^ca> in FG 
3 Wrote] Who wrote F+ 

5 PO^TW wo/ separated into stanzas in E+, but after every four lines two lines are 


7 Who . . . crowne] Who seekes the way to winne renowne E+ 
9 eschewe] escew 7 

10 should be indented in FG 

1 1 should not be indented in E-G 
15 saith] saieth E+ 

19 minde] mindes F+ 

22 heartes] hai tes E (apparently, but probably the broken letter is r) 
24 abroad] ab roade H 

26 kinsfolkes] kindsfolks H 

29 lust] list F+ 

31 with buckled] wit hbuckled D 
34 to feede] tofeede 7: a] the F+ 
i -p. "2 lason] Jason E 

4 golden] golded FG 

9 trauaile] trauell 7: wanne] wunne F+ 
H ydely] Idlely E-G, idely HI 

12 with them bene] been with them F+ 

15 [124.] No number in DF+ : 15-134.16 torn out of E 
1 8 strife] greefe HI 

23 twixt] t wixt 7 

24 should be indented in I 
26 finde] findes HI 

28 should be indented in F+ 

30 hauntes] huntes FG 

3 1 lose] loose F+ 

131 . 2 to] by F+ : woe] wo e 7: 2-31 torn out of E 

4 himselfe] himseife 7 (apparently, or else a broken \) 

5 bringes] brings a F+ 

6 should be indented in FG 


H [i25.]7V0 number in DF+i Edwardes] Edwardej FG 
14 Nightingall] Nightingale HI 

16 Hare,] Hart, F+ (comma very faint in D) 

22 horned toppes] hornedtops FG 

23 euery] ouerie FG, ouer the HI 

25 he] be 7: his] the F+: skinne] skiune 7 

28 should be indented in I 

29 My] May D: freshe] fr esh 7 

30 I must] must 7 F+: may 1 ] play F+ 

31 saue] s aue 7 



132. 2-31 torn out of E 

3 Vnfolde] Vntolde D apparently: baske] maske HI: pleasure] pleas- 
ures F+ (in FG the last s is upside down) 

4 may] may FG 

6 FINIS] The F ts badly broken in FG 

7 [126.] No number in DF+ 

8 who doest] who doost F-ff, wh ydost 7: my] thy F+ 

10 doest] doost F+ 

11 yearth] earth F+ : and 2 ] an F+ 

12 euery 2 ] enerie FG 
15 should] shonld FG 
21 assaults] assau ts FG 
23 do] did F+ 

27 drinke] driuck FG 

133. 2-29 torn out of E 

6 follie first] folliefirst D 

8 should be indented and the paragraph separated in HI: I do] doo I F+ 

10 My] uiy G 

11 the]thyF-h 

14 FINIS] Finis / (s upside down) 

15 C I2 7] ~No number in DF+: If om. F+ 

16 rashlie] r ashly FG 
20 Mate] may F+ 

25 traueld] trauailed F-H, trauelled 7 

26 raging] ranging HI 

134. 2-16 torn out of E 

4 Fermars] Farmers F-\-: tent] tend jp+ 

6 trips] tripes 7 

8 In fruitlesse] iu fruitlesse G, Infrutlesse 7 



References are to pages and lines. For words and phrases on which no notes are 
given see the Glossarial Index. The Elizabethan editions of the Paradise are referred 
to by the system explained on pages xiv and 137. 

The following works are cited by short titles or abbreviations: 

Camden, William. Proverbs, included (pp. 316-336) in his Remains Con- 
cerning Britain, 1614 (1674 ed., reprinted in Library of Old Authors, 1870). 

Cato, Dionysius. Disticha de Moribus, ed. Charles Hoole, 1701, 1719. 

Collmann, Herbert L. Ballads and Broadsides, Chiefly of the Elizabethan 
Period, Roxburghe Club, 1912. [The so-called Heber ballads reprinted by 
Collmann are now in the library of Mr. Henry E. Huntington.] 

D. N. B. = The Dictionary of National Biography. 

Draxe, Thomas. Treasttrie of Ancient Adagies, 1616 (reprinted by Max 
Forster, Anglia, XLII [1918], 361-424). 

E. E. T. S. = Early English Text Society. 

Farr, Edward. Select Poetry Chiefly Devotional of the Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, 2 vols., Parker Society, 1845. 

Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions (1578), A [by Thomas Proctor and 
others], ed. Hyder E. Rollins, Harvard University Press, 1926. 

Gruter, Jan. Florilegium Ethicopoliticum, n (1611), 172-188 (2d pagina- 
tion). [See Archer Taylor, "Proverbia Britannica," Washington University 
Studies, xi (1924), 409-423.] 

Handful of Pleasant Delights (1584), A, By Clement Robinson and Divers 
Others, ed. Hyder E. Rollins, Harvard University Press, 1924. 

Hazlitt, W. C. English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases, 2d edition, 1882. 

Heywood, John, Works, 1562 = 'The Proverbs and Epigrams of John Hey- 
wood, Spenser Society reprint, 1867. 

Hill, Richard. Songs, Carols, and Other Miscellaneous Poems, ed. Roman 
Dyboski, Early English Text Society, 1907. 

N. . D. = The New English Dictionary. 

Rollins, Hyder E. An Analytical Index to the Ballad-Entries (/557- / 79) in 
the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, University of North Caro- 
lina Press, 1924. [Printed also in Studies in Philology, xxi (1924), 1-324.] 

Tottel's Miscellany, ed. Edward Arber, English Reprints, London, 1870. 
[Popular title of Songes and Sonettes, written by the ryght honorable Lorde Henry 
Haward late Earle of Surrey, and other, 1557.] 

1. The most noteworthy omission in the list of contributors is the name 
of William Hunnis. See the descriptions of the title-pages of later editions 
given in the Introduction, above. 

2. The arms of Sir Henry Compton (on which see Henry Drummond's 
Histories of Noble British Families, i [1846], 12) appear in the editions of 1576, 


[1577], 1578, and 1580 only, i. e., editions A-C. The 1577 edition, it may be 
necessary to repeat here, is not known, while the title-page of (^.1590) is 
torn out. 

3. 2 Syr Henry Compton, sfr. Henry Compton, the son and heir of Peter 
Compton and his wife, Lady Anne Talbot, daughter of the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, was born on February 16, 1537/8. Peter died January 30, 1538/9, 
before he had reached the age of twenty-one. Henry was knighted by the Earl 
of Leicester on February 10, 1566/7, and was summoned by the Queen to the 
House of Lords as Baron Compton of Compton on May 8, 1572. In 1578 he 
was visited by the Queen at Tottenham. Though his name does not appear in 
the Dictionary of National Biography (except as mentioned incidentally in the 
account of his distinguished grandfather, Sir William Compton), Lord Comp- 
ton must have been an important person; for he was one of the peers who tried 
Mary Queen of Scots and one of the four principal mourners at her funeral. 
He married, first, a daughter of the Earl of Huntingdon, and, second, Anne 
Spencer, then the widow of Lord Monteagle and subsequently the wife of 
Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset, the famous poet and statesman. (To "the 
right Honorable the Ladie Compton and Mountegle," by the way, Spenser 
dedicated his Prosopopoia in 1591.) Comptor died and was buried at Compton 
on December 10, 1589. His eldest son, William, became the first Earl of North- 
ampton. Matthew Grove's The most famous and tragic all Historic of Pelops and 
Hippodamia (1587) has two addresses to Compton: one, by Grove, is merely 
headed "The Authors Epistle"; the other, by the printer Richard Smith, is a 
verse-dedication entitled, " T0 the ryght Honorable, Sir Henrie Compton 
Knight, Lord Compton of Compton hole, R. S. wisheth long life with increase of 

Five extant editions of the Paradise, A-E (and presumably the edition of 
1577, making six), carried this dedication; after Compton's death in 1589 it was 
omitted in subsequent editions. 

ii through the trauell of one. I. e., by the work of Richard Edwards, 
whose name is featured on the title-page. 

4. 13-14 like as the shadow, &fc. Disle, the printer, writes in pretty good 
euphuistic style. 

5. i (No. i) The Translation of . . . Saint Barnards verses, &fc. Observe 
that Nos. 1-4 were apparently inserted as an afterthought. They have neither 
numbers nor signature-marks in A. No. i occurs in every edition as the open- 
ing poem (sigs. A2 V -A3 in B-E, A2-A2 V in F-T). In each it is signed " My Luck 
is Loss," a signature that cannot safely be identified with any known author, 
though the names of George Gascoigne and Barnabe Rich are, as I have ob- 
served on pp. Ivi f., often proposed. No. i is reprinted in Censura Literaria, iv 
(1807), 27, and in Gascoigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, n, 323. Probably it 
was the ballad called "Sainct Barnardes sonnett of the vanitie of this world 
that was registered for publication on June 22, 1602 (Rollins, Analytical Index, 
No. 2359). 

[i to] 


The authorship of the original Latin poem has been attributed to Walter 
Map (or Mapes), to Jacobus de Benedictis, and to various others, as well as to 
St. Bernard of Clairvaux: see the discussion of this matter in B. Haureau's Des 
pobmes latins attribute d saint Bernard (1890), p. 27. For the original Latin text 
see Thomas Wright's Latin Poems Commonly Attributed to Walter Mapes, pp. 
147 f. (Camden Society, 1841); Richard Hill's Songs, ^.1536, pp. 93 f.; and 
Carleton Brown's Register of Middle English Religious 5? Didactic Verse ^ n 
(1920), Nos. 2221, 2649. Wright gives readings from seven Anglo-Latin MSS. 
Instead of calling attention to the bad Latin in the Paradise version, perhaps it 
will suffice to enumerate the variants of Wright's text (IV) : 

5. 14 premijs] praemiis: qua? nunquam] quis unquam 

21 Magis credendu] Crcdendum magis: viris] duris: miseris] miseri 

22 Falsis . . . vanitatibus] fallax in sompniis ac vanitatibus, fallax in 
studiis ac voluptatibus 

6. 2 Salomon] Salamon: vbi Samson] Samson ubi 

3 Vel . . . amabilis comes aftervd . . . mirabilis in W 
18-19 come a f ter 26-27 * W 
19 quam diu] quamdiu 

26 hominii] hominis: sic] sunt 

27 semper subtrahit] tamen subtrahunt: hominu] hominem: dura] rura 

7. 4 Haec mundi . . . penditur] Haec carnis . . . dicitur: fseni] foeni 

5 Vt] vel: hominem] hominis: hac vita tollitur] a luce trahitur 

For variants in later editions of the Paradise see pp. 138 f., above. 

Wright's version has two other stanzas, the first of which follows 6.1 1, the 
second 7.5. They are: 

Tot clari proceres, tot retro spatia, 
tot ora praesulum, tot regum fortia, 
tot mundi principes tanta potentia, 
in ictu oculi clauduntur omnia. 

Nil tuum dixeris quod potes perdere; 
quod mundus tribuit intendit rapere; 
superna cogita, cor sit in asthere, 
fcclix qui poterit mundum contempnere. 

In the margin of sig. A3 of B an old hand has written a partial quotation from 
the first of these stanzas, " tot clari proceres tanta potentia in ictu oculi 
clauduntwr omnia." Wright also prints, in a foot-note, an additional final 
stanza from Sloane MS. 1584. 

Perhaps no other poem was more popular in Middle English and Tudor 
English to say nothing of French than St. Bernard's. In this connection 
see Helen L. Cohen's Lyric Forms from France (1922), pp. 26 f., 47; my Old 
English Ballads (1920), pp. 262-264; and Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript, ed. 
Hales and Furnivall, in, 168 ff. An early Elizabethan translation by Thomas 
Tusser occurs in the edition of his works made by the English Dialect Society 
(1878), pp. 202 flf. His version of stanza 4, for example, runs thus: 



Tell me where is Salomon, that once so noble was ? 

Or where now Samson is, in strength whome none could pas ? 

Or woorthie lonathas, that prince so louely bold? 

Or faier Absolon, so goodlie to behold? 

As a specimen of a Jacobean imitation see Samuel Rowlands's A Terrible 
Battell, ca. 1606, D3 V , one stanza of which runs: 

Wher's Hector gone, and Hercules become? 
What newes with Pompey and Achilles now? 
Where marcheth Alexander with his drum, 
To Caesars scepter who doth yeeld or bow: 
Where are these great and mighty conquering ones, 
Time, shew an ounce of dust of all their bones. 

Much earlier (1483) John Skelton, writing "Of the Death of ... Kynge 
Edwarde the Forth" (Poetical Works, ed. Dyce, i [1856], 6, and Mirror for 
Magistrates, ed. Joseph Haslewood, n [1815], 246), had inquired: 

Why should a man be proude or presume hye? 

Sainct Bernard therof nobly doth trete, 
Sey th a man is but a sacke of stercorry, 

And shall returne vnto wormis mete. 

Why, what cam of Alexander the greate? 
Or els of stronge Sampson, who can tell? . . . 

6. 17 whose penne had witte and wyll. Read whose penne had witte at wyll. 

7. 7 In holy sacred booke, &fr. Cf. Psalms ciii. 15, "As for man, his days 
are as grass: as a flower of the field so he flourisheth." 

13 (No. 2) Beware of had I wyst. In every edition (sigs. B in B-E, A4 V 
in F-I), with the signature of "My Luck is Loss" in each. Reprinted in Gas- 
coigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, 11, 325 f., and in Censura Literaria, iv 
(1807), 3 1 ^ The title is a common proverbial expression, which is repeated at 
15.15. Cf. John Gower, Confessio Amantis, iv. 304 f., "make a man mishappe, 
To pleigne and telle of hadde I wist"; 'The Prouerbis of Wysdom, c a. 1475 
(ed. Julius Zupitza, Herrig's Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen, 
xc [1893], 246, 258 f.), "There fore euer be ware of 'Had I wyst'"; 
John Skelton, Magnyfycence (Poetical Works, ed. Dyce, n [1856], 12, 66), 
"Hem, syr, yet beware of Had I wyste," "Yet it is good to beware of Had I 
wyst"; Sir Thomas Elyot, 'The Book Named The Governor, 1531 (ed. H. H. S. 
Croft, ii [1883], 51), " this worde, Had I wist, whiche hath ben euer of all wise 
men reproued"; The Image of Ypocresye, 1533 (Ballads from Manuscripts, ed. 
Furnivall, I, 225, Ballad Society), "lest it be to late To trust on hadd-I-wist"; 
Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 244, "A wise man saith not, had I wist"; A Newe 
Interlude of Impacyente Pouerte, 1 560 (ed. R. B. McKerrow, 191 1, p. 24), "Yet 
I saye beware of had I wyst"; John Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 5, "And that 
deliberacion doth men assist Before they wed to beware of had I wist"; Whet- 
stone, The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 16), "To salve whose 



harme too late corns had I wist"; Nicholas Breton, A Floorish upon Fancie, 
1582 (ed. Thomas Park, p. 95; cf. p. 222), "Take thou still heede of 'had I 
wist"*; Lodge, Rosalynde, 1590, O v (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, i. v. 106), 
"There is no follie in Loue to had I wist"; Tell-Trothes New-yeares Gift, 1593 
(ed. Furnivall, p. 10, New Shakspere Society), "had I wist, is a slender remedy 
to remoue repentaunce, but a manifest badge of folly"; Spenser, Prosopopoia, 
1591, lines 892 f., "Most miserable man, whom wicked fate Hath brought to 
court, to sue for had ywist"; Henry Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abing- 
don, 1599, H3 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "you seek to quarrel but beware of 
had I wist"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 175, "Beware of, Had I wist"; Camden's 
Proverbs, 1614, p. 320, "Beware of had I wist"; Burton, The Anatomy of Mel- 
ancholy, 1621, n. 3.vii, "Look before you leap. Beware of Had I wist"; Wil- 
liam Browne, Britannia's Pastorals, 1613, i. 2 (Whole Works, ed. Hazlitt, i, 80), 
"His late wisht had-I-wists, remorcefull bitings." Many other examples are 
cited in the Handful, p. 104. A. C. Swinburne has a poem called "Had I Wist." 

7. 1 8 hate shal heape despite. Hate shall accumulate bitter mortification 
(from disappointment). 

25 safely how to hue and leaue. "A difficult point," observes a MS. note 
in B. 

8. i (No. 3) The perfect tryall of a faythfullfreend. In all editions (sigs. A4 
in B-E, A3 V in F-I), with the signature of Yloop changed in B-I to M. (Mas- 
ter) Yloop. Reprinted in George Ellis's Specimens, n (1801), 121, (1803), 149. 

4 Not passed wealth, &c. See 120.22 n. 

10 Notfreedomes vse. Not the habitual use, or practice, of freedom, i. e., 
of one's own wishes. 

17 (No. 4) No pleasure, without some pay ne. In all editions (sigs. B3 V in 
B-E, 83 in F-I), with the authorship attributed to W. R. (Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh?) in BC and to William Hunnis in D-I. The initials E. S. in line 36 may, 
then, be disregarded. They have been variously interpreted, even as those of 
Edmund Spenser. The authorship is very doubtful, though probably Hunnis 
has the best claim. The poem is reprinted in John Hannah's Poems of Sir 
Walter Raleigh . . . and Other Courtly Poets (1892), pp. 76 f. Opposite the 
title a MS. note in B says, "loue saused." Draxe, 1616, p. 402, gives as pro- 
verbs, "Pleasure asketh paine" and "He that will haue the pleasure, must 
endure the paine." The title of No. 4 occurs again at 72. 25. 

18-19 Sweete were the ioyes, fefc. See 52.17 n. 

25 wast of winde. Read waft of winde. 

26 The trustlesse traynes. I. e., the untrustworthy snares. 

33 sugred sowre, must sause the bitter sweete. Proverbial. Cf. 70.11 n. 

34 might any meanes remoue. Subjunctive mood: If any means could 
remove. The period has changed places with the comma after loue below. 

9. 2 (No. 5) Our pleasures are vanities. In every edition (sigs. A3 V in B- 
E, A3 in F-I), with the authorship in B-I assigned to William Hunnis. His 
claim to the poem must, accordingly, be granted. D.S., the signature in A, is 



probably an abbreviation for the mysterious D. Sand. A marginal MS. note in 
B says, "tale est quiddaw fol. 24" (i. e., No. 105 in this reprint), and in the 
margin of No. 105 the same hand has written, "Vide cantaruw [sic"] prius [?] 
eodem authore" (i. e., No. 5). Cf. 105. 21 n. The poem is reprinted in Farr's 
Select Poetry, n, 300 f. 

9. 3 the 1 . This word should in the original be in black-letter type, and 
hence here in roman; and the title of the poem should be made up (cf. No. 105 
and the notes) of the italicized words, Behold the end ere thou begin, Haue mind, 

20 (No. 6) M. Edwardes May. In every edition (sigs. B v in B-D, B-B V 
in , A4 V -B in F-I), with Edwards's signature added in B-I. A MS. note in B 
says, " vide Catull[um]. de aduentu veris fol. 17 "; one in E has, " See the reply 
to it at 31," and one in F, "See 31." For answers to this poem see Nos. 102 
and 125. 

The poem is reprinted with music in John Forbes's Cantus, Songs and Fan- 
cies (2d ed., 1666, no. xxxvi). Apart from its slight verbal differences from the 
Paradise version, Forbes's text also adds "The Second Part/* consisting of 
three stanzas running thus: 

When time and space is spent, 
Then may each heart be fear'd: 
Whe beyod time the Judge shal come 
In wrath, what strength can bear't: 
Then Judges all perverse, 
Shal sigh that they were born, 
When cast in everlasting fire, 
Because the truth they scorn. 
All Natures imps shal mourn, 
When wealth and ease is past. 
Take time in time, when time is gone, 
Eternity comes last. 
Take time in time, when time is gone, 
Eternity comes last. 

In time well spent, rejoice, 
For that's the way to rest. 
Time is that point wherein the Lord 
Hates evil, and loves the best. 
Pray for a tender heart: 
Bear here your grief and pain: 
For time it is that many are, 
Who spend their life in vain. 
That things be strangely wrought, 
Before all time is past. 
Though time be now, it shal not be, 
Eternity comes last, 
Though time, &c. 



All ye that be in time, 
And hath your time but short, 
Redeem your time, as God cQmands, 
I humbly you exhort: 
Use time while ye have time, 
For time will have an end: 
When all your life-time shal be spent, 
It is too late to mend. 
Your liking and your lust 
Shal ceass when time is past: 
Spend well your time, when time is gone, 
Eternity comes last. 

Spend well your time, when time is gone, 
Eternity comes last. 

No. 6 appears in Ellis's Specimens, u (1801), in f., (1803), 139 f. Similar to it 
are the poems on May in Turbervile's Epitaphes, 1567 (Collier's reprint, pp. 
195-198), and in the Bannatyne Manuscript, 1568 (ed. Hunterian Club, 
in, 443-446). An interesting punning poem on May, attributed to the Eliza- 
bethan actor Nathaniel Field and preserved in a MS. owned by Mr. W. A. 
White, of Brooklyn, may be worth citing: 

Feild y e player on his M rs the Lady May. 

Itt is the fayr & merry moneth of May 

y 1 clothed the ffeild in all his rych array 
adorning him w th colours better dyed 

then any king can wear or any bryd 
but May is allmost spent the ffeild growes dun 
w th too much gazing on the y Mayes hott sunn 
And if mild Zephirus y* gentle wynd 
vouchsafe not his calme breath & the clouds kynd 
distill their honny droppe his heat to lay 
poore ffeild will burne een in the midst of May. 

9. 32 Take May in time. A similar idea is expressed in The Wisdom of 
Solomon ii. 8, "Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds, before they be withered," 
to say nothing of Robert Herrick's famous imitative lyric beginning "Gather 
ye rosebuds while ye may." 

10. 5 When allthefruite is gone, &c. Evidently a proverb, though I do not 
recall having met with this particular form of it elsewhere. Cf. 27.25 n. 

9 (No. 7) Faire woordes makefoolesfaine. In every edition (sigs. B v - 
82 in B-E, B-B V in F-I), and uniformly attributed to Richard Edwards. The 
poem was twice registered for publication in broadside-ballad form: in 1563-64 
by William Griffith and in 1565-66 by Thomas Colwell (Rollins, Analytical 
Index, Nos. 831, 832). Whether or not Edwards consented to, or approved of, 
that form of publication is doubtful. Another copy of the poem, unsigned, is 
preserved in Additional MS. 15,233, whence it was reprinted by J. O. Halliwell 
[-Phillipps] in his edition of John Redford's Moral Play of Wit and Science, pp. 



74 f. (Shakespeare Society, 1848). If mere orthographical variations are ig- 
nored, the MS. differs from the Paradise version only in eleven small points: 

10. 15 poore] pare 

1 6 Yet] But: the] that 
20 tales] talkes 
26 where] wheares 

31 often] Om. 

32 must I] I must 

33 them] age 

11. 2 turne] prove 
3 growg turnde 
6 no 1 ] not 

Too late to collate, I find another version, without title or signature, in the 
so-called Harington MS. (Additional 28,635, fol. 106). 

The title is proverbial. Cf. Everyman (Dodsley-Hazlitt, Old Plays, i, 117), 
"Lo, fair words maketh fools fain"; Richard Hill, Songs, ^.1536, p. 128, 
"Faire behestis makith folis fain"; Hey wood, Works, 1562, pp. 56, 155, "And 
so rather let faire woordes make fooles fayne, Than be plaine without pletes, & 
plant your owne payne," "Fayre woordes make fooles fayne, that was by olde 
scooles: But now we see, fayre woordes make wyse men fooles"; John Keeper, 
"The Unsertaintie of seruice," in Thomas Howeirs Newe Sonets, and pretie 
Pamphlets, 1568, G v (Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 154), "Fayr wordes they say, 
make fooles to faine"; Leonard Gibson, "A very proper Dittie," ca. 1570 (A 
Collection of Seventy-Nine Black-Letter Ballads and Broadsides, 1867, p. 116), 
"And fayre wordes paynted, as dames can define, The old prouerbe saith, doth 
make some fooles faine"; Whetstone, The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's re- 
print, p. 244, marginal note), "Faire words makes fooles faine"; Lyly, Eu- 
phues, 1579 (Works, ed. Bond, i, 215), "Heere you may see gentlemen the fals- 
hood in felowship . . . y e faire woords that make fooles faine"; Thomas 
Churchyard, Churchyardes Charge, 1580 (Collier's reprint, p. 1 5), " faire woords 
maks fooles full fain"; Lyly, Euphues and his England, 1580 (Works, n, 227), 
"Fayre words fatte fewe"; Anthony Munday, The Pleasant Comedy of Two 
Italian Gentlemen, 1584, G v (Malone Society reprint), "Commonly faire fooles 
make wordes and perswasions to be faine"; Michael Dray ton, "To Prouerbe" 
(Idea, 1602, sonnet 58, Minor Poems, ed. Brett, p. 45), "In hue there is no 
lacke, thus I beginne? Faire words makes fooles, replieth he againe?"-, J. Gruter, 
1611, n, 176, "Fayre woords, make fooles fayne"; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 
322, "Fair words make fools fain." In his comments on the Court, Edwards is 
mild. Much more striking is the invective Churchyard uttered in various bal- 
lads that appeared in 1565-66, almost simultaneously with "Fair Words." 
For his ballads see my Analytical Index, No. 306. In one of them, " Church- 
yardes Lamentacion of Freyndshyp," 1566 (Collmann's Ballads, p. 85), he 
echoes Edwards's proverbial title by saying, 

And to be shorte fayre wordes is all 
The fruite that from the tree dothe fall. 



10. 1 8, 19, 21 me., see.y entise. The periods should be omitted or else changed 
to commas. 

22 To thinke al golde that shines, &c. I. e., do entice the simple to think 
that all that shines is gold, in order to feed their (the simple's) foolish desire. A 
very common proverb. Cf. Chaucer, The Canon's Yeoman's Tale (G. 962 f.), 
"But al thing which that shyneth as the gold Nis nat gold, as that I have herd 
it told," and The House of Fame, i. 272, "Hit is not al gold, that glareth"; John 
Bon and Mast per -son , 1547 (Hazlitt's Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of 
England, iv [1866], 15), "al is not golde that hath a fayre glosse"; Nicholas 
Udall, Ralph Roister Doister, ca. 1554, v. i. (ed. W. D. Cooper, p. 79, Shake- 
speare Society, 1847), "nowe I see truthe in the proverbe olde, All things that 
shineth is not by and by pure golde"; Hey wood's Works, 1562, p. 22, "All is 
not golde that glisters by tolde tales"; Turbervile, Epitaphes, 1567 (Collier's 
reprint, p. 55), "Not every thing that gives a gleame and glittering showe, Is 
to be counted gold in deede; this proverb well you knowe"; The Trial of Treas- 
ure, 1567, A3 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "it is not golde alwayes that doth 
shine"; Whetstone, The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 84), "she 
thought all was gold that glittered"; Spenser, Faery Queen, 1590, ii. 8. 14, 
"Yet gold al is not, that doth golden seeme"; Porter, The Two Angry Women 
of Abingdon, 1599, Hj v (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "I see al is not gold that glis- 
ters"; England's Helicon, 1600 (ed. Bullen, p. 210), "All is not gold that shin- 
eth bright in show"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 173, "All is not gold that glisters"; 
Rowley and Middleton, A Fair Quarrel, 1617, v. i, "All is not gold that glister- 
eth in bed"; "The true Lovers Summons," 02.1656 (Rollins, Cavalier and 
Puritan, 1923, p. 430), "All's not Gold that's bright"; Charlotte Bronte, Jane 
Eyre, chapter xxiv, "It is an old saying that 'all is not gold that glitters.'" A 
lost play mentioned in Philip Henslowe's Diary (ed. Greg, n, 217) in 1 60 1 was 
called "All is not Gold that Glisters." See, further, Skeat's Chaucer, v, 429; the 
commentators on The Merchant of Venice, n. vii. 65; and Draxe, 1616, p. 377. 

26 where dcedes insuefaire woordes. This is the motif of No. 18 (p. 21). 

27 that bus she s geuesfor birdes. A reference to the well-known proverb 
(repeated at 86.3) of beating the bush and missing the birds, for which see 
Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 7; the Handful, p. 109; the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 179; 
and Draxe, 1616, pp. 374, 383, 390. 

29 strike it, whyle the iron is hotte. A proverb. Cf. Chaucer, Troilus and 
Criseyde, ii. 1275 f., "Pandare . . . Felte iren hoot, and he bigan to smyte," 
and The Tale of Melibeus (B. 2225 f.), "right so as whyl that iren is hoot, men 
sholden smyte"; Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 6, "And one good lesson to this 
purpose I pike From the smithis forge, whan thyron is hot strike"; Spenser, 
letter to Gabriel Harvey, 1579, "For, whiles the yron is hote, it is good strik- 
ing," and Harvey to Spenser, 1579, "Your hotte yron, is so hotte, that it 
striketh mee to the hearte, I dare not come neare to strike it" (Grosart's 
Harvey, i, 7, 20); Lodge, The Life and Death of William Longbeard, 1593, C4 
(Works, ed. Hunterian Club, n. iv. 27), "William, that saw the iron readie to 



wax hot, and the hammers readie to strike, began to remember himselfe"; 
Shakespeare, j Henry VI , v. i. 49, "Nay, when? strike now, or else the iron 
cools"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 186, "When the Iron is hot, stryke"; Henry Hut- 
ton, Follies Anatomic, 1619, p. 56 (Percy Society, vol. vi, 1842), "He wisely 
strikes now whilst the iron's hot"; Farquhar, 'The Beaux' Stratagem, iv. ii (iv in 
some editions), "Strike while the iron is hot." See also Draxe, 1616, p. 400; 
James Mabbe's The Rogue, 1623 (ed. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, in [1924], 131); 
Martin Parker's ballad, "A Prouerbe old, yet nere forgot, Tis good to strike 
while the Irons hott" (ca. 1625), in my Pepysian Garland (1922), p. 229; and 
the Roxburghe Ballads, i, 426, n, 558. 

10. 31 gapes. The period should be a comma. 

11. 6 nofaire. Read not fair, with B+. 

1 1 (No. 8) In his extreame sycknesse. In every edition (sigs. B2-B2 V in 
B-D, 62 in E, B v in F-I), and attributed in each to Lord Vaux. 

17 in sorowes linkes betyde. The N. . D. gives only this example (from 
the 1578 edition of the Paradise instead of from A) of betied, meaning tied 
round, tied fast. 

23 by life. Read my life, with B+. 

12. 2 (No. 9) For Christmas day. In every edition (sigs. B2 V in B-E, 62 in 
F-I), and attributed in each to Francis Kinwelmarsh. Reprinted in Farr's 
Select Poetry, n, 291. Other versions (with music) occur in William Byrd's 
Songs of Sundry Natures (1589, 1610), where the chorus is song 24 and the 
poem itself song 35 (the words are reprinted in Wilhelm Belle's Die gedruckten 
englischen Liederbucher bis 1600, pp. 32 f. [Palaestra, xxix, 1903], and in E. H. 
Fellowes's English Madrigal Verse, 1920, p. 58, and both the words and the 
music in Fellowes's English Madrigal School, xv [1920], pp. xviii, 135-144). 
Byrd's music for the chorus may be found also in Bodleian MS. Mus.f.i i, No. 
24; and an eighteenth-century copy of the song, with musical score, is in Addi- 
tional MS. 23,626, fols. 45, 75 V . A copy, without music, in Additional MS. 
15,225, fol. 47 V , is reprinted in my Old English Ballads (1920), pp. 238 f. Colla- 
tions with the last version (R) and with that of Fellowes (X) are given below: 

12. 2 For] A Carall For R y A Carowle for X 

3-4 The refrain comes at the end of each stanza in X 

4 Christes] Christ his R 

5 dyd] to vs did R 
1 6 guiltie] guilt of R 

17-19 Chris tes] Christ his RX 
19 Of] In/? 
21 all] sweet X 

24 O] and R 

25 like] let R 

26 day] day to vs R, day to man X: did] doth X 

27 let] and X 

28 The ioy] These joys X: Christes] Christ his RX 

29 F. K.] Om. R, Francis Kindlemarsh X 



12. 4 Christes. The genitive case, of course. So in lines 17-19 and 28. 

5 this day dyd. Read this day to us did, with R, for the sake of metre. 

26 that this day. Read that this day to us, with R, for the sake of metre. 

27 Shalme. I. e., shawm, a hautboy or "waits." Nicholas Whight, in 
"A Commendation of Musicke," 1562-63 (Collmann's Ballads, p. 275), in- 
forms us that "Pan the Pype, Apollo eke, the Shalme he did inuent." 

13. 2 (No. 10) Easter day. In every edition (sigs. 63 in B-D, B2 V -B3 in E, 
B2-B2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Jasper Heywood. 

5 5y death, with death, &fc. By his death Christ has redeemed you; let 
us sing to Him that hath appeased God's wrath with (his) death. 

20 Paul. I. e., i Corinthians xv. 13-14, " But if there be no resurrection 
of the dead, then is Christ not risen: And if Christ be not risen, then is our 
preaching vain, and your faith is also vain." 

24 A line rhyming with light is missing here in all the editions, the stanza 
having only seven lines instead of eight. 

14. 2 (No. 11) For Whitsunday. In every edition (sigs. B3~B3 V in B-D, 
63 in E, B2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Francis Kinwelmarsh. Re- 
printed in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 292. 

13 'Thou art my God, &?r. This and the following stanza are wrongly ar- 
ranged. Lines 13-14, 15-16, 20-21, and 22-23 respectively should be printed 
in one line, as in B+. 

20 My hppes, &c. See 14.13 n. 

28 (No. 12) Who mindes to bring, &fc. In every edition (sigs. B4~B4 V in 
B-D, B3 V -B4 in E, 83-63 v in F-I), and assigned in each to Jasper Heywood. 

32 Nought woorth is wit, &c. Proverbial. Cf. Churchyard, "Church- 
yardes farewell," 1566 (Collmann's Ballads, p. 89), "As witte is neuer good till 
it bee deerely bought"; Lyly, Euphues, 1579 (Works, ed. Bond, i, 185), "It 
hath bene an olde sayed sawe, and not of lesse truth then antiquitie, that witte 
is the better if it bee the deerer bought"; Porter, The Two Angry Women of 
Abingdon, 1599, H3 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "bought wit is best"; John 
Bodenham, Belvedere, 1600, B7 V , "Time shewes the truth, and wit that's 
bought is best"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 188, "Witt is neuer good til it be bought"; 
the title and refrain of a ballad of 1634 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 2974), 
printed in the Roxburghe Ballads, in, 63, "Wit's never good till 'tis bought"; 
John Taylor, Epigrammes, 1651, A5 V , "They say, Wit's never good till it be 
bought, And being bought too deare it proves stark naught." See also the 
Mirror for Magistrates, 1587 (ed. Haslewood, i [1815], 45), "Wit nought 
auayles late bought with care and cost"; and Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 

33 no wysedome but in hoarie heares. Cf. The Wisdom of Solomon iv. 9, 
"wisdom is the gray hair unto men, and an unspotted life is old age"; Pro- 
verbs xvi. 31, "The hoary head is a crown of glory." Compare also Thomas 
Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique , 1560 (ed. G. H. Mair, 1909, p. 83), "For (as the 
Wiseman saith) a mans wisedome is the greye heares"; Thomas Dekker, 



Satiro-mastix, 1602 (ed. Hans Scherer, 1907, p. 54), "Haire? It's the basest 
stubble; in scorne of it, This Prouerbe sprung, he has more haire then wit"; 
Shakespeare, 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in. i. 361, "She hath more hair 
than wit," and The Comedy of Errors, n. ii. 83 f., "Why, but there's many a 
man hath more hair than wit." 

15. 2 / may of wysedome oft define. For oft read ought (i. e., aught), with 

6 Feare God, f?r. A marginal MS. note in B says, "rules of a wary 
life/' Various lines in this poem (see also the notes to pp. 108-110) come either 
from Dionysius Cato's distichs or from the brief precepts that precede them. 
In this line there is a reference to his precept, "Deo supplica." Cf. also the 
Disticha, i. i. 

7 Be freend to all,familier but to f ewe. This passage is echoed by "A 
most excellent new Dittie, wherein is shewed the sage sayinges, and wise sen- 
tences of Salomon/' 1586 (Collmann's Ballads, p. 249; Roxburghe Ballads, n, 

540) , 

Be friendly vnto euery man, 
but vnto few familiar be; 

and by the advice Polonius gives to Laertes (Hamlet, i. iii. 61 ff.), 

Be them familiar, but by no means vulgar. 
Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel. 

The entire poem is in the best sententious, moralizing vein of Lyly. 

8 Too light of credite, &c. Cf. no. 10; and Cato's precept, "Nihil te- 
mere credideris." 

10 eye. Read eyes, with E-\-, for the sake of rhyme. With lines 10-11 
compare my Old English Ballads (1920), p. 228, 

Search not in other men too neare, 

first see that thou thy selfe bee cleare; 

and Cato's Disticha, i. 30, "Quse culpare soles, ea tu ne feceris ipse: Turpe est 
doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum." 

12 Of medling much, dooth mischief e oft aryse. Cf. the proverb discussed 
at 94. 19 n. 

15 beware of had I wist. See 7.13 n. 

16 So spend thy good, &c. Cf. Cato's precept, "Rem tuamcustodi"; also 
the Disticha, i. 24, ii. 17: "Ne tibi quid desit, quaesitis utere parce; Utque, quod 
est, serves; semper tibi deesse putato"; "Utere quaesitis modice, cum sumptus 
abundat, Labitur exiguo, quod partum est tempore longo." 

17 Haukes, doo soare from emptie fist. Proverbial. Cf. Chaucer, The 
Wije of Bath's Prologue (D. 415), "With empty hand men may none haukes 
lure," and The Reeve's Tale (A. 4134), "With empty hand men may na haukes 
tulle." In his notes on these lines Skeat (Chaucer's Complete Works, v, 302) 



cites John of Salisbury (Policraticus, v. 10), "Veteri celebratur proverbio: 
Quia vacuae manus temeraria petitio est"; and Lydgate (cf. Furnivall, Politi- 
cal, Religious, and Love Poems, E. E. T. S., 1866, p. 25), "with empty hand 
men may no hawkes lure." See also Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 54, "With 
emptie handes men maie no haukes allure "; and Draxe, 1616, p. 394, "Empty 
hands no hawkes allure/' 

15. 1 8 Cut out thy coate, according to thy cloth. Proverbial. Cf. the preface to 
Hugh Latimer's Sermons, 1549 (ed. Arber, p. 51, English Reprints, 1869), "Cut 
thy coat after the mesure"; Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 16, "I shall Cut my 
cote after my cloth"; Anthony Munday, A Banquet of Dainty Conceits, 1588 
(Harleian Miscellany, ix [1812], 223), "According to cloth, so cut out thy 
coate"; A Health to the Gentlemanly profession of Seruingmen, 1598 (Hazlitt, 
Inedited Tracts, 1868, p. 153), "you . . . cannot be content to shape your 
Coate according to your Cloth"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 175, "Cut your cote after 
your cloth"; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 320, "Cut your coat after your 
cloth"; Draxe, 1616, p. 365, "A Man must cut his coat according to his 
cloth"; John Fletcher, Beggars' Bush, 1622, iv. i, "Keep yourself right, and 
even cut your cloth, sir, According to your calling." See also the quotation 
from Lyly cited at 83.9 n. 

20 Beleeue not htm, &c. Cf. Shakespeare, J Henry VI, iv. iv. 30, "trust 
not him that hath once broken faith." 

21 Nor yet of gift, &c. Cf. Cato's precept, "Cui des videto." 

22 Time quickly slips. Cf. the proverb, "The tide will not tarrie," in 
the Handful, line 33,2, and "The tide tarrieth no man," in Hazlitt's English 
Proverbs, p. 400; and see 111.6 n. 

23 Of wanton youth . . . painefull age. This is the motif of No. 17 (p. 

1 6. 3 Vnconstant is the womans waueryng minde. Cf. Hamlet, i. ii. 146, 
" Frailty, thy name is woman "; Tennyson, Queen Mary, in. vi, " My Lord, you 
know what Virgil sings, Woman is various and most mutable"; Virgil, AEneid, 
iv. 569, "Varium et mutabile semper Femina." 

6-8 The aged man is like, &c. After the Introduction was paged and the 
Notes were in galley-proof, I happened to read in the Bodleian Library the ex- 
ceedingly rare copy of Brian Melbancke's Philotimus. The Warre betwixt Na- 
ture and Fortune (i 583), and at once noticed that it contains a large number of 
remarkable borrowings all printed as prose taken without acknowledg- 
ment from the Paradise. Thus, on signature Bb2 v are lines 6-8: "The aged 
man is like the barren soyle, a woman is a reede that wagges with euery winde, 
no trust is to be found in tender yeares, the surety of all ages is vnsound." See 
also the notes on 28.30, 29.30, 52.17, 95.16, 120.22, where I point out the most 
striking cases of similar borrowings. They should be read in connection with 
my comments (pp. xxxi ff.) on the reputation of the Paradise. 

15 (No. 13) Of the vnconstant stay of fortunes giftes. In every edition 
(sigs. B4 V -C in B-D, B4 V in E, 64 in F-I), and assigned in each to F. K. 


(Francis Kinwelmarsh). After the title a MS. note in B adds, "vid. 34" (i. e., 
No. 31 in the present edition). 

1 6. 1 6 If Fortune, &c. See H. R. Patch, The tradition of the Goddess For- 
tuna, in Smith College Studies in Modern Languages, in (1922), 131-235. On 
Fortune's wheel cf. 32.29. 

22-23 Rocke . . . on the sandes. A reference to the parable of the wise 
man who built on a rock and the foolish man who built on the sand (Matthew 

vii. 24-27). 

31 by Fortune. Read by virtue, with B+. 

17. 2 (No. 14) Promise is debt. In every edition (sigs. C in B-D, B4 V -C in 
E, B4-B4 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Richard Hill. The title is prover- 
bial. Cf. Chaucer, The Man of Laws tale (B. 41), " Biheste is dette, and I wol 
holde fayn Al my biheste." In his note on this passage Skeat (Chaucer's Com- 
plete Works, v, 136) quotes Everyman (Dodsley-Hazlitt, Old Plays, i, 137), 
"Yet promise is debt/' and Hoccleve's Regement of Princes, 1412 (Works, ed. 
Furnivall, in, 64, E. E. T. S.), "And of a trewe man be-heste is dette." Cf. also 
Publilius Syrus, maxim 528 (C. Zell's edition, 1829, p. 18), "Ne plus promittas 
quam prsestare possiet"; Cato's Disticha, i. 25, "Quod praestare potes, ne bis 
promiseris ulli; Ne sis ventosus, dum vis urbanus haberi"; Gascoigne, Certain 
Notes of Instruction (Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i, 500), "since promise is 
debt"; Gabriel Harvey, Four Letters and Certain Sonnets, 1592 (Works, ed. 
Grosart, i, 174), "Promise is debt: and I hadd rather perfourme, then promise 
any thinge"; and Draxe, 1616, p. 404, "Promise is debt." Cf. 21.20-21 and 

127. 19 n. 

The poem is written in the six-line iambic pentameter stanza, rhyming 
ababcc, that Spenser had used in the first and last eclogues of The Shepherds 
Calendar (1579), Thomas Howell in many pieces in his H. His Denises (1581), 
and Shakespeare in Venus and Adonis (1593). It is the favorite stanza in the 
Paradise, no fewer than seventeen poems being written in that form, Nos. 
14,16, 17, 34>4S>47, 68,7^ 79, 82, 87, 91, 97, 115, 1 18,119, 120. There are also 
some ten poems (cf. 22.13 n.) in which a stanza of six tetrameter lines rhyming 
ababcc is used. 

12 Aste. Read As to, with B+. 

15-17 freendly league, &c. Mr. Kittredge paraphrases as follows: 
"'O friendly alliance! Although it is a pity that our troth (friendly alliance) 
didn't begin earlier (in our lives), yet time will prove that we have profitably 
used (utilized) it,' i. e., got much good out of it for that period during which 
we have (or shall have) stood in this relation to each other." 

1 6 is well. Read as well, with B+. 

20 That. Read That always, with B+. 

22 (No. 1 5) No woordes, but deedes. In every edition (sigs. C-C V in B-D, 
C in E, B 4 V in F-I), and assigned in each to R. D. With the title compare 
Shakespeare, Henry VIII, in. ii. 153 f-> "'tis a kind of good deed to say well: 
And yet words are no deeds," and Richard III, i. iii. 532, "Talkers are no good 



doers"; Draxe, 1616, p. 375, "Doing is better then saying"; Fletcher, The 
Lovers' Progress, 1623, in. i, "Like to a torrent, deeds, not words, shall speak 
me"; James Mabbe, Cekstina, 1631 (ed. H. W. Allen [1908], p. 237)," I will 
see whether sayings and doings eat together at your table, whether deeds and 
words sit both at one board with you"; Samuel Butler, Hudibras, 1663, I. i. 
867, "Of deeds, not words"; Longfellow, Hiawatha, pt. ix, "Deeds are better 
things than words are." See also the title of No. 18 (p. 21). 

17. 23-24 The wrong . . . That yeeldes such care, &c. "The injury (done 
me) is great, the pain above my power (to bear), which causes me such anxiety 
lest I may drown in pits of doubt, i. e., lose your friendship because you 
suspect me of being false (cf. line 32)." G. L. K. 

28 that yet. The metre and sense seem to require that never yet. 

1 8. 3 other hath not. The reading of J5+, hath not been, sounds 

4 is approued. The reading of $+, not approved, is unwarranted. The 
passage in A means, What have I ever done to prove my faithfulness that re- 
quires any further test on your part ? That is, haven't I already proved it with- 
out more tests? 

17 a dogge shall haue a day. A proverb. Cf. A New Enterlude of Godly 
Queene Hester, ca. 1529 (ed. W. W. Greg, 1904, p. 26), " A prouerbe as men say 
a dogge hath a day," "But as I say, a dogge hath a day"; Heywood's Works, 
1562, p. 30, "But as euery man saith, a dog hath a dale"; New Custom, 1573, 
D v , "Well if it chaunce that a dogge hath a daye"; Timothy Kendall, Flowers 
of Epigrammes, 1577, ?5 (ed. Spenser Society, p. 249), "the prouerbe old doth 
say . . . a dog may hauc a day"; Anthony Munday, The Pleasant Comedy of 
Two Italian Gentlemen, 1584, 4* (Malone Society reprint), "I am as wearie of 
my cariage as a Dogge of his day"; Gabriel Harvey, Four Letters and Certain 
Sonnets, 1592 (Works, ed. Grosart, i, 197), "a dog hath a day"; Thomas 
Nashe, Summer s Last Will, 1592 (Works, ed. McKerrow, in, 254), "no dog 
but hath his day"; Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon, 1599, 3 
(Tudor Facsimile Texts), " a dogge hath his day "; John Day, The Blind Beggar 
of Bethnal Green, ca. 1600 (1659 ed., reprinted by W. Bang, 1902, p. 29), "but 
all's one, a dog has his day, and I shall have mine too " ; Hamlet, v. i. 315, "The 
cat will mew and dog will have his day"; J. Gruter, 161 1, n, 172, "A dog hath 
a day"; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 316, "A dog hath a day"; Draxe, 1616, p. 
377, "A dogge hath a day (namely of reuenge)"; John Taylor, Works, 1630 (ed. 
Spenser Society, p. 369), "Thus the old Prouerbe is fulfilled, A Dogge shall haue 
his day" ; a mutilated ballad of the date 1638 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 
946) preserved in the Roxburghe Ballads, i, 135, "Let's spend while we may; 
Each dog hath his day." In The Poems of Mildmay, 2 d Earl of Westmoreland. 
(1648.), ed. Grosart, 1879, P* 86, is the remark that "Each thing below here 
hath its day, As in the Proverb's said." Cf. Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 129, 
"Every dog hath its day." 

19 (No. 16) He desyreth exchange of lyfe. In every edition (sigs. C V -C2 



in B-E, C-C V in F-T), and assigned in each to Lord Vaux. On the stanza-form 
see 17.2 n. 

1 8. 23 Aliue as dead, &c. The antithetical tone of the poem suggests the 
reading Aliue and dead. For sowe read see, with B+. 

25 Whyle grasse dooth growe, &c. A proverb, which is repeated at 29.33. 
Cf. Richard Hill, Songs, ca. 1536, pp. 128, 132, " While the grasse grwith, the 
hors sterwith," "Dum gramen cressit, equus in moriendo quiescit"; Hey- 
wood's Works, 1562, p. 30, "while the grasse groweth the horse sterueth"; 
Whetstone, The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 136), "The pro- 
verbe saith, whilst grasse doth growe, For want of foode the steede doth 
sterve"; Nicholas Breton, A Floorish upon Fancie, 1582 (ed. Park, p. 217), 
"But while the grasse dooth grow, oft times the silly steede he sterves"; 
Geoffrey Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. Henry Green, 1866, p. 26), 
"While grasse doth growe, the courser faire doth sterue"; 'The Passionate 
Morrice, 1593 (ed. Furnivall, p. 89, New Shakspere Society, 1876), "while the 
grasse growes the steed starues"; Bodenham, Belvedere, 1600, L^ v , "While 
grasse doth grow, the labouring Steed may starue"; Hamlet, m. ii. 358, 
"' While the grass grows, ' the proverb is something musty"; J. Gruter, 
1611, n, 187, "While the grass growith the horse starueth"; Camden's Pro- 
verbs, 1614, p. 335, "While the grass groweth the horse starveth"; Draxe, 1616, 
p. 375, "Whiles that the grasse groweth, the steed sterueth"; John Taylor, 
Works, 1630, Dd2 v (ed. Spenser Society, p. 198), "Yet the old prouerbe I 
would haue them know, The horse may starue the whilst the grasse doth 
grow." Cf. also Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 480, "When the horse is starved, 
you bring him oats." 

26 / rome the race. The reading of E+, I run the race, seems preferable. 
31 / watch the net, &V. This has a proverbial sound, though I do not re- 
call having seen the phrase elsewhere. But see 86.4. 

19. 2-3 the greedy dogge doth gnaw, &c. See 29.30 n. 

5 fled. Read /<?</, with B+. 

6 Narsissus, &c. For a ballad on Narcissus see the Handful, pp. 29-31. 
The poet evidently means: I, forst (farced, stuffed) with fancies and fed with 
unsubstantial food, as Narcissus at the fountain, who enjoyed only the 
shadow and could not get the substance, continually thirst, no matter how 
much I drink. 

7 So aye thirst I, &c. Proverbial. Cf. Marcus Aurelius as translated 
from Don Anthony of Guevara by Sir Thomas North (The Dial! of Princes, 
1557, iii. 20, fol. i88 v ), "I find, that the more I eate, the more I dye for honger, 
the more I drinke, the greater thirste I haue"; Mirror for Magistrates, 1578 
(ed. Haslewood, i [1815], 423), "The more I dranke, the more thirst did me 
stil distresse." 

9 With smart vnseene, my selfe my selfe I weare. With an invisible dis- 
ease or sickness I myself exhaust myself. 

13 The more I haste, &c. Proverbial. Cf. Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 5, 


"hast maketh waste/* "Moste times he seeth, the more haste the lesse 
speede"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 185, "The more haste, the lesse speede"; Cam- 
den's Proverbs, 1614, p. 328, "More haste, worst speed"; Draxe, 1616, p. 386, 
"The more haste, the lesse speed'*; Thomas Hey wood, Pleasant Dialogues and 
Drammas, 1637 (ed. W. Bang, 1903, p. 208), "The more haste, the worse 
speed "; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 392. 

19. 14 in frozen yse to/rye. A conventional Elizabethan figure. Cf. Whet- 
stone, 'The Rock oj Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 54), "I frye, yet frosen 
am, I freese amid the fire." 

1 6 is forste. The inferred subject is indefinite: One who is fast fettered 
here is forced, &c. 

27 (No. 17) Of the instabilitie of youth. In every edition (sigs. C2 V -C3 in 
B-Dy C2-C2 V [this verso is wrongly lettered C^\ in E, C V -C2 in F-I), and as- 
signed in each to Lord Vaux. After the title a MS. note in B adds, "Vid 75" 
(i. e.,No. 108), while at No. 108 the same hand has written, "Vide cantuw 18" 
(i. e.j No. 17. Cf. 107. 12 n.). No. 17 is reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 
302 f. In a greatly changed version of four stanzas, called "Another [elegy], 
wrote in the Tower, 1554," and attributed to John Harington (but it is im- 
probable that he was the author), it appears also in Nuga Antiques, 1769, 
pp. 97 f., in (1779, 1792), 271 f., n (1804), 333 f. The 1804 version omits 
stanza 2, and combines stanzas 4 and 5 thus: 

Thou that didst grant the wise kynge his request, 
Thou that of grace didst bring the blinde to sight, 

Thou that forgav'st the wounding of thy brest, 
Thou that in favour cam'st the worlde to lighte; 

Thou only good dispenser of all grace, 

Wype out the guilte that grew in youthe's green race. 

In the other four stanzas the following variants from the text of No. 17 occur: 

19. 30 markt] see 

31 mette] meet: youth] I 

33 O Lorde] My God: these faultes] youthe's fawlte 

20. 9 Eke wysedome] Knowledge: a] the 

10 And wit] Wysdom: that] what 

1 1 her . . . her] his captive, brought in 

1 2 Therefore] Wherefore 

13 Pardon the faultes] Cancel those crymes 

26 And] But: I ... and] hope by grace with 

27 Doo fly] Dothe presse: appease thy] assuage thine 

28 that . . . onely] with truste to speede, I 

29 And . . . my] Waitinge, through faythe, to' attain this 

30 and] nor 

31 And] But: thy] thyne 

Too late to collate, I find another version, with neither title nor signature, 
in the so-called Harington MS. (Additional 28,635, fols. I2 v -i3). On the 
stanza-form of No. 17 see 17. 2 n. 


19. 30 markt. In DFHI the reading is marke, which agrees well with looke 
(line 28) and with mette (line 31), meaning "I measure." 

20. 8-19 The humble hart, &c. See 95.16 n. 

14 wyse king. Solomon, of course; just as the prophet of line 15 is 

20 didst rayse the dead. See, e. g., Mark v. 35~43> an d Luke viii. 49~5 6 
(Jairus's daughter); Luke vii. 11-15 (the widow of Nain's son); John xi. 1-44 

21 the blinde to sight. See Luke xviii. 35-43, and John ix. 1-39. 
23 madest the lame goe ryght. See John v. 5-9. 

21. 2-3 (No. 1 8) Most happy is that state alone. Where woordes and deedes 
agree in one. In every edition (sigs. C3~C3 V in B-D, C2 V [misprinted C^}-C^ 
[unmarked] in , C2-C2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Francis Kinwel- 
marsh. The words and the music of this song are reprinted by Sir John Haw- 
kins, A General History oj the Science and Practice of Music, v (1776), 446-449. 
The poem is in heroic couplet; the division into stanzas of fourteen lines was 
probably made by the printer. In the margin B has various MS. notes, 
"faire words," "faire shews," "true frendship," "no slaunder nor rash 
promise," "word & deede." On the title cf. 17.22 n. 

8 beawties blast. In B+ the reading is beauty's blaze (i. e., reputation, 
fame), which seems preferable. 

9 In pleas aunt greene, doo stinging Serpent lye. Obviously serpent 
should be serpents, as in B+. The phrase is almost proverbial: see 28.13, 67.27, 
69.8. Cf. Virgil, Eclogues, iii. 92 f., "Qui legitis flores et humi nascentia fraga, 
Frigidus, O pueri, fugite hinc, latet anguis in herba"; Turbervile, Epitaphes, 
1567 (Collier's reprint, pp. 120, 218), "As wylie adder lurcks in leaves and 
greenest grasse of all," "Even so in greene and pleasant grasse the serpent lies 
in wayte"; Alexander Montgomerie (Poems, ed. James Cranstoun, 1887, p. 
176), "In plesand path I tred vpon the snaik"; Abraham Fleming, verses pre- 
fixed to Whetstone's Rock of Regard, 1576, "Take heede of the serpent that 
grovels in grasse; Th' experience is common, the proverbe not straunge"; 
Philip Stubbes, 'The Anatomy of Abuses, pt. ii, 1583 (ed. Furnivall, p. 7, New 
Shakspere Society), " Sub placidi s herbis latitat coluber, vnder the pleasantest 
grasse, lurketh the venemoust adder"; Samuel Brandon, The Virtuous Oc- 
tavia, 1598, A6 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts'), "I should suspect a serpent mongst 
the flowers." See also Chaucer, The Somnours Tale (D. 1994^) and The 
Squire s Tale (F. 512); Whitney's emblem in A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. 
Green, p. 24), on "Latet anguis in herba"; Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI, in. i. 228; 
and the numerous examples cited in the Handful, pp. 35 f., and the Gorgeous 
Gallery, p. 186. 

10 The golden Pill, &c. Cf. Willobie His Avisa, 1594, F3 (ed. Grosart, 
1880, p. 53), "Braue Golde vpon a bitter pill"; James Mabbe, The Rogue, 1623 
(ed. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, 1924, i, 97, in, 40), "But those [troubles] . . . 
are gilded Pilles, which deceiving the sight with a false show of a savourie 



taste, put the body out of order/' "For with the finest gold, is the bitterest Pill 
covered/* Nowadays the usual phrase is, "a sugar-coated pill." 

21. ii In glittering glass e, a poyson, &c. Cf. Lyly, Euphues, 1579 (Works, 
ed. Bond, I, 202, 222), "Doe we not commonly see that in paynted pottes is 
hidden the deadlyest poyson," "a sower poyson in a siluer potte," "a sweete 
poyson in a paynted potte"; Draxe, 1616, p. 380, "In golden pottes are hidden 
the most deadly poyson. " Ranckest plaste means rankest 's (rankest is) placed. 

16-17 That state . . . agree. A similar idea, 

But there as wordes and deedes agree, 
Accept that frend, and credit mee, 

is expressed in a ballad reprinted in my Old English Ballads (1920), pp. 223- 
225; in the Maitla nd Folio Manuscript (ed. Scottish Text Society), pp. 287 f.; 
and in John Forbes's Cantus, Songs and Fancies, 2d ed., 1666, song vii. 

20 Let not . . . thy promise be more large. Cf. 17.2 n. 

23 two faces in one hoode. Proverbial. Cf. John Skelton, The Bowge of 
Courte (Poetical Works, ed. Dyce, i [1856], 56), "Than in his hode I sawe there 
faces tweyne," and Magnyfycence (ibid., n, 34), "Two faces in a hode couertly 
I bere"; Richard Hill, Songs, ca. 1536, p. 130, "He hath n faces vnder on hode. 
Sub fades vno binas habet ipse galiro" ; Heywood, Works, 1562, pp. 19, 138, 
"None better to beare two faces in one hood," "Thou berest two faces in one 
whood: Thou hast one yll face, both be not good"; Humfrey Gifford, "Of the 
Instability of Fortune" (A Posie of Gilloflowers, 1580, L2 V , Complete Poems, 
ed. Grosart, p. 92), 

The wauering winds, which blow now here now there. 
More constant are then fortunes flattering vowes, 
Who in one hoode, a double face doth beare; 

Mabbe, 'The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, iv [1924], 300), "he is aman, 
that carries two faces under one hood." Cf. also Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 
290, "May the man be damned and never grow fat, who wears two faces under 
one hat." 

25 to lose. Read to loss, with B + . 

22. 4 last . . . not least. Still a common proverbial phrase. Typical Eliza- 
bethan examples of its use are in Spenser's Colin Clout, 1595, line 444, "And 
there, though last not least, is Action"; and in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, 
in. i. 189, "Though last, not least in love," and King Lear, i. i. 85, "Although 
the last, not least." 

6 barren groundes, bringcs foorth but rotten weedes. A favorite Eliza- 
bethan simile. It is slightly varied in Turbervile's Epitaphes, 1567 (Collier's 
reprint, p. 8), "How coulde so barraine soyle bring forth so good a grasse," and 
in Samuel Brandon's Virtuous Octavia, 1598, C3 (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "I 
seeke not graines of gould in barraine ground." 

9 by tryedfreendes. Read by trial soon, with B-\-. 



22. 13 (No. 19) Who wyll aspire to dignitie y 6fc. In every edition (sigs. C3 V - 
4 in 5-D, 3 [the preceding page, C2 V , is wrongly lettered 3] in E, C2 V in 
F-I), and assigned in each to Francis Kinwelmarsh. The poem is written in a 
modification of the Venus and Adonis stanza, with a tetrameter instead of a 
pentameter movement (cf. 17.2 n.), which frequently appears elsewhere in 
the Paradise, as in Nos. 20, 22, 36, 48, 50, 58, 116, 117, 123. 

23. 7 learned men shall neuerwant. Draxe (1616, p. 392) includes among 
his adages, "A learned man cannot want/* 

15 (No. 20) Mans flitting life, &c. In every edition (sigs. C4 in B-D, 
C3 V in E, C3 in F-I), and assigned in each to M. T. (Master Thorn). After each 
stanza B adds a MS. note, "ech thinge yeldeth to time, 1 * "ech thing yeldeth 
to poli[cy]," "tyme consumeth," "vertue endureth." On the stanza-form see 
22.13 n. The first two stanzas appear also in Richard Alison's An Howres Rec- 
reation in Music ke, 1606 (E. H. Fellowes, English Madrigal Verse ', 1920, p. 8). 
There are only two verbal differences: for With (line 20) and Is caught at length 
(line 26) Alison has By and At length is caught. No. 20 was reprinted in Percy's 
Reliques, 1765 (ed. Wheatley, n [1876], 169 f.); in Ellis's Specimens , 1790, pp. 
67 f. (from Percy), n (1801), 123 f., (1803), 151; and in Farr's Select Poetry, 

In E-H the key-word preceding this poem (which in them begins at the top 
of a page) is misprinted " 12. Mans" for "21. Mans." In 7 the mistake is cor- 

19 'The Marble stone , is pearst at length, &c. A commonplace which goes 
back to classic times :e. g., Ovid, Epistolce ex Ponto, 11.7.39-40, iv. 10.5 ("utque 
caducis Percussu crebro saxa cavantur aquis," "Gutta cavat lapidem"), and 
Ars Amatoria, i. 476 ("Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua"). Cf. also Hugh 
Latimer, Sermons, 1549 (ed. Arber, p. 201, English Reprints, 1869), "Gutta 
cauat lapidem, non ui sed scepe cadendo. The droppe of raine maketh a hole in 
the stone, not by violence, but by ofte fallynge"; Turbervile, Epitaphes, 1567 
(Collier's reprint, p. 40), "For often drops of falling raine, in time doe pierce 
the flint"; Robert Greene, Doralicia's ditty in Arbasto, 1584 (Works, ed. Gro- 
sart, in, 248), " In tyme we see that silver drops The craggy stones make soft"; 
Thomas Kyd, "The Spanish "Tragedy, ca. 1585, n. i. 6, "In time the Flint is 
pearst with softest shower"; Bodenham, Belvedere, 1600, D4, D6, N2, "As 
water-drops will pearce the hardest flint," "In fairest stone small raine soone 
makes a print," "As hardest stones are pierc'd with softest drops." Many 
other examples are given in my Gorgeous Gallery, pp. 152 f. Commonplaces 
also are "The sturdy Rocke" (line 17), "The Oxe" (line 21, and cf. Jonson's 
parody of 'The Spanish Tragedy in his "Tale of a Tub, in. iv), and the remaining 
figures in the poem. For numerous parallels to them see F. S. Boas's notes in his 
edition of The Works of Thomas Kyd (1901), p. 398, and R. S. Forsythe's notes 
in the Philological Quarterly, v (1926), 80-84. 

27 The greatest Fishe, sfr. A commonplace that is derived from Mar- 
tial's Epigrams, iv. 56. 5, "Sic avidis fallax indulget piscibus hamus." 



23. 29 Ye. Read Yea, with C+. The word is cut off in B. 

30 Allthinges are bounden to obay. There may be a reference here to the 
proverb. Cf. Hey wood's Works, 1562, p. 55, "they that are bound must obaie"; 
Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. Green, 1866, p. 101), "The Pro- 
uerbe saithe, the bounde muste still obey"; Porter, 'The Two Angry Women of 
Abingdon, 1599, D v (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "he that is bound must obay"; 
J. Gruter, 1611, 11, 186, "They that are bound must obay"; Draxe, 1616, pp. 
369, 409, "They that are bound, must obey"; "The Batchelor's Triumph" 
(Roxburghe Ballads, in, 428), "They[re] bound and must obey"; "Jack the 
Plough-Lads Lamentation," 1654 (Rollins, Cavalier and Puritan, p. 363), 
"Ther's no honest man in Town nor in Citty, But if he be bound then he must 
obey." A ballad called "She's Bound but Won't Obey," ca. 1675, ls preserved 
in the Rawlinson (fol. 14) and Wood (E. 25 [67]) collections in the Bodleian 

24. 2 nothing, but time dooth wast. I. e., nothing that time doesn't destroy. 
There is a reference here to Ovid's " tempus edax rerum " (Metamorphoses, xv. 
234), numerous paraphrases and imitations of which are cited in my Gorgeous 
Gallery, pp. 193 f. To them might be added the amusing lines from John 
Philips's Splendid Shilling (1705), 

My Galligaskins, that have long withstood 
The Winter's Fury, and encroaching Frosts, 
By time subdu'd, (what will not time subdue!) 
A Horrid Chasm disclose. 

1 1 (No. 21 ) Nothing is comparable, &c. In every edition (sigs. C4 V -D in 
B-D, C3 V -C4 in E, 3-03 v in F-I), and assigned in each to Francis Kinwel- 
marsh. The poem is in heroic couplet; the printer may be responsible for the 
division into stanzas. 

25. 14 with me my Muse. Read with thee my Muse, with B + . 

17 (No. 22) -Respise finem. In every edition (sig. D in B-C, D2-D2 V in 
D, D-D V in E, C^-D in F-I), and assigned in each to D. S. (D. Sand). On the 
stanza-form see 22.13 n. With the proverbial title compare Gesta Romanorum, 
cap. 103 (ed. Ocsterley, p. 431), "Quicquid agas, prudenter agas, et respice 
finem"; Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. Green, p. 130), "And 
SOLON sai'd, Remember still thy ende"; Nashe, Strange Newes, 1592 (Works, ed. 
McKerrow, i, 268), "what a hell it is for him ... to bee puld by the sleeue 
and bidde Respice funem [!], looke backe to his Fathers house"; a poem en- 
titled "Respice Finem" (Farr's Select Poetry, n, 266), by G. C., author of A 
Piteous Platforme of an Oppressed Mynde (see ibid., i, xxiv); La Fontaine, 
Fables, iii. 5, "En toute chose il faut considerer la fin"; Dekker, Satiro-mastix, 
1602 (ed. Scherer, 1907, p. 49), "but come: Respice funem [!]; looke, thou 
seest"; the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 196; and 111.6, 127.19. 

There is a copy of the poem in Additional MS. 15,225, fols. 43 V ~44 V > where 
it forms the second part of a ballad that was apparently registered in 1599 as 


"The Table of Good Counsel" (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 2577) and that 
is reprinted in my Old English Ballads , pp. 229-232. In that version the order is 
changed, so that stanzas 3 and 4 (25.30 - 26.1 1) precede stanzas i and 2 (25.18- 
29). The following verbal differences also occur: 

25. 21 Whiche] whoe: or] of 

28 dooth . . . they] doe this may the[y] happie 

29 Their] the 

30 happiest end] happie life 

26. 2 eyther for Fame] all for gaine 

3 in highest] highest in 

4 of these thinges] in this life 

7 standyng] stand the[y] 

8 fewe] they 

10 whereto] where: is] is in 

12 that happy] the quiet 

13 gouernatmce] gouernment 

14 Who seekes] Which mooues 
17 His] the 

24 D. S.] Om. 

A ballad preserved in MS. Cotton Vespasian A. xxv (ed. Boeddeker, Jahrbuch 
fur romanische und englische Sprache, N. F., n, 362) has a refrain resembling 
that of No. 22: 

Yet hap what hap, fall what may fall, 

A lyffe content excedethe all. 

So one of the poems in Thomas Howell's H. His Deuises, 1581, G3 V (Poems, ed. 
Grosart, p. 218), concludes, 

Which proues what change or chaunce doe fall, 
Contented meane exceedeth all. 

In the margins of this poem in B there are several MS. notes, two of which 
have been clipped by the binder. Professor R. V. D. Magoffin has assisted me 
in transcribing these notes, but neither of us is wholly pleased with some of our 
readings: "\_some words cut off~] ante obituw nemo superingerere facinera 
[= facinora] debet," "no Arguth [or perhaps Argumew/] against death," 
"contentation," "the longer l[ife] y e more si[n,] optimum est non nasci, 
proxi[mum] vero cito mori." 

25. 1 8 Cato. Cato Uticensis, 95-46 B. c. 

26. 9 prayse at parting. A proverbial phrase which means, Praise your 
host when you say good-bye (for then you know that you have had good en- 
tertainment). In other words, only the past is secure, the future is uncertain. 
For examples see Haupt's Zeitschrift fur Deufsches Alterthum, xi (1859), 127 
(reprinting a twelfth-century MS.), " A uespre los len le ior, a matin son oste"; 
Romania, xin (1884), 533 (from an early fourteenth-century MS.), " Au matyn 
hoste e au vespre loue le jour"; Do Chevalier a l'Espee y lines 415-419 (Meon, 
Nouveau Recueil, i, 140), 



Li vilains dist en reprovier, 

Si lou dient encor plusor, 

Q'au vespre loe-l'en lo jor 

Quant Ten voit que bele est la fin: 

Si fet-l'en son oste au matin; 

Child's English and Scottish Popular Ballads, m, 278 (No. 158 A, stanza 27), 
"'But proue att parting/ Spencer sayes"; the title of Stephen Gosson's lost 
morality, Praise at Parting (before 1579); Tom Tyler and his Wife, 1661 ed. 
(Malone Society reprint, line 667), " It is an old saying, praise at the parting"; 
Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon, 1599, 14 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), 
"but praise you lucke at parting"; Shakespeare, The Tempest, in. iii. 39, 
"Praise in departing"; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 332, "Praise at parting, 
and behold well the end," "Praise day at night, and life at the end." 

26. 10 The thing whereto, &c. Lines 10-1 1 are taken word for word from the 
concluding couplet of a poem, "A happy end excedeth all pleasures and riches 
of the worlde," in Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 177. 

15 takes in woorth his happy chaunce. The idiom "to take in worth" 
seems to be the opposite of "to take in idle," "to take in vain," phrases which 
literally meant " to regard as trivial," " to set a low value on." The present line, 
then, is equivalent to saying, " sets a properly high value on his good fortune." 
Cf. also 93.18 n. 

25 (No. 23) He perswadeth hisfreend, &7r. In every edition (sigs. D v in 
BC, D2 V in D, D V -D2 in E, D-D V in F-I). Every edition after that of 1576 (A) 
has two additional stanzas (cf. No. 101) and adds the signature "Tho. Church- 

27. 4 prayes. Read/>rry for the sake of rhyme. Cf. 100.19 n. 

6-8 noyse, dispraise. In the old pronunciation this is not a faulty 
rhyme. Cf. 100.20-21 n. 

10 IJ hue and list might neuer cope. Obviously neuer must (with B+) be 
changed to euer: If permission (gratification) and desire might ever strike a 
bargain. In B-\- leue is, also, changed to loue. 

1 1 Nor youth to runne from reasons race. The reading of B+, Or youth 
might run in reason's race, is preferable. 

12 Nor. Read Or, with 5+. 

1 6 little sparkes wyl prooue great fyrc. Proverbial. Cf. James iii. 5, 
"Behold, how great a matter a little fire kmdleth"; Benedict Burgh's Cato, v. 
459 (Anglia, XLII [1918], 205), "Offbrondis smale be maad thes fires grete"; 
Richard Hill's Songs, ca. 1536, p. 130, "Of a lytill sparkyll, commeth a gret 
fyre. De modica magnus scintilla nascitur ignis"; Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 
196, "As smallest sparckes vncared for, To greatest flames dothe sonest 
growe"; The First Booke of the Preservation of King Henry the vii, 1599 (Col- 
lier's reprint, 1866, p. 63), "As litel hoat sparkles many times do kindel a 
fy-er"; Bodenham, Belvedere, 1600, D6, "And sparkes in time will kindle to a 
fire"; Draxe, 1616, p. 393, "Of a little sparke, a great fire"; Mabbe, The 



Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, i [1924], 156), "from a little sparke, aris- 
eth oftentimes a great flame"; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 37, "A small 
spark makes a great fire"; and 100.25. 

27. 17 And bring free hartes, &c. After this line two additional stanzas and 
the signature of Thomas Churchyard follow in B+ (= No. 101). Churchyard 
borrowed line 17 from the tragedy of "Shore's Wife" ("And brings free harts 
full oft to endlesse bond"), which in 1563 he contributed to the Mirror for 
Magistrates (ed. Haslewood, n [1815], 466). 

19 (No. 24) Wantyng his desyre, &c. In every edition (sigs. D V -D2 in 
BC, D3 in D, D2 in E, D v in F-I), and assigned in each to Richard Edwards. 

20 at lenght. Internal rhyme demands the reading at last. 

22 Hard hagard Haukes, fcfc . A commonplace. Cf. Thomas Watson, 
Hekatompathia, 1582, sonnet 47, "In time all haggred Haukes will stoope the 
Lures"; Kyd, 'The Spanish Tragedy, ca. 1585, n. 5. 4, "In time all haggard 
Hawkes will stoope to lure"; Mabbe, The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, 
iv [1924], 106), "of a Haggard, she became a gentle Hawke; and though some- 
what wilde and strange at first, yet now was she taught to come to my fist." 

23 'There is nothing so out of we, &c. There is nothing so unusual (so 
contrary to custom) but long time makes it natural. Cf. the saying "Habit is 
second nature"; also Shakespeare, Hamlet, in. iv. 168, "For use almost can 
change the stamp of nature," and Pericles, prologue to act i (lines 29 f.), "But 
custom what they did begin Was with long use account no sin." 

25 the tree I clime, I can not catche the fruite. More or less proverbial. Cf. 
10. 5 n. Alexander Scott (Poems, ed. Cranstoun, p. 48, Scottish Text Society, 
1896) has it, 

Sa bissely to busk I boun, 
Ane vthir eitis the berry doun 
That suld be myn. 

30 knowen. This word must be monosyllabic to rhyme with grone. 
32 with tackle turne. For turne read torn, with 5+. 

28. 7 (No. 25) *Trye before you trust. In every edition (sigs. D2 in EC, D3~ 
D3 V in D, D2-D2 V in E, D V -D2 [misprinted D3 in FG] in F-I), and assigned 
in each to D. S. (D. Sand). The title is proverbial. Cf. 70.5, 89.5, 110.10; the 
Handful, line 1266, "First try, the trust"; "The Virgin's A, B, C," 1656 (Rol- 
lins, Analytical Index, No. 2817; Roxburghe Ballads, n, 652), "First try, then 
trust"; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 459. 

13 where stinging serpentes lye. Cf. 21.9 n. 

17 grating talke. The context shows that grating cannot mean irritating 
or anything else unpleasant. Probably grating is a misprint (caused by greeting 
in line 18) for prating. 

1 8 The third deceit, fcfc . The third deception is words used in greeting, 
words which, when adorned with false meaning, bid suspicion to fear no 
smart, to feel no doubt. 



28. 25 honnie in their mouthes, and venime in their mindes. Cf. Draxe, 1616, 
p. 380, "Honie in the mouth, and poyson in the heart/* 

26 the stones . . . crie out. A reference to Luke xix. 40, "if these 
should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out." Cf. Macbeth, 
ii. i. 58, "Thy very stones prate of my whereabout." 

29 (No. 26) A Lady forsaken , complayneth. In every edition (sigs. D2 T 
in BC, Dj v in D, D2 V in E, D2 [misprinted Dj in FG] in F-I), and assigned in 
each to M. D.(?Master D. = R. D.). 

30 ff. If pleasures be in painefulnesse,&c. Melbancke's Philotimus, 1583, 
Ee v (cf. 16. 6-8 n.), borrows as follows: "If pleasures be in painfulnes, if ioyes 
accord with carefulnes, if mirth may be in miserie, if banishment bee libertie, 
then am I most pleasant, most ioifull, most merie, most free: but ay lady 
mercy, I am quite the contrary." 

29. 5 became. There is some mix-up here; for, instead of became, which 
occurs again in line 6, we ought to have a rhyme-word for heart. 

7 except from louing. Read except for loving, with E-\-. Lines 5-7 are 
underlined in B, and annotated, "quod crimen dicas p'ter amare meum." 

8 desentd. The reading of 5 + , deserve, is better. 

10 my fained thoughts . . . my fained ruth. Obviously, fained in the 
sense of feigned makes no sense, for the lady is insisting on her truth. The repe- 
tition of the word is suspicious (as is the rhyme see the note following); but 
as first used it may possibly mean "pleased," i. e., the pleasant thoughts 
I entertained. 

10-11 thoughts, plaints. Observe the faulty rhyme. 

17 (No. 27) Finding worldly ioyes, &c. In every edition (sigs. D2 V -D3 
in BCE, D3 V -D4 in D, D2 [misprinted D3 in FG}-D2 V in F-I), and assigned 
in each to F. M. 

19 By whom I doo lament, &V. I. e., by whom ( = Fate) injured, I la- 
ment my state with foolish, afflicted mind. 

20 and dare. Possibly / dare should be the reading, though the sense is 
clear as the line stands. 

23 louing. Read living, with B + . 

30 ff. A captiue clapt in chaynes of care, &c. Melbancke's Philotimus, 
1583, Ee2 v (cf. 1 6. 6-8 n.), combines this passage in remarkable fashion with 
19. 2-3: "I am a captiue clapt in chaines of care, lapt in the lawes of lethall 
loue, & as the dogge all onely for the taste doth gnawe the bone: so forth I 
drawe this irked life with fancies vaine repaste. My corsiues comfort is but this, 
that as a siedged forte with forrein force, for want of ayde must yeelde at laste: 
so this my corps thus courst with cares, for want of ease shall quickly fade." 

33 Whiles grasse dooth growe, &c . See 18.25 n. 

34 A seegedfort . . . must yeelde at last. See 38.11 n. 

37 hop or death. Read hope of death, with D+. 

38 He. The word is badly blurred; it may be meant for Ha-, an abbre- 
viation for Having, the proper key-word. 



30. 2 (No. 28) Hauing marryed a woorthy Lady, GV. In every edition 
(D3 V -D4 in BCE, D 4 V -E in D, 03-03 v in F-I), and assigned in each to F. G. 
9 spent. Rhyme demands the reading passed. 
14 The. Read 'Then, 5. e., than, with 5+. 

19 al which as one. All beautiful women were to me as one, i. e., they 
made no personal appeal to me. 

21 eyes. Rhyme demands the reading eye. 
35 of sodenfrowne. I. e., by a sudden frown. 

31.11 (No. 29) A woorthy dittie, &c. In every edition (sigs. D 4 in BCE, E- 
E v in D, D3 V in F-I), and assigned in each to D. S. (D. Sand). In 7 the title is 
changed to read before the late Queenes, &fc . Queen Elizabeth reached Bristol 
August 14, 1574- Of the elaborate entertainment which the city provided for 
her a full account appears in Churchyard's Churchyard's Chips, 1575 (Collier's 
reprint, pp. 215-236), and thence in John Nichols's Progresses and Public Pro- 
cessions of Queen Elizabeth, i, 393, 396-407. The Paradise poem is also re- 
printed by Nichols (i, 406 f.), who transforms its author into "Daniel or 
David Sand"! 

1 8 match. Read matcht, with D+. 

19 Enforse nofeare, &c. "Don't entertain forced fears in the breast of 
your quiet conscience by indulging in ingeniously twisted fancies. I.e., when 
your conscience is at rest, don't torment yourself with ingenious scruples or 
anxieties about what is right." G. L. K. 

32. 2 (No. 30) His good name, &c. In every edition (sigs. 2 in BC, 3 in 
D, E V -E2 in E, E-E V in F-/), and assigned in each to the Earl of Oxford. 

3 Fraud is, &c. The line is metrically defective. In 5+ it is changed to 
Framed in the front of forlorn hope past all recovery, where framed seems to be 
used in an unexampled sense of "drawn up" or "stationed." Evidently the 
reading in A is an allusion to Juvenal's "front! nulla fides" (Satires, ii. 8), and 
the line means, Fraud is the forehead of Fortune (i. e., Fortune's smiles are 
liars!). I suspect that the correct reading of all the editions should be Fraud is 
the front of forlorn hope past all recovery, which brings out the military figure of a 
"forlorn hope." "Frontis nulla fides" is the subject of one of Whitney's em- 
blems (A Choice of Emblemes, 1586, ed. Green, p. 100). Cf. n., "formae 
nulla fides." 

5 lodge. Read lodgd, with C+. 

6 My death delaide, &c. My death has been so delayed that it has not 
kept from my life the injury of hapless days. The poet means, If I had died 
earlier, I should not have suffered my present distress. 

22 (No. 31) Of Fortunes power. In every edition (sigs. E2-E2 V in BC y 
E3~E3 V in D, 2 in E, E v in F-I), and assigned in each to Richard Edwards. 
Opposite the title a MS. note in B says, "Vide 14" (i. e., No. 13 in this reprint). 

23 Policrates, &c. The line is very dubious. Mr. Kittredge suggests that 
it may mean, "Polycrates, whose excessive prosperity prompted him to try to 
change his fortunes for the worse." The story of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, 



and the emerald (or sardonyx) seal-ring which Theodoras made for him, is told 
by Herodotus, iii. 41, and by Pliny, Natural History , xxxvii. 2. 

32. 29 her whirling wheele. On Fortune and her wheel see the monograph 
cited at 16.16 n. 

33. 7 / rather be borne Fortunate, &c. Sir Thomas More, in The Boke of the 
fayre Gentylwoman . . . Lady Fortune p , 1540 (Ruth's Fugitive Tracts, First 

Series), had said, " Better is to be fortunate, than wyse." Cf. Cicero, Tuscu- 
lance Disputationes, v. 9. 25, " Vitam regit fortuna, non sapientia"; Heywood, 
Works, 1562, p. 62, "better to be happie then wise"; Draxe, 1616, p. 382, "It is 
better to be happy then wise"; Mabbe, The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice- 
Kelly,n [1924], 61), "Mas vale saber, que aver; it is better to be wise, then to be 
rich; For though Fortune should play the Rebell, yet Knowledge never for- 
sakes a man"; and Samuel Sheppard, Epigrams, 1651, p. 106, "'7 "is better to be 
Fortunate then Wise'' 

8 The blindest man right soone, &c. This is undoubtedly a sentence in- 
dependent of line 9. Man is, I suspect, a misprint for runs (the words are not 
very dissimilar in manuscript), in which case the line might mean that the 
blindest, if he is guided by good fortune, immediately goes aright, or proceeds 
in the right path. 

ii (No. 32) Though Triumph, &c. In every edition (sigs. E2 V -E3 in 
BC, E3 V -E4 in D, E2-E2 V in E, E V -E2 in F-I), and assigned in each to Rich- 
ard Edwards. 

20 oppresseth. Read oppress the. 

30 law doe. Read/#r>0r, with B+. 

33 Is. Read //. 

34. 5 same. Readfame. 

12-13 shew then, shine. The readings of B+, shining into (or unto) and 
blaze, are preferable. 

15 (No. 33) Of perfect wisedome. In every edition (sigs. E3~E3 V in BC, 
E4~E4 V in D, E2 V -E3 in E, E2-E2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Richard 
Edwards. Reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 295 f. 

1 6 same. The reading fame might be expected. 

30 // teacheth vs, &c. Heavenly wisdom teaches us so to order our lives 
while we are alive that, when the earthly mass (of our bodies) is dissolved, we 
may save our souls from death. 

31 // dissolueth earthly masse. These words are practically repeated at 
52.24. They were undoubtedly suggested here, as there, by 2 Corinthians v. i 
(quoted at 52.23 n). 

35. 2 feare of God. Edwards evidently had in mind Psalms cxi. 10, "The 
fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom " (cf. Job xxviii. 28 and Proverbs i. 
7, ix. 10). 

7 stomackes Lord represse. So the Mirror for Magistrates, 1610 (ed. 
Haslewood, in [1815], 649), has "The frowne of Mars did bring his stomacke 



35. ii may like thereof insue. That all our deeds alike may be the outcome 
of wisdom. 

15 (No. 34) A frendly admonition. In every edition (sigs. E3 V -E4 in 
BC, E4 V -F in D, E3~E3 V in E, E2 V -E3 in jp-/),and assigned in each to Richard 
Hill. Reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 305 f. Opposite the title a MS. note in 
B says, "against worldlings." On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

22 sucke. Read soak, with B+. 

27 doe. The reading of 5+, down, may be preferable. 

32 To let. Perhaps the reading should be So let. 

36. 8 no fudge in other mens offence. Cf. Matthew vii. i (also Luke vi. 37), 
"Judge not, that ye be not judged." 

13 shame. Read shun, with B+. 

14 Finis. R. Hill. Underneath this signature a MS. note in B says, 
"velle SUUTW cuique et rtrum discolor vsus" (a confused quotation from Per- 
sius, Satires, v. 52 f., "Mille hominum species et rerum discolor usus; velle 
suum cuique est, nee voto vivitur uno"). 

15 (No. 35) Sundrie men, sundrie affectes. In every edition (sigs. 4- 
E4 V in EC, F-F V in D, E3 V -E4 in E, E3~E3 V in F-I), and assigned in each to 
Richard Hill. The title is proverbial. With it compare Terence, Phormio, n. iv, 
"Quot homines, tot sententise"; Chaucer, The Squire's Tale (F. 203), "As 
many hedes, as many wittes ther been"; Samuel Rowlands, Greenes Ghost, 
1602, G v , "so manie men, so manie mindes"; Draxe, 1616, p. 396, "Diuers 
men, diuers minds"; Mabbe, The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice- Kelly, n 
[1924], 68 f., in, 30i),"^#o/ capita, tot sensus. So many men, so many mindes," 
"mens opinions are divers; and so many heads, so many mindes." 

17 after. Only B has the correct reading, after travail. 

20 The loftie y cares. I think the reading should be The lofty peers. 

22 chattering. The reading of HI, clattering, is preferable. 

28 The siluer sound of musickes cordes. The adjective silver as applied 
to music is jokingly discussed in Romeo and Juliet, where Peter sings from 
Edwards's song (cf. 63.3 n.). It was, however, a conventional word. Cf. Hum- 
frey Gifford, "In the Praise of Musicke" (A Posie of Gilloflowers, 1580, N2 V , 
Complete Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 108), "She with her siluer sounding tunes, 
Reuiues mans dulled sprites"; Thomas Weelkes, Madrigals, 1600 (E. H. Fel- 
lowes, English Madrigal Verse, 1920, p. 221), "Methinks I hear . . . Arion's 
harp distilling silvering sound"; and 41.36. 

33 whirling Spheres . . . do hermonie retaine. Many poets and prose- 
writers have feigned that the spheres in their revolutions make lovely music, 
among them Cicero, Pythagoras, Macrobius, and Shakespeare (e. g., in The 
Merchant of Venice, v. i. 60-65). Chaucer, in The Parliament of Birds, lines 60- 
63, says: 

And after that the melodye herde he 
That cometh of thilke speres thryes three, 
That welle is of musyke and melodye 
In this world heer, and cause of armonye. 



See the discussion of this matter in Skeat's Chaucer, i, 507 f., and in E. W. 
Naylor's "Music and Shakespeare/* fhe Musical Antiquary, April, 1910. 

37. 4 one. Read an, with B+. 

7 geues, other. Read gives a, with B+. Others, the reading in B+, for 
other, is wrong, the sense being that music adds a pleasure to other pleasures. 

1 5 (No. 36) TV me giues experience. This poem by R. H. (Richard Hill) 
appears in A only. On the stanza- form see 22.13 n. 

22 Titius. Ovid (Metamorphoses, iv. 457 f.) tells how Tityus, the earth- 
born giant (who, because he had obstructed the road to the Delphian oracle 
and insulted Latona, was slain by Apollo), lay in the underworld stretched 
over nine acres while two vultures devoured his liver. The allusion is a favorite 
of the Elizabethan poets. So, for instance, in his Epitaphes, 1567 (Collier's 
reprint, p. 242), Turbervile writes, 

Though Tytius doe indure his liver to be rent 

Of vultures tyring on the same unto his spoile ybent. 

24 Sisiphus. Sisyphus, king of Corinth, was condemned to the punish- 
ment here mentioned (see Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv. 460, 465 ff.) because he had 
dared to tell of the amorous dalliance of Jupiter and ^gina. 

26 A number moe in hell be found. Among them were Tantalus, the 
Titans, and the daughters of Danaus. 

29 of me. Read of mine for the sake of rhyme. 

38. 1 1 towres in time be wonne. A commonplace, repeated at 29.34,59.18-19, 


15 (No. 37) Of sufferance cometh ease. In every edition (sigs. F in BC, 

F2 in D, E4 V in E, 4 in F-I) ; assigned to E. S. in A only, to Lord Vaux in B-I. 
The authorship should be credited to Vaux. The title is proverbial. Cf. Chau- 
cer's Troilus, iv. 1584; Benedict Burgh's Cato, v. 310 (Anglia, XLJI [1918], 
205); Hey wood's Works, 1562, pp. 18, 134; Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, v. iv. 
28; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 182; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 329; Draxe, 1616, p. 
401; George Wither's Emblemes, 1635, P- 2 35 anc ^ t ^ ie t ^ t ^ e ^ a P oem ^ at 
Anthony Munday contributed to Thomas Howell's H. His Deuises, 1581, E3 V , 
"Omnis fortuna superanda ferendo est. Of sufferance comes ease." With Mun- 
day's title compare Mery Tales, 1567 (Shakespeare Jest-Books, ed. Hazlitt, i, 
65, 2d pagination), "The wyse poet Virgil sayth: all fortune by suffrance must 
be ouercome." Another copy of No. 37 in the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 69, has these 

38. 15 In the Gorgeous Gallery the title reads, "The Louer being accused of 
suspicion of flattery, pleadeth not gyltie, and yet is wrongfully con- 

1 8 where] when 

19 moode] moodes: where] when 
21 cause] case 

24 loued] leu id 

25 the] that 



38. 26 wrote] wrought: selfe] freend 

27 who . . . extremitie] if the troth were truely tryde: proofe] prooft 

29 of] to 

31 selues] be: needed] needeth 

33 amisse] accuse: might] may 

36 E. S.] Om. 

38. 19 With ragelesse moode. The TV. E. D. cites only this instance of rage- 
less; but it quotes from the Gorgeous Gallery (1578) rather than from the 
Paradise (1576). 

26-35 I wrote but for my selfe, &c. The poet protests that something he 
has written has been misinterpreted to his harm. "I wrote the thing," he says, 
" merely to express my grief on a purely personal matter, as might be proved if 
anybody chose to submit to the same extremity of sorrow that I suffered. 
[That is, such a person would find that experiences like mine account fully for 
such a thing as I wrote, without its having any further meaning or purpose.] 
Yet there are [etc., lines 28-29]. As a result (of their neglecting the old maxim) 
it may happen (if I may express a snap judgment) that they themselves may 
become objects of suspicion in connection with this matter, since they [liter- 
ally, who~] had no occasion to kick (unless they were somehow implicated in a 
fault)." This last comment infers: Their sensitiveness may lead one to think 
that they suspected me of having such a meaning because they were them- 
selves guilty of such a thing. // in line 33 refers to the mysterious something. 
The poet goes on to say that he doesn't pretend to know that his accusers are 
guilty; he is merely resisting wrong and advising them to look out how they 
attack him again. I am indebted to Mr. Kittredge for most of this para- 

29 this olde trothe, things proue not as they seeme. This "olde trothe" 
occurs in Phsedrus's Fables, iv. 2. 16 f., "Non semper ea sunt quae videntur: 
decipit Frons prima multos." It is repeated in Longfellow's Psalm of Life, 
"And things are not what they seem." 

37 38. Being. The number in ^/'s key-word, J^r, I have changed to jc?, to 
make it accord with the number to which it points here. 

39. 2 (No. 38) Being trapped in Lone, &c. This poem appears in A only. It 
is the only sonnet in the Paradise; but there are several sonnets in its succes- 
sor, the Gorgeous Gallery. 

4 sighes, as filles the aire with smoke. Cf. As You Like It, n. vii. 147 f., 
"the lover, Sighing like furnace." 

5 The golden beames, &c. The golden beams (of the sun) dare not en- 
dure the answer of the stroke dealt by this his (Cupid's) fiery dart. "The an- 
swer of the stroke" i. e., the results which the stroke has produced in me 
is the sighs which fill the air with smoke impervious to the sun's rays. In 
other words, the rays of the sun can't compete with the smoke produced by 
my sighs ! 

10 my head. Read his (= its) head, or the head. 



39. 1 8 (No. 39) Though Fortune haue, 6fr. This poem appears in A and 5 
only. In B it is printed on sigs. M V -M2, and is assigned to T. Marshall. With 
the omission of the second and fourth stanzas, it is reprinted in Ellis's Speci- 
mens, ii (1801), 122 f., (1803), 150 f., and with the omission of the fourth 
stanza in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 311 f. 

20 To die, Dame nature did man frame. A MS. note in B objects, "not 
nature but sinne." 

24 That lawe shee made, &c. Cf. Shakespeare's 2 Henry 17, in. ii. 41 f., 
"death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all; all shall die." 

40. 2 aright. Read a right, with B. 

10 Hercules. For a ballad on "Herculis and his ende," registered in 
1563-64, see my Analytical Index, No. noo; and compare the discussion in the 
Handful, pp. 105 f. With lines 10-17 compare "St. Bernard's Verses," No. i. 

12 lanus who had all foresight. Janus, the porter of heaven, had two 
faces, which gave him "all foresight." As everybody knows, January is named 
for him. 

13 chast Hypoht. For a summary of the story of Hippolytus and 
Phaedra see the Gorgeous Gallery, pp. 162 f. 

15 Irus is described in the eighteenth book of the Odyssey as " a public 
beggar who was wont to beg through the town of Ithaca, and was known for 
his greedy belly, eating and drinking without end." Homer tells how Irus kept 
watch over the suitors of Penelope, and how Odysseus, on his return, felled 
him to the floor with one blow and flung him out of doors. His poverty is re- 
ferred to in the common French proverb, "Plus pauvre qu' Irus," and in Sack- 
ville's "Induction," 1563, line 294 (Mirror for Magistrates, 1587, n [1815], 
321), "esteming equally King Croesus' pompe, and Irus' pouertie." Cf. also 
Thomas Howell, H. His Deutses, 1581, G (Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 213), "Poore 
Irus cause at dore doth stande, If Croesus come with Golde in hande"; Putten- 
ham, The Arte of 'English Pocsie, 1589 (ed. Arber, p. 58), "Irus the begger . . . 
whom Homer maketh mention of"; Thomas Rogers, Celestiall Elegies, 1598, D, 
"Irus with Cresus boldly may compare Both equall are when death standes at 
the doore"; Alexander Craig, Poeticall Essayes, 1604, D v (ed. Hunterian Club, 
p. 26), and Amorose Songes, 1606, I6 V (ibid., p. 140), "In Pallas Church did 
wretched Irus stand," "Or were I begging bread like Ithak Irus poore, Whom 
proud Vhsses with his fist feld dead into the floore." 

1 6 Signus. I. e., Cycnus, or Cygnus, the son of Poseidon and a king of 
Colons in Troas. He fought bravely on the side of the Trojans, but was killed 
by Achilles and was by Neptune changed into a swan. Ovid tells the story in 
the Metamorphoses, xii. 72 flf. 

34. 40. All. The number in A's key- word, 36, is there correct, for the jp 
to which it points is a misprint for j6. I have changed the number to 40, to 
make it accord with the number to which it points here. 

41. 2 (No. 40) All thinges ar Vame. In every edition (sigs. F-F V in BC, 
F2-F2 V in D, E4 V -F in E, E4~E4 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Francis 



Kinwelmarsh. The title and the poem are indebted to Ecclesiastes i. 2, xii. 8, 
"Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity." Re- 
printed in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 293 f. 

41. 31 The world is but a vanitie. Repeated in the title of No. 56 (62.2). 

34 (No. 41) A vertuous Gentle woman, &c. In every edition (sigs. F V ~F2 
in BC, F2 V -F3 in D, F-F V in E, E4 T -F in F-I), and assigned in each to Francis 

35 and free. For regularity of metre these words should have been 

36 siluer voyce. Cf. 36.28 n. 

37 curtesie. Read courteous, with D+. 

42. 7 flowres. Read flower, with F+. 

17 liuely. In B+ the reading is lovely. 

19 my golden wyer heares. A favorite Elizabethan figure. Cf. W. A., A 
Speciall Remedie against the furious force of lawless e Loue, 1579, Fi, " Their cul- 
lored hayre like golden wyer*' (at F2 he speaks of " bushye broydred hay re" !) ; 
Turbervile, Tragical Tales, ca. 1574 (1837 reprint of the 1587 ed., p. 296), 
"Her heare is golden wyer"; Lyly, in a ditty sung to Queen Elizabeth in 1591 
(Works, ed. Bond, i, 423), "Behold her lockes like wiers of beaten gold"; The 
Phoenix Nest, 1593 (Collier's reprint, p. 26), "ticing haire, like nets of golden 
wire"; Shakespeare, sonnet 130, "If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her 
head"; Thomas Morley, The First Booke of Canzonets, 1595 (ed. Bolle, Palaes- 
tra, xxix [1903], in), "In nets of golden wyers, With Pearle and Reubie 
spangled"; England's Helicon, 1600 (ed. Bullen, p. 83), "Her tresses are like 
wires of beaten gold." 

27 (No. 42) Oppressed with sorowe, &c. In every edition (sigs. F2-F3 V 
in EC, F3~F4 V in D, F V -F2 V in E, F-F2 in F-I), without an author's signature. 

43. 5 Whose death . . . procure. This line is in A only, but in B an old 
hand has inserted the line, "who can not hope for change of happe nor [can 
seems to be erased here~\ this vnhappe endure." 

1 8 learned Gallens bookes. Galen, or Galienus, one of the medical 
authorities whom Chaucer's Doctor followed, was born at Pergamus in 
130 A.D. 

28 The auncient prouerbe. I have not found this proverb elsewhere. 
Somewhat similar to it are the remarks of Cicero (Epistles, iv. 5), "Nullus 
dolor est quern non longinquitas temporis minuat ac molliat," and Cervantes 
(Don Quixote, part ii, chapter x), "There is a remedy for all things but death." 
Cf. also Richard Edwards, Damon and Pithias, ca. 1565, D (Tudor Facsimile 
Texts), "And Phisicke hath prouided too, a Salue for euerie sore"; Gascoigne, 
Supposes, 1566, n. i (Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i, 213), "there is a salue for 
euery sore, and doubt you not to this mischeefe we shall find a remedie"; 
Draxe, 1616, p. 401, "God hath provided a remedie for every disease"; Mabbe, 
The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, in [1924], 251), "7V0 ay mal, que no 
venga por bien: There is no ill, which doth not turne to our good"; Mabbe, 



Celestina, 1631 (ed. H. W. Allen, p. 161), "For where heaven gives a wound, 
there it gives a remedy; and as it hurts, so it heals." 

43-37 h haute of healthfull soyle. Probably the reading should be (with 
5+) haunt, i. e., by haunting, living on, healthful soil. 

44. 17 The Ploughman* weary worke, &c. A commonplace. Cf. Tottel's 
Miscellany, 1557, p. 156, "The pore man ploweth his ground for graine, And 
soweth his seede increase to craue"; and Turbervile, Epitaphes, 1567 (Collier's 
reprint, pp. 38 f., 89), 

The ploughman eke that toyles 

and turnes the ground for graine, 
And sowes his seede (perhaps to losse) 

yet standes in hope of gaine. 

What ploughman would be glad 

to sowe his seede for gaine, 
And reape, when harvest time comes on, 

but travaile for his paine? 

45- 7 enforce thy owne decay. I. e., violently bring about thy own destruc- 
tion (by suicide). 

8 thou. Read it. 

28 (No. 43) Where reason makes request, &c. In every edition (sigs. F3 V - 
p4 v in EC, F4 V -G V in D, F3~p4 in E, F2 V -F3 V in F-I), and assigned in each to 
"My Luck is Loss." Reprinted in Gascoigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, n, 
326-328. Hazlitt announces that his copy comes from D "collated with ed. 
1578" (5); but he includes the last nine lines of// (48.4-12), which appear in 
A only. The poem is written in rhyme royal, as is also No. 127 (p. 133). 

46.1 1-13 my charter to require, &c. " My privilege of asking for each (i. e., 
any) lady's love is granted to me by the voice of custom." "Yet the ladies' con- 
sent (to your suit) is evidence that they (not you) do the choosing." 

14 at lardge. Perhaps read as for at. 

20 what gaue she, Cheese, or chalke. Proverbial. Cf. Gower, Confessio 
Amantis, prologue, line 416, and ii. 2346 f., "Lo, how thei feignen chalk for 
chese," "And thus fulofte chalk for chese He changeth"; Hey wood's Works, 
1562, p. 52, "As a lyke to compare in taste, chalke and chese"; Mirror for 
Magistrates, 1587 (ed. Haslewood, i [1815], 247)," for cheese to giue thee 
chalke"; George Pettie, The Civile Conversation of M. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. 
Edward Sullivan, n [1925], 49), " (as the proverbe is) They know not Chaffe 
from Corne, or Chalke from Cheese"; The Pedlers Prophecy, 1595, A^ "I 
know chalke from cheese"; Samuel Rowlands, The Letting of Humours Blood, 
1600, E6, "Tom is no more like thee, then Chalks like Cheese"; Dekker, 
Satiro-mastix, 1602 (ed. Scherer, 1907, p. 27), "rascalls be here that will haue 
your grace take shalke for shees." Other examples are cited in John Day's 
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, ca.iSoo (ed. W. Bang, 1902, p. 74). 

21-22 That taste must try . . . her bowe aloof e. In BC her is changed to 
ther(e), which is, I presume, the possessive pronoun, like their in D+. The 



change was no doubt made because bowe was unintelligible; but bowe most 
probably is a misprint for love, and the reading should, as Mr. Kittredge sug- 
gests, be her (not their) love. With that emendation, the meaning of the text 
becomes clear: "Did she give you cheese or chalk (i. e., favor or disfavor)?" 
"Those who taste must decide which it was." "What do you mean by taste?" 
"By taste I mean my experience with friends (of hers) whose wills withhold 
her love aloof." In other words, she did give him chalk; for she referred him to 
her friends, and they were adverse to his suit. Cf. 47.4: " Do you know what her 
friends purpose in keeping her so long from favoring your suit?" 

46. 24 carpet trade. I. e., the occupations and amusements of the chamber 
or boudoir (H has Cupid's trade, or love-affairs) as contrasted with the business 
of arms, the "trade of the field." A similar expression is "carpet knight" (cf. 
130.10 n.), one who received his honors in the Court, upon carpets, instead of 
on the battle-field. 

25 -proof es from such delay es. "Delaie is dowtfw/ [?1," cautions a MS. 
note in B. 

28 wyl thou, &c. Read wilt thou, with $+. With for saint adore the 
shrine compare A poore Knight his Pallace of priuate pleasures, 1579, F, 

hee found his Cressid out, 
Whose shrine he serued, who he had made his saint. 

Cf. 70. 6 n. 

29 woo herfreend. A MS. note in B advises, " first wyn the woman after 
hir frends." 

47. 3 may chek,from yea to nay. A falconer's term: may stop and turn 
suddenly to nay when she is apparently proceeding in the direction of yea. 

4 herfrendes intent. See the note on 46.21-22. 

9 who sith thy sute. For who read why, as at 46.6, 47.6, n, 16, 26. 

10 Know of or on, or thou afect to much. I. e., know whether you are off 
or on (favored or frowned on) before you love too much. 

1 1-48.12 No haste but good, why no, the meane is best, &c. Cf. Heywood's 
Works, 1562, p. 80, "No hast but good (quoth she)." Draxe (1616, p. 392) also 
gives this phrase as a proverb; and on p. 395 he has, "The meane is the best." 
The frantic punctuation seems to make considerable annotation desirable. Let 
X = the lover, Y = his friend. In the preceding lines of the dialogue Y has 
reproved X for letting his love-affair dally along in doubt. X retorts (line 11), 
"No haste but good," i. e., "In such a case it is well not to make haste unless 
you are sure that such haste will be successful." Y replies: "No! the mean is 
best. I don't ask you to hurry too much, but warn you, nevertheless, not to 
dally as you are doing. Admit she loves you then you may lose her by lin- 
gering and not speaking. Suppose she's caught! Then you are a fool to wait for 
the end to prove it and to allow her thus to scorn you in the meantime. Such 
danger ebbs and flows in lingering love!" "What can I do in this case?" in- 
quires X (line 1 6). "Why," rejoins Y, "wake in dangerous watch! \\. e., since 



you are a w atchman at a post of danger, keep awake !]. That neither-to-nor-fro 
[i. e., that inaction] which you are practising may make you lose the game!" 
Then X speaks the whole of the next stanza (lines 18-24), refusing to force the 
issue, though he admits that Y may be right. He will prove true to his promise 
of fidelity (line 22) and remain devoted till he gets a positive rejection from his 
lady or her friends. "Are you such a fool?" Y asks scornfully; and X replies, 
" Not a fool, just a steadfast lover." "Why, fool!" exclaims Y; "her friends 
know you are her suitor, yet you are so stupid as not to see that she and they 
are really flouting your suit by keeping it in doubt. You (line 29) don't know 
how to get a woman to give you her love instead of scorn. Adieu," he concludes 
(line 30), "for sighs should prevent such folly as yours" (though, as Mr. Kit- 
tredge suggests, for sightes may very well be a misprint for foresight). X re- 
sponds (lines 31-32), "Well, well ! The scoffs [frumps] of her friends might be 
repaid by scorn on my part if I had only assurance one way or the other! If I 
had her 'yea/ I should be able to laugh at her friends; if I had a positive 'nay,' 
I could scoff with the best of them! [Meanwhile I bide my time, refusing to 
hurry!]." And Y ends the conversation with, "Well, well! weigh the wisdom of 
these following lines [= 48.4-12] and store them in your heart." 

47. 12 mishke in hngring growes. A proverbial expression repeated in lines 
15 and 20. In his Pleasant Dialogues andDramma's, 1637 ( e d- W. Bang, 1903, 
p. 210), Thomas Heywood quotes from Quintilian, "lingring growes loath- 
some where necessity craves haste." Cf. also the ballad "Of Lingering Love" 
(1563-64) which is reprinted in Lyly's Works, ed. Bond, in, 463 f., and dis- 
cussed in the Handful, p. 103; and see, further, the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 190. 

13 Woodcocke on thy crest. A woodcock was thought to be an utter sim- 
pleton. Cf. "The Great Boobee" (Roxburghe Ballads, vu, 273), "And some did 
say I was a Woodcock, and a great Boobee." 

48. 4-12 What is, &c. Observe that these lines are printed in A only; but 
they are copied by an Elizabethan hand in the margin of G, with the variations 
of therefor (for thereof, line 10) and my will to thyne (for thy will to mine, line 12). 
The nine lines have identical rhyme in long /, like Browning's poem "Through 
the Metidja to Abd-El-Kadr." 

14 (No. 44) Donee ens Felix, &c. In every edition (sigs. G v in BC, Gi- 
G2 V in D, F4 V in E, F4 in F-l), and assigned in each to "My Luck is Loss." 
Reprinted in Gascoigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, n, 330. The title, from 
Ovid's Tristta, i. 9. 5, appears also in the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 100. Sir Thomas 
Elyot, in The Book Named The Governor, 1531 (ed. Croft, n, 164), translated 
the verses thus: 

Whiles fortune the fauoureth frendes thou hast plentie, 
The tyme beinge troublous thou arte alone. 

A similar idea is several times expressed by Chaucer; e. g., in The Man of Law's 
Prologue (B. 120 f.) and in The Tale of Melibeus (B. 2749 ff.). Cf. also 89.19 n. 

15 amissus. Read amiss as, with C+. 



49. i ofdaintiedeuises. In A the headlines and authors' signatures change 
abruptly here to a smaller font of type, the original page-numbers and poem- 
numbers shift from roman to italic type of a still smaller size (and the periods 
after page-numbers are discontinued), the general system of stanza-indention 
seems to be somewhat altered, and in the headlines, it will be observed, the 
word dayntie henceforth becomes daintie. Similar changes occur in B from sig- 
nature H onward, and the folio-numbers at the top of the leaves disappear. Cf. 
p. xvi above, and the note at 50.10. 

2 (No. 45) What ioye, &c. In every edition (sigs. F4 V -G in BC, G V -G2 
in D, F4~p4 v in , F3 v -p4 in F-I), and assigned in each to " My Luck is Loss." 
Reprinted in Gascoigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, n, 329 f. On the stanza- 
form see 17.2 n. 

4 who holdeth not vniust. Who doesn't consider a feigning friend un- 
just (wrong)? 

9 What head so stated? In the margin of this stanza B has the MS. note, 
"nihil in humanis rebus perfectum aut constans ab omni parte." 

50. 5 gainst heauenly helples curse. Against heaven's curse, which can't be 

9 (No. 46) Amantium irce amoris, sfc. In every edition (sigs. G V -G2 in 
BC, G2 V -G3 in D, F4 V -G in E, p4-p4 v in F-I), and assigned in each to Rich- 
ard Edwards. The words and music of No. 46 are reprinted in Sir John Haw- 
kins's General History of the Science and Practice of Music, v (1776), 453-457; 
the words of the first, second, and last stanzas in Ellis's Specimens, n (1801), 
H3f., (1803), 141; and the entire poem in R. H. Evans's Old Ballads, in 
(1810), 360-363. Manuscript copies (dating about 1597) of the tenor and bass 
parts of this song were discovered in 1923, though the organ score had long 
been known from a copy preserved in a British Museum MS.; and a vocal 
score, constructed from these two sources, was published in 'The Musical 'Times 
for July, 1923 (Lxiv,476, 483 ff.). 

The ultimate source of the title is Terence's Andria, in. iii. 23, where in 
many editions it .appears as "amantium irae amoris integratiost [or inte- 
gratio'st^"; but in Octavianus Mirandula's Illustrium Poetarum Flores (Lon- 
don, 1566, p. 80; 1570, p. 79), whence Edwards probably took it, it has the 
form " amantium irae amoris redintegratio est." It is also used as an illustration 
in Lily's Short Introduction of Grammar (1577, Cq.; 1651, C4 V ). Cf. Abraham 
Fraunce's prologue to the Latin comedy of Victoria (ed. G. C. Moore Smith, 
1906, p. 6), "Sic amantium irae amoris est redintegratio"; William Painter, 
'The Palace of Pleasure, n (1567), novel 29 (ed. Haslewood, n [1813], 523), 
translating Terence's saying. 

The louers often falling out, 
And prety wrangling rage: 
Of pleasaunt loue it is no doubt, 
The sure renewing gage; 


the sixteenth-century Book of Fortune (Mrs. C. C. Stopes, Shakespeare's In- 
dustry, p. 196), "Tis an old Proverb and a true That quarrels oft do love re- 
new"; Lyly, Euphues and his England, 1580 (Works, ed. Bond, n, 143), "let 
the falling out of frinds be a renewing of affection"; Lodge, Rosalynde, 1590 
(Works, ed. Hunterian Club, i. v. 19), " I knowe we shall be friends, and better 
friends than we haue been. For, Amantium irce amoris redint egratio est"; the 
pamphlet Bacchus' Bountie, 1593 (Harleian Miscellany, n [1809], 305), "The 
falling out of lovers is the renewing of love"; Draxe, 1616, p. 349, "The falling 
out of louers is a renewing of loue"; Burton, The Anatomy oj Melancholy , 1621, 
in. 2. ii. 4, "Amantium irce amoris redintegratio, as the old saying is, the falling 
out of lovers is the renewing of love"; Patrick Hannay, Songs and Sonnets, 
1622 (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, p. 238), "Amantium irae amoris redinte- 
gratio est," the title of song ii; Milton, Samson Agonistes, 1671, line 1008, 
"Love-quarrels oft in pleasing concord end." See also the ballad of "Amantium 
irae Amoris redintegratio est. The falling out of Louers, is the renewing of Loue, 
To the Tune of The Meddow brow," ca. 1630, which is reprinted in the Rox- 
burghe Ballads, i, 18, and quoted in Henry Glapthorne's Wit in a Constable, 
1639, IV - * (Plays and Poems, ed. Pearson, i, 223), and (not quite exactly) in the 
Duke of Newcastle's Triumphant Widow, 1677, p. 41. "Amantium Irae" is the 
name of a chapter in Thackeray's Vanity Fair, and the phrase is quoted in 
George Meredith's Egoist, chapter xix. The entire line is paraphrased in George 
Colman's Jealous Wife, 1761, iv. i (but the passage is not in some of the later 
editions), and in the first lyric of Tennyson's Princess. "What signifies a 
Quarrel with a Mistress?" asks Colman. "Why, the whole Affair of making 
Love, as they call it, is nothing but quarrelling and making it up again. They 
quarrel o' purpose to kiss and be Friends." The passage in The Princess runs: 

And blessings on the falling out 

That all the more endears, 
When we fall out with those we love 

And kiss again with tears! 

An interesting use of the phrase occurs also in H. D. Traill's Sterne, chapter v: 
"Their estrangement, in short, had grown apace, and had already brought 
them to that stage of mutual indifference which is at once so comfortable and 
so hopeless secure alike against the risk of 'scenes' and the hope of recon- 
ciliation, shut fast in its exemption from amantium irce against all possibility of 
redintegi-atio amoris" It should also be noted that in some texts (e. g., Woelf- 
flin's, 1869) the thirty-seventh maxim of Publilius Syrus is "Amantium ira 
amoris integratio est," perhaps appropriated from Terence. 

50. 10 In goyngto my naked bedde. From this point onward fully half of the 
initials in A are in a larger font than before, and a similar change occurs at 
signature H in B (cf. the note at 49.1). To my naked bedde means " naked to my 
bed," as at this time, as well as later, it was customary to dispense with night- 
clothes. Cf. Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy, ^.1585, n. v, "What out-cries pluck 


me from my naked bed"; Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, lines 397 f., "Who 
sees his true-love in her naked bed, Teaching the sheets a whiter hue than 
white "; Sir John Harington's translation of Orlando Furioso, 1634, xvii. 75, 
"As straight he gat him to his naked bed." 

50. 12 sang full sore. Read sang full sweet \ with 5+. 
13 rest. The reading cease (5+) is preferable. 

17 is the renuyng. In EC the smoother reading, renewing is, is intro- 
duced in the first three stanzas, and in D+ throughout the refrain. 

31 tyme. The reading time, and days, which the metre requires, is sup- 
plied by H. 

51. 6-7 begone, some. With this rhyme, or rather assonance, compare also 
ronne,ouercome (57.10-11) and come, runne (59.24-25). All three cases occur in 
poems attributed to Edwards. Lines 6-7 are explained by Mr. Kittredge thus: 
"'So nature can well carry out her perfect work to the end (which is peace 
after disturbance), subduing in the end whatever does not wish to cease work- 
ing her (nature's) destruction.' Beasts would like to fight forever, but they 
can't that would be the annihilation of nature and so they have to cease 
and become friends, which is nature's perfect work." 

19 (No. 47) Thinke to dye. In every edition (sigs. 62-63 in EC, 63- 
G3 V in D, G-G V in E, F4 V -G in F-7), and assigned in each to D. S. (D. Sand). 
Cf. 25.17 n., and the proverb memento mori. After the title there is a MS. note 
in B, "o vita misero longa felici brevis." Other copies of this poem are " Com- 
parison of lyfe and Death" (T), by an unknown author, in Tottel's Miscellany, 
1557, p. 129; and "Elegy wrote in the Tower by John Haryngton, confined 
with the Princess Elizabeth, 1554" (N}, in Nuga Antiques, 1769, pp. 95 f., 
in (1779, 1792), 269 f., ii (1804), 332f. In the version capriciously attributed 
to Harington there are only three stanzas, the first, third, and sixth. Verbal 
differences between the three texts are as follows: 

51. 20 whiche] that NT 

22 panges . . . forepast] pange, or painful plague, scarce past N 

23 Yelds] Yelde T: Yelds . . . estate] But some new greif, still green, 
doth marr our state N 

24 So ... greate] In all we find 'midst this worlds N 

25 That] Sure N, The T: shorteneth] shortythe N, endeth T 

26 And] Yet T: 26-31 omitted in N 

27 All] At T 

32 semes so swetely] some so swiftelye N; seme, so swifte that T 
34 wights] nightes T: daies dawes] day daweth T: In N the line 
runs, The riot-night which day draws on so soone 

52. 2 mo] more N 

3 as] lyke N: against] kyss'd by TV 

4 maks . . . that] soon ends all that vain N 
5-16 omitted in N 

10 The . . . self] Though how, or when, the lord alone T 
13 perill] perilles T 

15 and] as T 

1 6 is happier] were better T 



52. 17 the doore] a porte NT: drawe] pass NT 

19 dole] dear NT: seaseth] killeth N: awaie] annoye NT 

21 And] For N: in] to NT: is] was N 

22 by ... likewise] by deathe all freedom too was N, likewise by death 

was fredome T 

23-28 omitted in N 24 fleshly] fleshy T 

28 And] To T 29 Om. NT 

Other copies, without title or signature, occur in the so-called Harington 
MS. (Additional 28,635, fols. io v -ii) and in MS. Ashmole 48 (ed Roxburghe 
Club, pp. 36 f.). No. 47 is reprinted from the Paradise in Farr's Select Poetry, 
n, 299 f. On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

51. 23 to stablishe this estate. To confirm this wretched condition of man. 
27 All whiche conflict in thraldome I was thrust. A meaningless remark 

to me. Perhaps the reading should be w (with) for w (which). 

33 The mcry daies, &5V. The merry days that so quickly fleet to an end. 

34 wights. Read nights, with HI. 

52. 7-10 As man might make, &V. I. e., as if man might bring it to pass 
that life should last always, regardless of the fact that Christ long ago led the 
dance of death, which all persons must in turn dance, although the hour 
wherein they shall dance only the Lord himself doth know. For ballads on the 
dance of death see the Roxburghe Ballads, in, 184, and Chappell's Popular 
Music, i, 85,164. Chappell remarks (p. 164): "A Dance oj Death seems to be 
alluded to in The Vision of Pierce Plowman . . . but the subject was rendered 
especially popular in England by Lydgate's free translation from a French ver- 
sion of the celebrated German one by Machaber. Representations of The 
Dance of Death were frequently depicted upon the walls of cloisters and cathe- 
drals," as in the Salisbury Cathedral and the old St. Paul's in London. 
Holbein's " Dance of Death " is, of course, still well known. See Francis Douce's 
Dance of Death (1833) and E. H. Langlois's Essai sur les Danses des Morts 

17-22 Death is the, &c. These six lines are quoted from TotteFs Mis- 
cellany in Englands Parnassus, 1600 (ed. Crawford, p. 44), where they are mis- 
takenly assigned to the Earl of Surrey. Melbancke's Philotimus, 1583, Y2 V 
(cf. 16.6-8 n.), combines 52. 17-18 with 8.18-19: "Come death, & throw thy 
pearcing dart into my panting breste: Death is a porte, whereby we passe to 
ioy: life is a lake that drowneth all in pame. A chiefe reliefe to conquered men 
is desperatlie to die. Adew delightes that lulled me asleepe: farewell my ioyes, 
and dulced bed of rest: sweet were the ioyes that would both like & last: 
straug were the state exempt from all distres." 

19 seaseth all awaie. The rhyme requires ceaseth all annoy, the reading 
in Tottel's Miscellany and in FHI. 

23 Wherefore with Paule, &c. Cf. Romans vii. 24, "O wretched man 
that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?"; and 2 Corin- 
thians v. I, " For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dis- 



solved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in 
the heavens." See also 2 Timothy iv. 6-8. 

52. 24 To be disolued of this foule fleshly masse. Cf. the foregoing note and 

34.31 n. 

30 (No. 48) Beyng asked the occasion , *fc . In every edition (sigs. A4 V - 
B in BCD, A^-E in E, A3 V -A4 V in F-7); assigned to Lord Vaux in A only, to 
William Hunnis in B-L Hunnis's claim to the poem seems indisputable. The 
last four stanzas are reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, I, 158 f., all eight in 
Ellis's Specimens, n (1801), 60 ff., (1803), 90 ff. On the stanza-form see 22.i3n. 

53. 26 of death the harbingers. On the traditional Messengers of Death 
(Boten des Todes) see Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- u. Haus- 
mdrchen, in (1918), 293 ff., and the illustrations given in my Gorgeous Gallery, 
p. 192. Cf. also Wither, Emblemes, 1634, p. 184: 

Nay, you your selves, do sometime find the paines 
Of Sicknesse, in your Bowels, and your Vaines, 
The Harbingers of Death, sometime, begin 
To take up your whole Bodie y for their Inne. 

30 the line. The reading, as shown by the demands of grammar, by 5+, 
and by 54.3, should be the lines. 

54. 7 thereto I shall. Cf. Genesis iii. 19, " for dust thou art, and unto dust 
shalt thou return"; and the references in the Gorgeous Gallery, pp. 190 f. 

10 to those. Perhaps that (or all) those, the readings of E and F+, are 
preferable. Lines 10-11 mean, God grant that those who have white hairs may 
get no worse lesson from them than I have expressed (in what precedes). 

15 my head. Read your head, with B+. 

17 (No. 49) 'The Louer wisheth, 65V. This poem is in A only. The title is 
added from the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 52, where another version of the poem 
occurs. There are many differences between the two copies, as will appear from 
the following reprint of the Gallery text: 

I Would I were Acteon^ whom Diana did disguise, 
To walke the woods vnknown, wheras my lady lies: 
A hart of pleasant hew, I wish that I were so, 
So that my Lady knew, alone mee, and no mo. 

To follow thicke and plaine, by hill and dale alow, 
To drinke the water fayne, and feede mee with the sloe: 
I would not feare the frost, to lye vpon the ground, 
Delight should quite the cost, what payne so that I found. 

The shaling nuts and mast, that falleth from the tree, 
Should serue for my repast, might I my Lady see: 
Sometime that I might say, when I saw her alone, 
Beholde thy slaue alone, that walkes these woods vnknowen. 

23 shalyng. The N. E. D. defines this word as " Pfalling from the husk 
as ripe," and cites only the Gorgeous Gallery (1578), not the Paradise (1576). 



54. 29 M. B. Evidently intended for Master Bewe. 

30 (No. 50) Beeingforsaken of his f rend, GV. In every edition (sigs. 63- 
G3 V in EC, G^-Gf in D, G2-G2 V in E, G V -G2 in F-7), and assigned in each to 
E. S. (but in G the S. has dropped from the form). The title, bracketed in my 
reprint, occurs in B-I but not in A. The poem is reprinted in Ellis's Specimens, 
ii (1801), 125 f., (1803), 153. On the stanza-form see 22.13 n - 

36 vpsidoune. Upside down. Cf. Chaucer, The Canon s Yeoman s Pro- 
logue (6.625), "He coude al clene turne it up-so-doun"; Gower, Confessio 
Amantis, ii. 1744, "The lond was torned up so doun," iii. 80, " Al up so doun 
my joie it casteth," and iv. 561, "And al the world torne up so doun"; Piers 
Plowman, B. xx. 52 f., "Antecryst cam thanne and al the croppe of treuthe 
Torned it vp so doune"; William Bercher, 'The Nobility of Women, 1559 (ed. 
Bond, 1904, p. in), "torned the state of Rome vpsedowne." 

55. 2 A jfrende. The lower-case^* represents the regular MS. form of 
capital -F. All other editions (B+) have A friend. 

14-1 5 Thefishe in ayer, &c. In the margin a MS. note in B runs, " Ante 
leves rapido pascantwr in aequore dam*?," an inaccurate quotation of Virgil's 
"Ante leves ergo pascentur in aequore [or sethere] cervi" (Eclogues, i. 60). 
Lines 14-15 are a paraphrase of lines 61 ff. of this eclogue, "Et freta destituent 
nudos in litore pisces, Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exsul," etc. 

20 Fortunes hale, &?c. It is interesting to observe that in B+ Fortune is 
made masculine by the change of her and she in lines 21, 22, to his and he. 

27 (No. 51) Prudens . . . Damacles, s? Dionise. In every edition (sigs. 
G3 V -G4 in BC, G 4 V -H in D, G2 V -G3 in E, G2-G2 V in F-7), and assigned in 
B-I to Richard Edwards. The well-known story of Damocles and Dionysius 
the Elder, of Syracuse, is told by Cicero (fusculance Disputationes, v. 21), and 
is referred to by Persius (Satires, iii. 40) and by Horace (Odes, iii. i. 17 ff.). See 
also Gcsta Romanorum, cap. 143 (ed. Oesterley, pp. 498 ff.); Thomas Wright, 
A Selection of Latin Stories, pp. 92 f. (Percy Society, vol. vin, 1842); Chaucer, 
<The Knight's Tale (A. 2028 ff.), and Boethius, bk. iii, prose 5. Whitney (A 
Choice oj Emblemes, 1586, ed. Green, pp. 102 f.) has an emblem on the sword of 
Damocles. Alexander Craig, in his Poeticall Essay es, 1604, ^2 ( e d- Hunterian 
Club, p. ii), refers to the time 

When Dionise at Siracusa sweare 

That Damocles some while his Crowne should weare; 

But being crownd, he plainely did protest 

He neuer could be blithe to be so blest. 

30-32 High trees by stormie winds are shakt, &fc. These figures are favor- 
ite Elizabethan commonplaces. Cf. the Gorgeous Gallery, pp. 152, 183 f. 

56. 22 throughout Grece. Or, rather, Sicily. 

3 1 their pleasures. Read his (or the) pleasures. 

57. 5 (No. 52) Fortitude. A yong man of Mgipt, and Valerian. In every 
edition (sigs. G 4 V -H in BC, H-H V in D, G^-Gy in E, 62^-63 in F-I), and 



assigned in B-I to Richard Edwards. This poem was almost certainly printed 
in broadside-ballad form, as indicated by its registration on March 5, 1579 
(Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 1973), under the title of "A notable Dede of ye 
constancye of a true Christian vnder ye persecucon of Valerian ye .8. emperour 
of Rome." 

Publius Licinius Valerianus was emperor of Rome from 253 to 260 A.D. See 
the discussion of his reign in Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chapter x, and com- 
pare John Lydgate's Fall of Princes, book viii (ed. Henry Bergen, in [1923], 
835-838). Lydgate remarks that Valerian himself died "in prisoun at mys- 
cheef lik a wrechche" (cf. Thomas Beard's Theatre of Gods Judgements, 1631, 
p. 33). Edwards's comment in line 13, that this "stout and noble deede of his 
[[the Egyptian's] hath got immortall praise," came from Sir Thomas Elyot's 
Book Named The Governor, 1531 (ed. Croft, n [1883], 315 f.), where, after tell- 
ing the story from Saint Hieronymus, or Jerome (cf. Vita S. Pauli Ercmitce, 
Migne's Patrologia, xxm, 19 f.), Elyot remarks, "Suer I am that he therfore 
receyued immortall lyfe and perpetuall glorie." Elyot and Edwards have the 
same order of incidents, the same omissions from the Latin, and similar phrase- 
ology. The story is also told in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, in. 2. 
ii. 4; in Samuel Clarke's Mirrour or Looking-Glass both for Saints, and Sinners, 
i (1671), 69; in Nathaniel Wanley's Wonders of the Little World, 1678, p. 196; 
in William Turner's Compleat History of the Most Remarkable Providences, 
1697, ch. xlii, p. 17. W. E. H. Lecky, in his History of European Morals, 11 
(1869), 337, calls this "an incredible story." Similar to it, and perhaps equally 
incredible, is the tale told of Zenocrates and the courtesan Lais: see Diogenes 
Laertius, iv. 2. 3; Montaigne's Essays, book ii, chapter 33. Cf. also the ac- 
count of the Lord of Beaumont given in Lodge's Famous, true and historicall 
life of Robert second Duke of Normandy, 1591, D2 (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, 
ii. i. 23). In the margin of B a MS. note declares, "facilius irae resistitur quam 

57. 10-11 ronne, ouercome. Cf. 51. 6-7 n. 

26 suche. The reading of +, with, makes the meaning clearer. 
28 By hym he laied a naked wenche, &c. A MS. note in B says, "so did 
balaam teach balaac Nu[mbers]: 31.16." 

58. 12 (No. 53) lustice. Zaleuch and his Sonne. In every edition (sigs. H- 
H v in BC, H V -H2 in D, G3 V -G 4 in , 63-63 v in F-I), and assigned in 5-7 to 
Richard Edwards. Zaleucus, who flourished ca. 660 B. c., was the uncom- 
promising lawgiver of the Locrians. His was the first written code of laws 
among the Greeks, and one of his edicts (as this ballad tells) provided that 
adultery should be punished by loss of the eyes. Another law decreed that any 
citizen who entered the senate-house bearing a weapon should be put to death. 
In time of war, so the story goes, Zaleucus (or, according to Valerius Maxi- 
mus, Charondas, a pupil of Zaleucus) thoughtlessly violated this second law, 
and, when his attention was called to the fact, committed suicide by throwing 
himself on the point of his sword, declaring that, despite extenuating circum- 



stances, the law must be upheld. For references to Zaleucus see the sixth book 
(i. 8) of Strabo's Geography; Aristotle, Politics, ii. 12; Diodorus Siculus, xii. 20- 
21 ; Cicero, De Legibus, ii. 6; ^Elian, Varia Historia, xiii. 24; Valerius Maximus, 
vi. 5. ext. 3-4. There is a lengthy discussion of the laws of Zaleucus in Richard 
Bentley's Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris, 1699 (ed. W. Wagner, 
1874, pp. 344-363). W. D. Pearman, editing Cicero's De Legibus (1881, p. 61 
n.), remarks that the names of Zaleucus and Charondas "seem to have been 
generally coupled together; and the same stories are told of both/' 

For accounts of Zaleucus and his son see especially Valerius Maximus; 
Erasmus, Adagia, ii. 10. 63; and Thomas Wilson, 'The Arte of Rhetorique, 1560 
(ed. G. H. Mair, p. 28). Edwards undoubtedly followed Wilson, as is shown 
not only by his title of "Justice," but also by verbal parallels and by certain 
details that occur in Edwards and Wilson but not in the Latin versions. The 
story is also told in Thomas Salter's 'The Contention betweene three Brethren, 
1608, B2 V (first edition, 1580), and in some versions of the Gesta Romanomm 
(see J. A. Herbert, Catalogue of Romances, in [1910], 206, 214). 

Before its inclusion in the Paradise Edwards's poem had apparently circu- 
lated in ballad-form: it was registered for publication in 1568-69 (Rollins, 
Analytical Index, No. 1343) as a ballad called " the Juste Judgement of Zaleu- 
cus agaynste Whoredom/' By 1593 Nashe, in his Christ's Tears over Jeru- 
salem (jVorks, ed. McKerrow, n, 154 f.), could declare that "The tale of 
Seleucus & hys sonne is stale." But not every one thought so. Bodenham, 
for instance, in his Belvedere, 1600, M2 V , quotes from some unidentified source 
the lines, 

Zaleucus to the Locrians made a law, 

To loose their eyes that sinn'd in foule desires. 

In his Amorose Songes, 1606, F8 V (ed. Hunterian Club, p. 96), Alexander Craig 
included a sonnet on this subject: 

Newyeares gift to IDEA. 

The Locrian King Zaleucus made a law, 

That each adultrar both his eyes should lose, 

But when his Sonne was faultie first he saw, 

That sacred Kings haue hid and secret foes, 

Incontenent vnto the stage he goes, 

And from his Sonne one eye, one of his owne 

He caus'd pull out, and in the sight of those 

A carefull King, a father kind was knowne. 

In Janus Kalends faire and louely sweet, 

Time out of minde hath been a custome old, 

That friends their friends with mutual gifts should greet 

To keep true kindnes from becoming cold. 

Zaleucus-\ike these Lines are sent by mee, 

To keepe the law and kith my Loue to thee. 

Da veniam merui nil ego, iussit amor. 


Similar to the Zaleucus story is the account of a Roman consul and his son 
that Thomas Hoccleve gives in his Regement of Princes, 1412 (Works , ed. Fur- 
nivall, in, 99 f., E. E. T. S.). 

59. 4 Sale now who can . . . Apollo he shalbe. Borrowed from Virgil 
(Eclogues, iii. 104), "Die, quibus in terris, et eris mihi magnus Apollo." 

5 Was he more gentle father, &c. This question is somewhat on the 
order of that which ends Chaucer's Franklin's Tale. It resembles also the ques- 
tions discussed in the mediaeval Courts of Love, and offers for discussion a nice 
point of casuistry. 

6 This man would not his lawes belike, 6fc . Obviously belike should, 
with +, read be like: this man didn't wish his laws to be like the webs that 
spiders weave. 

ii (No. 54) Temperaunce. Spurina and the Romaine Ladies. In every 
edition (sigs. H v in BC, H2-H2 V in D, G4~G4 V in E, 63^64 in F-/); assigned 
to F. M. in A only, to Richard Edwards in B-I. Undoubtedly Edwards wrote 
the poem. Valerius Maximus (iv. 5. ext. i) gives the following account of 
Spurina (Spurinna): "Quod sequitur externis adnectam, quia ante gestum est 
quam Etruriae ciuitas daretur. Excellentis in ea regione pulchritudinis adules- 
cens nomine Spurinna, cum mira specie conplurium feminarum inlustrium sol- 
licitaret oculos ideoque uiris ac parentibus earum se suspectum esse sentiret, 
oris decorem uulneribus confudit deformitatemque sanctitatis suae fidem quam 
formam inritamentum aliense libidinis esse maluit." Spurina is mentioned in 
Petrarch's poem on Chastity, the second of his Trionfi. His story is told also by 
Gower (Confessio Amantis, v. 6372-6384; cf. also his Mirour de Vomme, lines 
18301 ff.) and by Hoccleve (The Regement of Princes, 1412, Works, ed. Furni- 
vall, in, 134, E. E. T. S.), though neither of these poets mentions the name 
Spurina; also by Lydgate (The Fall of Princes, book v, lines 22 ff., and by 
Lodowick Lloyd (The Pilgrimage of Princes, 1607, N3). Gower says: 

Phyryns, which was of mannes kinde 

Above alle othre the faireste 

Of Rome and ek the comelieste, 

That wel was hire which him mihte 

Beholde and have of him a sihte. 

Thus* was he tempted ofte sore; 

Bot for he wolde be nomore 

Among the wommen so coveited, 

The beaute of his face streited 

He hath, and threste out bothe hise yhen, 

That alle wommen whiche him syhen 

Thanne afterward, of him ne roghte: 

And thus his maidehiede he boghte. 

Hoccleve gives no name at all, and ends his account thus: 

By toknes knew he hire vnclene entente, 

And with his nayles cracched he his face, 

And scocched it with knyues, and to-rente, 


And it so wonderly thus gan difface, 

That his beaute refused hadde hir place: 
Al this dide he, hir hertes to remewe 
ffrom him, and make hem vnclennesse eschue. 

Bodenham, in Belvedere, 1600, C2 V , quotes from an unidentified poem, 

Spurina chose to mangle his faire face, 

Rather than be seduc'de from vertuous thoughts. 

Mr. Kittredge reminds me that 'Thistoire de Spurina" is discussed in Mon- 
taigne's Essays, book ii, chapter 33. The "story" is very brief: "Spurina, jeune 
homme de la Toscane . . . estant doue d'une singuliere beaute, et si excessive 
que les yeux plus continents ne pouvoient en souffrir 1'esclat sans alarme [or 
continemment], ne se contentant point de laisser sans secours tant de fievre 
et de feu qu'il alloit attisant par tout,entra en furieux despit centre soy-mesmes 
et contre ces riches presens que nature lui avoit faits, comme si on se devoit 
prendre a eux de la faute d'autruy, et detailla et troubla, a force de playes 
qu'il se fit a escient et de cicatrices, la parfaicte proportion et ordonnance que 
nature avoit si curieusement observee en son visage." Montaigne comments as 
follows: "Le dessein en fut beau et conscientieux, mais, a mon avis, un peu 
manque de prudence. Quoy ? si sa laideur servit depuis a en jetter d'autres au 
peche de mespris et de haine ou d'envie pour la gloire d'une si rare recomman- 
dation. ... II estoit plus juste et aussi plus glorieux qu'il fist de ces dons de 
Dieu un subject de vertu exemplaire et de reglement." It may be worth adding 
that in a spurious ballad-manuscript once owned by J. P. Collier and de- 
scribed in his Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company, n (1849), 
ix, the seventy-seventh ballad is entitled "Spurina and the Roman Ladies," 
and was presumably copied from the Paradise. 

59. 14-15 Twixt comelinesse and chastitie, A deadly strife, &c. Cf. Juvenal, 
x. 297, "Rara est adeo concordia formae Atque pudicitiae"; Pettie, The Civile 
Conversation of M. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, n [1925], 10 f.), "it is a 
matter almost impossible, and sieldome seene, that those two great enimies, 
bewty and honesty agree togither. . . . And though it fall out often that 
bewty and honesty are joyned togither, yet it falleth out sieldome, but that 
exquisite bewty is had in suspition"; Hamlet, in. i. in ff., "the power of 
beauty will sooner transform honesty from what it is to a bawd than the force 
of honesty can translate beauty into his likeness"; Draxe, 1616, p. 367, "Faire 
without, but foule within." Stow's Annals (1631 ed., p. 78) contains a para- 
graph labelled "Chastity before beauty preferred, a rare example," which in 
some respects parallels the story of Spurina. In the year 870, Stow tells us, 
"Saint Ebbe, Abbesse of Coldingham 6. miles North from Barwike, cut off her 
nose and vpperlip, and perswaded all her sisters to doe the like, that they being 
odible to the Danes, might the better keepe their Virginity, in despite whereof, 
the Danes burned the Abbey, and the Nunnes therein." "The Lyfe of Ladye 



Ebbe" also appears in the Mirror for Magistrates, 1578 (ed. Haslewood, I 

[1815! 443-447)- 

59. 17 her wil. For her read their , with HI. 

1 8 Assaults to tounes, &c. On this commonplace see 38.11 n. 

21 made. A faulty rhyme with can. Perhaps a man is the proper 

24 floud, come. Observe \h&\.floud has for its rhyme plate, while come 
(cf. 51. 6-7 n.) has runne. 

32 /0 nzg?. A good reading, although in 5+ it is changed to to range, 
i. e., to run after him. 

60. 7 My think. Read me think, with 5+. 

11 (No. 55) A bunche of herbes, &c. In every edition (sigs. H2-H2 T in 
BC, H2 V -H3 V in D, G^-H in E, G4-G4 V in F-I], and in every case anony- 

12 are shaft. Read or shaft (shaped), with B+. 

16-17 Vpon my helme, sfr. Upon my helmet with my head held 
high soon should you see some twig for solace placed there. There is pleo- 

26 as liketh. Read or liketh, with B+. 

30 seke to those. An idiom for have recourse to. In D+ those becomes 
chose (= choose). Cf. Isaiah xi. 10, "to it shall the Gentiles seek." 

33 Myne authour. A reference to Ovid's Heroides, v. 149, " Me miseram, 
quod amor non est medicabilis herbis!" 

36 Eche. This key-word points to 61.3 instead of to 61.2. See also the 
words at 62.29 and 66.34. 

61. 4 the treasures. Read their treasures, with F+. 

5 / wishe no other fees. I ask for no other fees than the fallen branches. 
I. e., one can get good pickings from fallen branches if one has a right to them. 
Foresters esteemed the privilege of collecting and using such branches. Accord- 
ingly, the poet is merely emphasizing the value that he (like 'men and beasts 
and foules') sets upon the trees. 

10-18 The Eue tree, &c. With this passage compare the tree-lists in 
Chaucer's Parliament of Birds, lines 176-182, and William Browne's Brit- 
annias Pastorals, 1613, i. 2 (Whole Works, ed. Hazlitt, i, 65 f.); and see Skeat's 
references (Chaucer's Complete Works, i, 511 f.) to other famous lists. 

14 The willowe wisht I Jarre fro hens, &c. Because willow was a sign of 
bad luck in love. Sallows (line 15) are also a kind of willow. Deserue should 
probably read deserues. 

17 The Eglantine . . . is pricked vpon the poste. Accordingly, in L'Al- 
legro Milton refers to it as "the twisted eglantine." 

1 8 the Bates doe beare the bell. I. e., the bay, or laurel, surpassed all 
other trees. In his commendatory verses prefixed to William Browne's Britan- 
nia's Pastorals (1613), John Selden mentions bays, and explains in a marginal 
note that "Baies . . . being the materials of Poets Girlands . . . are supposed 



not subiect to any hurt of Jupiters thunderboltes, as other Trees are." Cf. also 
78.7 n. 

61. 20 that semely tree. Evidently the poet's sweetheart. No doubt he was 
thinking of her in terms of Daphne, whom Apollo changed into a bay-tree. 

39 Now. This key-word should have been printed in italic type in A y 
for it points to an italic word. 

62. 2 (No. 56) Now mortall man, &c. In A and B only (sig. K4 V in J3), and 
assigned in each to Master Thorn. No. 56 may have been identical with the 
ballad called "ye vanite of this worlde and the felycite of the worlde to come" 
that was registered for publication in 1563-64 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 
2805). Other copies of it are preserved in (R) MS. Rawlinson Poet. 185, fols. 
4 V ~5 V (reprinted in my Old English Ballads, pp. 265-269), and (X) Additional 
MS. 15,233 (reprinted by Halliwell [-Phillipps] in John Bedford's Moral Play 
of Wit and Science, pp. no f., Shakespeare Society, 1848). -R is entitled "A 
pretie dittie and a pithie intituled O mortall man." The title is then followed 
by a sub-title, "O mortall man, behold and see,/This world is but a vanetie," 
and the last line of each stanza is repeated as a refrain. X has no title, but 
prints as a refrain to the first and last stanzas, "Now mortall man, behold and 
see/This world is but a vanite." The Paradise poem (P) has eight stanzas, four 
of which (lines 7-18) are not in RX\ R has eleven stanzas, of which four are 
in P, eight in X, and three are unique; X has nine stanzas, of which four are in 
P, eight in R, and one unique. The total number of stanzas, then, in the three 
versions is sixteen, and all are reprinted with full collations in my Old English 
Ballads, to which the reader may be referred for complete details. Here it will 
suffice to reprint the eight additional stanzas, the first six and the eighth of 
which come from R, the seventh from X: 

If thow be kinge or emperoure, 

prince, ether lord of might or powre, 
Thy poore subiectes do not devoure; 

beware of pride and Crueltye, 
Lose not thy fame for vanetie, 

lose not thy fame, &c. 

If thow be set to do lustice, 

reward vertue and punish vice; 
Oppresse no man, I thee advice; 

abuse not thine aut[h]oritye 
To vex poore men for vanetye, 

to vex poor men, &c. 

And if thow forten to be poore 

so that thow go from dore to dore, 
Humblie giue thankes to god therfore, 

and thinke in thine adversetie, 
This world is but a vanetie, 

this world is but, &c. 



Yf thow of youth haue oversight, 

refraine thy will with all thy might; 
For wicked will doth worke his spight. 

Let them at no tyme idle bee, 
For that encreseth vanetie, 

for that encreseth, &c. 

If to serve others thow be bent, 

serue with goodwill, and be content 
To do thy lordes commandement, 

Serue trew and eeke painfully, 
Do not delight in vanetie, 

do not delight, &c. 

But if thow haue men's soules in cure, 

thy charge is great, I thee assure; 
In wordes and deedes thow must be pure, 

all vertue must abound in thee. 
Thow must eschew all vanetie, 

thow must eschew, &c. 

Then since ye do perseve right clere, 
That all is vayne as doth apeere 
Lerne to bestow, while thow art heere, 

Your wyt, your powre, your landes, your fees; 

Lerne to bestow thes vanitees! 

Now let vs pray to god aboue 

that he voutsaffe our harts to moue, 
Each one another for to loue 

and flye from all inyquitie; 
So shall we Voide all vanetie, 

so shall we Voide all vanetie. 

The chief verbal differences in the texts of P y R, and X are as follows: 

62. 2 Now] O R 

4 or] and RX: assured] vn assured RX 

6 where] ther R: remaineth nought but] All is subiect to RX 

19 or] and X: thou] then RX: y] is RX 

20 thou must make] that thow must R 
22 or 1 ] and R: disgrace] deface R 

24 for to bost of] to be prowed in R, to be prowde of X 

25 cares] care R 

26 rewardeth] rewardes /?, rewardth X 

27 glorious] most perfect RX: free from] Voide of R 

28 M. Thorn] Om. R, quod Mr. Thome X 

With the title (62.2-3) compare 41.31-32 and the title of a poem in Thomas 
Howeirs H. His Denises, 1581, M2 V (Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 260): 

"Who seekes this Worlds felicitie, 
Fyndes nothing else but vanitie." 



Seven stanzas of No. 56 are reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 314 f. 

62. 4 assured. Read unassured with RX (above, variant to line 4). 

1 6 leue those pains. To escape the discomforts of the sea. The poet has 
in mind the first satire of Horace, especially lines 6 f., "Contra mercator, 
navem iactantibus Austria, Militia est potior." 

29 Where. This key-word points to 63.3 instead of to 63.2. See also the 
words at 60.36 and 66.34. 

63. 2 (No. 57) In commendation of Mustek. In every edition (sigs. H2 V in 
EC, H3 V in D, H in E, G4 V in F-7); assigned to Master Edwards in A only, 
anonymous in B-I. Accordingly, although the poem sounds like the work of 
Edwards, its attribution to him must be regarded as doubtful. The words and 
the music are reprinted in Sir John Hawkins's General History of the Science 
and Practice of Music, v (1776), 444 f. 

In his Popular Music, i, 98, Chappell remarks: "During the long reign of 
Elizabeth, music seems to have been in universal cultivation, as well as in uni- 
versal esteem. Not only was it a necessary qualification for ladies and gentle- 
men, but even the city of London advertised the musical abilities of boys edu- 
cated in Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, as a mode of recommending them as 
servants, apprentices, or husbandmen. . . . Tinkers sang catches; milkmaids 
sang ballads; carters whistled; each trade, and even the beggars, had their 
special songs; the base-viol hung in the drawing-room for the amusement of 
waiting visitors; and the lute, cittern, and virginals, for the amusement of 
waiting customers, were the necessary furniture of the barber's shop. They had 
music at dinner; music at supper; music at weddings; music at funerals; music 
at night; music at dawn; music at work; and music at play." 

Nevertheless, even in this time when music was sine qua non, it found some 
determined opponents, and was subjected to incessant attacks from men of a 
puritanical bent. The controversy over music waged long in the ballad press. 
Thomas Brice, a preacher, in his ballad "Against filthy writing, and such like 
delighting'* (Collmann's Ballads, p. 36; Collier's Old Ballads, p. 49, Percy 
Society, vol i, 1840), replying to two or three licentious ballad-writers, re- 
marks apologetically, "We are not foes to musicke wee, a mis your man doth 
take vs." But in another ballad, ca. 1560 (MS. Ashmole 48, No. 3, ed. Thomas 
Wright, Roxburghe Club, 1860), Henry Spooner wrote vigorously against 
those persons who objected to teaching music to young girls; in 1562-63 Nich- 
olas Whight entered the lists with "A commendation of Musicke, And a con- 
futation of them which disprayse it" (Collmann's Ballads, p. 275); and in the 
same year the ballad-writer Churchyard produced "a boke intituled the com- 
mendation of musyke" (Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Registers, i, 205). 
No. 57, then, conforms to type. For a later ballad in which Jacobean op- 
ponents of music are attacked, see my Old English Ballads, pp. 142-146. 

3 Where gripyng grief, &c. The next to the last word in this line, the, 
should read the mind, with 5+. This poem has been immortalized by being 



quoted (from some other edition than A) in Romeo and Juliet, iv. v. 125-148. 
The passage runs: 

Pffer]. I will dry-beat you with an iron wit, and put up my iron dagger. Answer me like men: 

"When griping grief the heart doth wound, 

And doleful dumps the mind oppress, 
Then music with her silver sound" 

why "silver sound"? why "music with her silver sound"? What say you, Simon Catling? 

First Mus\_ician\. Marry, sir, because silver hath a sweet sound. 

Pet. Pretty! What say you, Hugh Rebeck? 

Sec. Mus. I say "silver sound," because musicians sound for silver. 

Pet. Pretty too! What say you, James Soundpost? 

Third Mus. Faith, I know not what to say. 

Pet. 0, 1 cry you mercy; you are the singer: I will say for you. It is "music with her silver 
sound," because musicians have no gold for sounding: 

"Then music with her silver sound 
With speedy help doth lend redress." 


First Mus. What a pestilent knave is this same! 
Sec. Mus. Hang him, Jack! 

The second line of the poem is quoted by Fortunatus in Dekker's play of Old 
Fortunatus, 1600 (Dramatic Works ^ ed. Pearson, i, 97): "Yet I feele nothing 
here to make mee rich, heres no sweete Musicke with her siluer sound.'' In his 
Satiro-mastix, 1602 (ed. Scherer, 1907, p. 26), Dekker writes, "Musicke talke 
lowder, that thy siluer voice, May reach my Soueraignes eares." Cf. the poem 
in H. C.'s Forrest of Fancy, 1579 (Farr's Select Poetry, n, 479), beginning 
"When griping greefes do greeue the minde"; and 36.28 n. 

The ballad was reprinted, from a copy preserved in MS. Cotton Vespasian 
A. xxv (ed. Boeddeker, Jahrbuchfur romamsche und englische Sprache, N. F., 
ii, 213), in Bishop Percy's Reliques, 1765 (ed. Wheatley, i, 188 f.). The varia- 
tions in Percy's version are as follows: 

63. 3 grief] grefes: the] the mynde 

4 is ... spede] With spede is wont: giue] send 

5 minde] mynds: for] in: therfore] in store 

6 grief] woe 

7 The carefull head release] Be-strawghted heads relyef 

8 sences] senses all : should] shall 

9 hath their praie] have theire prayse: the foule] The lyfe, the soul 
10 Poets saie] poet sayes 

12 A] 0: turnes] rules: like] Even 

13 Musick] O musicke 

14 Sith] Since: wiseman then] beste ys he: reproue] disprove 

15 Finis, &c.] Om. 

63. 6 it chers our heauy sprights. Cf. Spenser, Prosopopoia y 1591, lines 754- 

' 5 * he doth recoyle 

Unto his rest, and there with sweete delight 
Of musicks skill revives his toyled spright. 



63. 7 release. The reading of 5+, relief, is preferable. 

9 their praie, &V. In HI the reading is their prey, the fish, fcfc., which 
restores the octameter movement. Undoubtedly, however, in place of prate and 
/b#/ we should read praise and J0#/. 

lo-ii as the Romaine Poets sale, &5V. A very curious arrangement of 
clauses, which mean: As the Roman poets say, Arion, whom pirates wished to 
kill (by drowning him) in the sea, a dolphin (attracted to the ship by the music 
of his harp) saved from a terrible death. Arion, poet and musician of Lesbos, 
is supposed to have lived about 625 B.C. The story about him is told in Herod- 
otus, i. 23-24, in Aulus Gellius, xvi. 19, and, among other places, in William 
Bullokar's ALsop's Fables, 1585 (ed. Max Plessow, Palaestra, LII [1906], 80 f.). 
Allusions to Arion abound in Elizabethan works: e. g., in Lodge's Reply to 
Gosson, 1580? (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, i. ii. 26); in Whitney's Choice of 
Emblemcs, 1586 (ed. Green, p. 144); in Spenser's Amoretti, 1595, sonnet 38; and 
cf. Weelkes's Madrigals, 1600, quoted above, 36.28 n. 

12 A. Perhaps the reading should be 0, with BCHL An exclamation 
seems appropriate here, though, to be sure, A could itself equal Ah. 

1 6 (No. 58) Beware of Sirens. This poem is in A only. I have inserted 
the title and number solely for the sake of uniformity and convenience of ref- 
erence. On the stanza-form see 22.13 n. 

27 meane where. Read meane ( = means) whereof. 

64. 14-15 And if . . . You wisht . . . learne. And if you wish your wit to 
learn (get) information where Circe now doth dwell. Wis ht evidently should be 
the present tense wish, andjyow witt should be your wilt. 

1 6 / am she. Read / am he. 

21 (No. 59) Findyng no ioye, s?r . In every edition (sigs. H3~H3 V in EC, 
FLj. in D, H V -H2 in E, H-H V in F-I), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. 
After the title a MS. note in B says, "nihil tutum." 

24 His Berne rounde about besett. I. e., his burrow. Cf. Timothy Ken- 
dall, Flowers of Epigrammes, 1577, C7 (ed. Spenser Society, p. 61), "The little 
Conie loues to scoute, In Berries, that are digged out"; Pettie, The Civile Con- 
versation of M. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, i [1925], 189), "you shall see 
some houses so ful of Gentlemen . . . that every one of them hath scarce a 
little hole to shrowd himselfe in: and they come at diverse doores so thick as it 
were conies out of a Berrie." 

28 to rest. The reading no rest in D+ is unnecessary. The infinitive to 
rest is used in a conditional sense: If I remain in love, unkindness (of my lady) 
pursues me (as the ferret does the coney which stays in his burrow.) 

29 whiche. The antecedent of whiche is his. 

65. 5 hears. Faulty rhyme with professe. 

9 (No. 60) Hope well and haue well. In every edition (sigs. H3 V in BC, 
H4 V in D, H2 in , H v in F-I), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. The 
title is proverbial. Cf. Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 217, where the Latin phrase 
"Crede quod habes et habes," and Thomas Fuller's Gnomologia (1732) are 



cited. The proverb occurs in The Bugbears, ca. 1563, iv. v (Herrig's Archivfttr 
das Studium der neueren Sprachen, xcix [1897], 40), as "hope well & hare 
[read have] well "; in Heywood's Works, 1 562, p. 74, as " Beleue well, and haue 
well, men say"; in J. Gruter, 1611, n, 178, as "Hope wel and haue wel"; and 
in Draxe, 1616, p. 387, as "Hope well, haue well." 

65. 23 (No. 61) He repenteth his folly. This poem is in A only. It was written 
by Sir Thomas Wyatt, and appeared in Tottel's Miscellany ', 1557, pp. 76 f. 
The signature of Wplliam]. H[unnis]. is, then, to be disregarded, unless 
Hunnis revised (not always for the better) Wyatt's lines. (Mrs. Stopes, in her 
William Hunnis, p. 188, says of No. 61 that " it appeared in the edition of 1577, 
attributed to Hunnis, and curiously enough in the edition of 1578 also." This 
is a strange remark all the stranger since [cf. p. xviii, above] she had never 
seen the 1577 edition.) In the present version the last stanza (66.5-7) is an 
addition not in Tottel's, while after the first stanza (65.24-26) the following 
lines from Tottel's are omitted: 

And when my lips gan first to moue, 
Wherby my hart to thee was knowne: 
And when my tong did talk of loue, 
To thee that hast true loue down throwne: 
I would, my lips, and tong also: 
Had then bene dum, no deale to go. 

Other variations between the two texts are as follows: 

65. 24 beutie faire for] faire beawtie 
25 gan first] listned 

27 did handle oft] haue handled ought: might thee kepe] thee hath kept 

28 had gone so softe] haue gone, and sought: haue] geat (i. e., get) 

29 eke] I: so] had 

66. 2 thus] this 

3 self] life 

4 or els] Orels: as soft] had bene 

The title of No. 61 occurs again at 107.12. 

29 eke . . . so seen. The reading of Tottel's Miscellany, I . . . had 
seen, is preferable. 

66. 9 (No. 62) He requesteth some frendly comfort, &c. In every edition 
(sigs. H3 V -H4 in BC, H4 V -I in D, H2-H2 V in E, H V -H2 in F-I), and assigned 
in each to Richard Edwards. 

1 6 'The Eagle . . . is borne of kyngs. Carried, e. g., on shields, helmets, 
or standards. 

17 poisoned waies. Evidently waies is a misprint for iawes (B+)- 

21 shall last tyme out of minde. A proverbial phrase. Cf. Romeo and 
Juliet, i. iv. 69, "Time out o' mind the fairies' coachmakers"; and Craig's 
sonnet quoted in the notes to 58.12. 

29 sende againe to me. Send back again (a letter of greeting). Cf. line 30. 

34 Shall. This key-word points to 67.3 instead of to 67.2. See also the 
words at 60.36 and 62.29. 



67. 2 (No. 63) He complaineth his mishapp. In every edition (sigs. ILj. in 
EC, I in D, H2 V in E, H2 in F-I), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. 

3 youth. Read ruth (pity), with B+. 

13 berent my harte. I. e., berend my heart; but B+ have berent my hairs, 
as the rhyme demands. 

1 6 to witt and will, their counsels, to ensue. Til make a vow to Wit and 
Will to follow their counsels. 

1 8 seme. A faulty rhyme. 

22 (No. 64) No Joe to a flatterer. In every edition (sigs. H4-H4 V in BC, 
I-I V in D, H2 V -H3 in E, H2-H2 V in F-I), and assigned in B-I to William 

24 not blinde although I winke. Proverbial. Cf. the Handful, line 1496, 
"Although I wincke, I am not blind." Usually the proverb is applied to a cat, 
as in the Handful, lines 1133 f., " Although the Cat doth winke a while, yet 
sure she is not blinde." Cf. also A new Enterlued . . . named Jacke Jugeler, ca. 
1550, E3 V , 

Sumwhat it was sayeth the prouerbe olde 
That the Catte winked when here iye was out 
That is to saye no tale can be tolde 
But that sum Englyshe maye be piked therof out; 

Samuel Rowlands, A Whole Crew of Kind Gossips, 1609, C2 V , "I say no more, 
there's somewhat in the winde, The Cat oft winkes, and yet she is not blinde" \ 
and Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 416. 

25 bloudy. The reading of B+, boldned, seems preferable. But bloudy 
(meaning bloodthirsty) makes sense: Craft creeps into bloodthirsty (murder- 
ous) breast, i. e., craft comes to the aid of murder. 

27 the Serpent lye and lui ~k. Cf. 21.9 n. 

68. 2-3 face, golde. Both of these words violate the rhyming-scheme. 

3 all is not golde, that glitter eth. Cf. 10.22 n. 

4 as now by profe Ifinde. Forjinde the rhyme demands try (the reading 
in 5+). The meaning is, Now by experience I find to be true. 

5 secret spight . . . hath made a coate of Panters skin. Probably this 
means that secret spite cajoles by flattery. Evidently there is an allusion to the 
legendary sweet smell of the panther. In his Natural History, viii. 23, Pliny 
says of panthers: " It is said that all quadrupeds are attracted in a most won- 
derful manner by their odour, while they are terrified by the fierceness of their 
aspect; for which reason the creature conceals its head, and then seizes upon 
the animals that are attracted to it by the sweetness of the odour." Pliny fur- 
ther remarks (xxi. 18) that no animal except the panther has any such odor, 
and his statement is supported by Aristotle (Historia Animalium, ix. 6) and 
/Elian (De Natura Animalium, v. 40). Accordingly, in the Middle English Bes- 
tiary (Richard Morris, An Old English Miscellany, pp. 23 f., E. E. T. S., 1872) 
the panther from whose mouth comes a surpassingly sweet odor that en- 
tices animals to follow him is made to typify Christ. Richard Niccols, in the 



Mirror for Magistrates, 1610 (ed. Haslewood, in [1815], 768), says that "The 
panther with sweet sauour of her breath First charmes their sense, whom she 
hath markt for deathe"; Humphrey Mill, in The Second Part of The Nights 
Search, 1646, p. 26, has, 

The Panther drawes men with his pleasing sent 
Into, or neare his den; when his intent 
Is to devoure 'em. So the Devill drawes 
The sinners in, where with his sharper clawes 
He teares their flesh; 

while Swinburne writes in Laus Veneris, 

As one who hidden in deep sedge and reeds 
Smells the rare scent made where a panther feeds, 

And tracking ever slotwise the warm smell 
Is snapped upon by the sweet mouth and bleeds, 

His head far down the hot sweet throat of her. 

68. 9 tyme shall trie the thyng. The usual proverbial expression is "Time 
trieth all things/* Thus in The Winter s Tale, iv. i. i, Time says, " I, that please 
some, try all." See Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 419. 

12 (No. 65) His comparison of Lone. In every edition (sigs. H4 V in BC, 
I v in D, H3 in E, H2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. The 
title, not in A, occurs in B-L Opposite the title a MS. note in B adds, " an end- 
lesse worke." 

1 6 A blast of winde, &c. Cf. Spenser, Amoretti, 1595, sonnet 23, "Such 
labour like the spyders web I fynd, Whose fruitlesse worke is broken with 
least wynd." 

19 Or, the. The readings of B+, and, a, are preferable 

21 slate. Rhyme and sense demand the reading try. 

25 throwne downe. Read down thrown for the sake of rhyme. 

28 Those. The reading Whose might be expected. 

30 (No. 66) Euill to hym that euill thinketh. In every edition (sigs. I in 
BC, 12 in D, H3 V in E, H3 in F-I), and assigned in each to Richard Edwards. 
The title, which occurs in B-I but not in A, is reminiscent of the motto of the 
Order of the Garter, "Honi soit qui mal y pense." In Camden's Proverbs, 1614, 
p. 330 (and also in J. Gruter, 1611, n, 183), it appears in the form of "Shame 
take him that shame thinketh"; in Draxe, 1616, p. 409, it is "Shame be to him 
that ill thinketh." Another copy of No. 66 is in Additional MS. 28,635, 
fol. io6 v . 

69. 8 / see the serpent vile, &c. Cf. 21.9 n. 

10 his fosters bane, &c. His leering looks reveal the fact that he is (will 
be) the death of whoever shall foster him a reference to the well-known 
fable of JEsop. Cf. Lodge and Greene, A Looking-Glassfor London and England, 
ca. 1590, E3 V (Lodge's Works, ed. Hunterian Club, iv. ii. 36), "He plaies the 
Serpent right, described in JEsofes tale, That soughtt the fosters death, that 

C 232 ] 


lately gaue him life." Artemus Ward somewhere remarks, "I've been nussin' a 
adder in my bosom/' 

69. 17 (No. 67) He assureth his constancie. In every edition (sigs. I-I V in 
BC, I2-I2 V in D, H 3 V -H 4 in E, Hj-H^ in F-7); assigned in A to M. B. 
(Master Bewe), in B-I to William Hunnis. The latter must be regarded as the 
author of the poem. The title is not in A but occurs in B-I. Mrs. Stopes 
(Shakespeare's Industry, p. 288) comments somewhat vaguely, "This poem is 
particularly interesting as it contains the nearest foreshadowing of the 
thoughts in some of Shakespeare's sonnets, which resemblance has not yet 
been noted." In BC the title stands awkwardly at the very foot of the page (cf. 
82.19 n.). 

20 shall. The subject is, of course, / in line 18. 

28 Thefruite shall trie the tree. Cf. Matthew xii. 33, "the tree is known 
by his fruit"; Luke vi. 44, "every tree is known by his own fruit." 

70. 5 (No. 68) 'Trie and then trust. This poem is in A only. The title is pro- 
verbial: cf. 28.7 n. On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

6 The sainct I serue. My "lady," or sweetheart. Cf. 46.28 n. 
9 Andfedmyfaunyngfrende,&c. This phrase makes no sense. The 
context requires And fed me, feigning friend, with dainty food, with the words 
feigning friend referring to the sainct (or sweetheart) of line 6. 

10 words are nought but winde. Proverbial. Cf. Humfrey Gifford, A 
Posie of Gilloflowers, 1580, M4 V (Complete Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 104), "Your 
words are winde, your sute is wast"; Anthony Munday, The Pleasant Comedy 
of Two Italian Gentlemen, 1584, F2 (Malone Society reprint), "What hast thou 
solde? Nothing but wordes, What hast thou got? Nothing but winde"; Richard 
Barnfield, The Complaint of Poetrie, 1598 (Poems, ed. Arber, p. 99), "Wordes 
are but winde; and winde is all but vaine"; Bodenham, Belvedere, 1600, M5 V , 
" Words are but wind, they bid, but doe not buy "; Draxe, 1616, p. 390, " Words 
are but winde, but blowes are vnkinde." See also the Handful, p. 109, and the 
Gorgeous Gallery, p. 161. 

11 sweter meate, the sowrer sauce. Proverbial. Cf. 8.33, 110.25; Colyn 
Blowbols Testament (Hazlitt's Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of England, 
i [[1864], 98), "Sharpe sawce was ordeigned for swete mete"; A new Enterlued 
. . . named Jacke Jugeler, ^.1550, D2 V , "And it hath byn a saying, oftyme 
long That swete mete woll haue soure sauce among"; Mirror for Magistrates, 
1587 (ed. Haslewood, i [1815], 76), "The prouerbe sayth, sweete meate will 
haue of sauces sower"; Heywood's Works, 1562, pp. 16, 44, "And although it 
were sweete for a weeke or twayne, Sweete meate will haue sowre sawce, I see 
now playne," "And whan she sawe sweete sauce began to waxe soure, She 
waxt as sowre as he"; Robert Tofte, Alba, 1598 (ed. Grosart, 1880, p. 108), 
"Sweet meate sowre sauce deserues"; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 331, "Sweet 
meat will have sowre sauce"; William Browne, The Shepheards Pipe, 1614, 
sixth eclogue (Whole Works, ed. Hazlitt, 11, 228), "Sweet meat, sowre sauce"; 
Martin Parker, "Good Newes from the North," 1640 (Rollins, Cavalier and 


Puritan, 1923, p. 104), "Sweet meat must have sowre sauce alway." See also 
Draxe, 1616, p. 402. 

70. 12 helde the Ele by the taile. Proverbial. Cf. Heywood's Works, 1562, 
p. 170, "Take tyme when tyme cumth, asay to be bolde of it, But slyper as an 
eeles tayle is the holde of it"; The Passionate Morrice, 1593 (ed. Furnivall, 
p. 88, New Shakspere Society, 1876), "Is it not folly to striue to keepe a wet 
Eele by the taile "; Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon, 1599, H3 
(Tudor Facsimile Texts), "who so euer hath her, hath but a wet Eele by the 
taile"; Jervase (or Gervase) Markham, The Newe Metamorphosis, 1600-1615 
(J. H. H. Lyon, A Study, etc., 1919, p. 216), 

Is not an Eles tayle, a most slippery hold ? 
whence comes the proverbe that's as true as old. 
Y' are even as good hold a wette Ele by the tayle 
as to repose a trust in Women fraile; 

Draxe, 1616, p. 416, "He holdeth a wet eele by the taile"; Nathaniel Field, 
Amends for Ladies, 1618, iv. iii, "O ancient truth! to be denied of no man: An 
eel by the tail's held surer than a woman"; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 504 
(quoting from Walker's Parcemiologia, 1672), "You have a wet eel by the 

15 to take the Wolje, by the eare. Proverbial for a dangerous or a desper- 
ate situation. Cf. Terence, Phormio, m. ii. 21, " auribus teneo lupum "; Tottel's 
Miscellany, 1557, p. 155, "Shalbe as free from cares and feares, As he that 
holds a wolfe by the eares"; Mirror for Magistrates, 1587, ed. Haslewood, n 
(1815), 403, "Hee hath a raging wolfe fast by the ears"; John Chamberlain, 
1614 (Birch, The Court and Times of James I, i [1848], 289), "Lupum auribus 
tenet he knows not how to hold, nor how to let go"; Draxe, 1616, pp. 370, 
401, "A medlar is as he that taketh a wolfe by the eares," "He holdeth a wolfe 
by the eares"; Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, m. 2. v. 5, "in the 
mean time their [i. e., lovers'] case is desperate, Lupum auribus tenent, they 
hold a wolf by the ears"; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 433 (quoting from 
Walker's Parcemiologia, 1672, and from Ray's Proverbs, 1737), "To have a wolf 
by the ears." The metre would be benefited by the omission of the in by the 

1 6 like to Esops dogg. For similar references to the well-known fable, 
compare Spenser, The Shepherds' Calendar, 1579 ("September," lines 59-61), 
"To leave the good that I had in hande, In hope of better, that was uncouth: 
So lost the dogge the flesh in his mouth"; Pettie, The Civile Conversation of M. 
Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, i [1925], 135), "with Esopes Dogge, letteth 
fall the fleshe, to catche the shadow"; Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 
(ed. Green, p. 39), "Let suche behoulde, the greedie dogge to moane, By 
brooke deceau'd, with shaddow of his boane"; Thomas Edwards, Cephalus and 
Procris, 1595 (ed. Roxburghe Club, p. 51), "For see how Esops dog was quite 
forgone, And lost the substance weening further gaine"; The First Booke of the 


Preservation of King Henry the vii, 1 599 (Collier's reprint, 1 866, p. 17), " Do but 
as 2Esops dogge, that a substance lost for a shaddow"; Henry Crosse, Vertues 
Common-wealth, 1603, 3 (ed. Grosart, p. 49), "snatching at vncertaintie, like 
Esops dog, [Darius, Alexander, and others] lost that they were sure of before"; 
Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools, 1619, L2 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), " For 
this Esops dog will learne to hold the next piece better, then to be deluded with 
a shadow of double gaine"; Mabbe, The Rogue, 1623 (ed. Fitzmaur ice- Kelly, i 
[1924], 93), "That hapned unto me, which befell the Dogge in the Fable with 
the shadow of his piece of flesh in the water." 

70. 17 alwaies caught afrogg. Proverbial. Cf. Sir Thomas More, The Boke of 
thefayre Gentylwoman . . . Lady Fortune, 1540 (Huth's Fugitive Tracts, First 

Lo in this ponde, be fysshes and frogges both 
Cast in your net, but be ye lyefe or loth 
Holde you content as Fortune lyst assygne 
It is your owne fysshynge and not myne; 

Hey wood's Works, 1562, p. 26, "But now he hath well fysht and caught a 
frog"; Churchyard, The Firste Porte of Churchy ardes Chippes, 1575 (Collier's 
reprint, p. 33), 

I would not, sure, be bound to such a clogg, 
That would me rob of reason and good skill, 
And in the ende but fishe and catch a frogg; 

Lyly, Euphues and his England, 1580 (Works, ed. Bond, n, 173), "Madame 
quoth Sunus you haue caught a Frog"; Marston, Chapman, and Jonson, 
Eastward Ho, 1605, iv. ii, "Surely, in my mind, your ladyship hath fished fair, 
and caught a frog, as the saying is"; Draxe, 1616, p. 411, "Hee hath fished 
well, and caught a frogge"; the ballad of "A Fooles Bolt is soone shot," 1629 
(Rollins, A Pepysian Garland, p. 318), 

The Man that wedds for greedy wealth, 

he goes a fishing faire, 
But often times he gets a Frog, 

or very little share. 

Cf. also Foxe's Martyrs (1641 ed., in, 483), and the notes in my Handful, 

p. 101. 

1 8 bite, on the fomyng bin. Proverbial. Cf. 74.5; Froissart, La prison 
amoureuse, line 843 (CEuvres, ed. Scheler, i, 239), " Je puis asses mon frain ron- 
gnier "; memorandum of a council of state, 1564, in Philip II's Correspondance 
sur les affaires des Pays-Has, i (1848), 294 n. (quoted in Motley's Rise of the 
Dutch Republic, i, 409 n.), "les laisser encoires quelque peu ronger le frain sur 
cecy"; Wyatt, "How to Use the Court and Himself" (Works, Aldine ed., 
p. 196), "Let the old mule bite upon the bridle"; Greene, The Scottish Historie 
of James the Fourth, ca. 1591, i. ii (Plays, ed. Collins, n, 102), "euer chewing on 
the bridle"; Middleton, The Family of Love, 1607, i. iii (Works, ed. Bullen, in, 


25), "let such as will be headstrong bite on the bridle'*; Mabbe, Celestina, 1631 
(ed. Allen, p. 1 i), " Let him bide alone and bite upon the bit"; Foote, The Maid 
of Bath, 1778 ed., p. 32, "Fools that are idle May live to bite the bridle" (an- 
other 1778 edition, without Foote's name on the title-page, has the proverb at 
p. 34, "Your folks that are idle/' etc.). I am indebted to Mr. Kittredge for the 
foregoing references. See also Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 424; Heywood's 
Works, 1562, p. 71, "Where I should haue brydled her fyrst with rough bit, To 
haue made hir chew on the brydell one fit"; Greene's Menaphon, 1589 (Works, 
ed. Grosart, vi, 111), "who alreadie had sufficiently bitten on the bridle." 

70. 19 found me plaie enough. Gave me rein (liberty) enough to love. 

25 (No. 69) Complainyng to hisfrende, &c. In every edition (sigs. I v -l2 
in BC, I2 v -l3 in D, H4~H4 V in E, H3 V -H4 in F-I, but G lacks sig. [4), and 
assigned in A-FHI to Richard Edwards. The poem is obviously imitated by 
that at 73.28; perhaps both were written to be sung to the same tune, although 
the name of the tune and the music for it are not known. 

32 light loue will chaunge. Cf. Alexander Craig, Amorose Songes, 1606, 
E3 V (ed. Hunterian Club, p. 70), "Thy loue was lightlie won, and lost for 
lesse"; and the proverbs (as given in R. C.'s "The 'Times' Whistle, 1616, ed. 
Cowper, p. 89, E. E. T. S.), "'But lightly come/ we say, 'doth lightly goe/" 
and (see my notes in the Handful, p. 87) "hot love soon cold." 

71. 2 redaime. Read rar/0/wrf. 

10 preach. This word, which shows a not uncommon metathesis of the 
r, is, of course, pearch (perch). 

31 (No. 70) No paines comparable, &c. This poem is in A only. Perhaps 
similar to it was the ballad of "the perilous paynes of poore maryners," which 
was licensed for publication on October 13, 1579 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 
2067). At this very place (i. e., following No. 69) in 5+ stands Hunnis's 
shorter poem No. 107 below of the same title as No. 70 in A . 

72. 4 A bedlesse horde. This seems to mean a table but no bed; or, better 
still, a mere plank without a bed to sleep on. The earliest example of bedless in 
the N. E. D. y by the way, dates from 1864! 

8 oft tymes. Read oft tyme for the sake of a (bad) rhyme. 

9 No nere, when how the master blowes. "No nearer," he calls, when 
"How?" the master of the ship cries out. How? refers to the soundings. 

25 (No. 71) No pleasure without some paine. In every edition (sigs. I2 V 
in BC, I3 V in D, ELjT-I in E, H4~H4 V in FHI, torn out of G), and assigned in 
A-FHI to Lord Vaux. On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. Another copy (without a 
title) of No. 71 is reprinted from William Barley's New Book of Tabliture (1596, 
song 7) in Collier's Lyrical Poems, Selected from Musical Publications, p. 31 
(Percy Society, vol. xin, 1844), and in Wilhelm Bolle's Die gedruckten engli- 
schen Liederbiicher bis 1600, pp. 120 f. (Palaestra, vol. xxix, 1903). Bolle's re- 
print varies in the following slight particulars: 

72. 25 title] Om. 

28 that] the: fade] vade 


72. 30 you] I (so presumably throughout , though all but the first four words of the 

refrain are omitted elsewhere) 
31 knoweth] knowes 

73. 2 light] sight 
6 serue] serves 

12 Finis. L. Vaux] Om. 

Bolle notes that the poem appears in Grosart's Miscellanies of the Fuller Wor- 
thies 1 Library, iv (1872), 371 f.; in W. J. Linton's Rare Poems of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries (1883), p. 7; in Harleian MS. 6910, fol. i68 v ; in Ad- 
ditional MS. 24,665; in Lute MSS., Dd. iv. 23 (Cambridge University Li- 
brary); and in Chappell's Popular Music, i (1893), 72, where the music is given. 
An editorial note to Chappell shows that a copy appears also in " Giles Earle's 
Songbook, 1626" (which I have not seen). A poem in Thomas Deloney's 
Strange Histories, 1602 (Works, ed. P.O. Mann, 1912, pp. 405 ff.), is directed to 
be sung to the tune of How can the tree. No. 7 1 is also preserved in a MS. copy of 
two folio pages in the Chetham Library, Manchester. Halliwell-Phillipps re- 
prints the first stanza in his Catalogue of Proclamations, Broadsides, Ballads, 
and Poems (1851), No. 1200, describing the MS. as a "curious fragment (not 
unlike some compositions of Herrick or Withers)." 

No. 71 is imitated in Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes, printed 1599 (fhe 
Works of George Peek, ed. Bullen, n, 153), where Neronis says (or, as Bullen 
suggests, perhaps reads) : 

How can that tree but wither'd be, 

That wanteth sap to moist the root? 
How can that vine but waste and pine, 

Whose plants are trodden under foot? 
How can that spray but soon decay, 

That is with wild weeds overgrown? 
How can that wight in aught delight, 

Which shows and hath no good- will shown? 
Or else how can that heart, alas, 
But die, by whom each joy doth pass? 

The title of No. 71 occurs also at 8.17. 

72.34 But. Read Or. 

73. 8 But all of plaints. No idea except of laments grows, since sorrow is 
the basis (of his thoughts). 

13 (No. 72) Thefruites of fainedfrendes. In every edition (sigs. I2 v -l3 
in BC, 14 in D, I in E, H4 V in FHI, torn out of G), and assigned in A-FHI to 
William Hunnis. Two additional lines by Edwards are inserted after line 27 in 
B-FHI: see No. 109 (p. 107). After the title a MS. note in B says, "Vide 68 " 
(i. e., No. 64). 

16 noise. I. e., music; but probably the word should be voice, as in B+. 

17 In trust . . . is treason. Draxe (1616, p. 414) includes this saying 
among his "adagies." 



73. 20 the nature of the CrokadilL Mandeville (Travels, chapter xxxi) says of 
crocodiles that they "slay men, and they eat them weeping." Lodge (Euphues 
Shadow, 1592, 2, Works, ed. Hunterian Club, n. iii. 35) phrases it, "the Croc- 
odile weepeth when shee wyll deuoure." In 1565 (Richard Halduyt's Principal 
Navigations, ed. John Masefield, vu, 33) Sir John Hawkins saw in the Rio de la 
Hacha crocodiles " as bigge as a boate,"and declared that the nature of a croc- 
odile "is ever when hee would have his prey, to cry and sobbe like a Christian 
body, to provoke them to come to him, and then hee snatcheth at them, and 
thereupon came this proverbe that is applied unto women when they weepe, 
Lachrymse Crocodili, the meaning whereof is, that as the Crocodile when 
hee crieth, goeth then about most to deceive, so doeth a woman most com- 
monly when she weepeth/' The fable and the proverb, which survive in the 
modern phrase of "crocodile tears," were not known to the classical writers. 
Cf. no.ii. 

25 Whiche still. The antecedent \sflatterer, line 23. 

28 (No. 73) Beyng importunate, sfc . In every edition (sigs. I3~l3 v in 
BC, I4~l4 v in D, I-I V in E, H^-l in F-I, but G lacks sig. H4 V ); assigned to 
M. B. (Master Bewe) in A only, to Master Edwards in B-I, where it is called 
"A Dialogue between a Gentleman and his Love." It seems safe to credit 
Edwards with the authorship of the poem, which is a companion-piece to his 
song No. 69, above. 

31 that [/] craue. I appears in all editions except A, and is necessary for 
the sense. 

74. 5 plaie on the bitt. See 70.18 n. 

26 women male saie naie, and meane loue. Cf. The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, i. ii. 55 f., "maids, in modesty, say 'no' to that Which they would 
have the profferer construe 'ay'"; Richard III, in. vii. 51, "Play the maid's 
part, still answer nay, and take it"; The Passionate Pilgrim, 1599, song xix, 
stanza 7, "Have you not heard it said full oft, A woman's nay doth stand for 
nought?"; William Rowley, A Search for Money, 1609, p. 32 (Percy Society, 
vol. n, 1840), "we had scarce the maydes manners to say nay and take it, but 
to take before we say nay"; "A pleasant Ditty of a mayden's vow," 1633 
(Roxburghe Ballads, n, 201 ; Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 1649), "A mayden's 
'no' proves often 'aye'." 

75. 2 worke your kinde kindly. Perform your natural intentions kindly. 
12 (No. 74) Requiryngthefauour, &c. In every edition (sigs. I3 v -l4 in 

BC, I4 V -K V in D, I2-I2 V in E, I v -l2 in F-I), and assigned in each to E. S. In 
B-\r the title is, "Exclaiming upon his Unkind Love, his Friend Replieth 

20 / burne alas, and blowe the fire. Evidently a proverb. It is repeated at 
93.28. Cf 90.25. 

23 H., M. Read M., H., with B + . So, too, in line 33. 

25 Thy Ladie can not doe with all. Thy sweetheart cannot help it it 
is not her fault. 


75. 27 striue not with the streame. Proverbial. Cf. Draxe, 1616, pp. 366, 389; 
my notes in the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 155; and 81.16. 

33 H. y M. Cf. line 23 n., above. 

76. 3 yponthe Sonne . . . not gaze. Cf. La Rochefoucauld's twenty-sixth 
maxim, "Le soleil ni la mort ne se peuvent regarder fixement." 

14 once againe. Read once gain , with B+. 

15 the paine. The reading of +, thy pain, is preferable. 

23 (No. 75) A loners ioye. In every edition (sigs. I in BC y I v -l2 in D, 
H3~H3 V in , H2 V -H3 in F-7), and assigned in each to Francis Kinwelmarsh. 

25 A ioye I withstoode, &c. A rather rough line, unless the first syllable 
of withstoode is accented and the following to enioye is slurred into two syllables. 
The easiest emendation would be to omit A. See, in the Misprints, how D+ try 
to avoid this rough movement, and how in so doing they destroy the heptam- 
eter movement of the line. 

30 / knowe not I. The repetition of / is a favorite Elizabethan manner- 
ism. Cf., for example, Lodge, An Alarum against Usurers ', 1584, L3 (Works, ed. 
Hunterian Club, I. iii. 89), "I know not I whence come these wayward woes"; 
and see the examples cited in my Gorgeous Gallery, p. 190. Cf. 122.26 n. 

32 it make. Read // makes, with D+. 

77. 6 (No. 76) The iudgement of desire. This poem is in A only. Another 
copy of it (R) occurs in MS. Rawlinson 85, fol. 14% whence it was reprinted by 
Grosart (who did not know of its appearance in A} in his Miscellanies of the 
Fuller Worthies' Library, iv (1872), 405 f., among the poems of the Earl of 
Oxford. R differs from the present text in the following particulars: 

77. 6 ne title in R is Desire. 

7 did stretche] stretch t forthe 
13 R omits the refrain throughout 
17 the youthfull] this gentle 
19 sight] syghde: I am] it was 

22 A] And 

23 wight] knighte 

25 in] of: askte] aske 

28 me] thann 

32 Nor greater ioye can be than this R 

78. ^2 Then] That: what] that 

4 E.O.]EarleofOxforde 

Somewhat similar to No. 76 is the poem on " Fancy and Desire," by the Earl of 
Oxford, which was printed, among other places, in the Bower of Delights (1591, 
1597), attributed to Nicholas Breton. 

12 the gilt of 'Thetis bedd. Here, as in the Latin poets generally, 'Thetis is 
used merely as a synonym for the ocean. Cf. The Phoenix Nest, 1593 (Collier's 
reprint, p. 122), "Phoebus thought it time to make retire, From Thetis Bowre, 
wherein he spent the night"; and Butler's burlesque reference in Hudibras, n. 
ii. 29 ff., 



The sun had long since in the lap 
Of Thetis taken out his nap, 
And, like a lobster boil'd, the morn 
From black to red began to turn. 

77. 27 Laradon, tan, tan. Add &fc. to this refrain. 

28 me. The rhyme-scheme demands the reading than (= then), as in R 
(77.6 n.). Cf. the rhymes at 30.11 f., 74.7,16,6^:., 78.15 f , etc. 

32 No ioye. For no read ne or nor. 

78. 3 tan, tan. Read tan, tan, &c. 

5-6 (No. 77) The complaint of a louer, wearyng Blacke and Tawnie. In 
every edition (sigs. I4~l4 v in BC, K v in D y I2 V in E, 12 in F-I), and assigned in 
each to the Earl of Oxford. Bishop Percy, in his Reliques, 1765 (ed. Wheatley, 
11, 185), quotes the opening stanza of the poem, in which he finds " the only 
lines . . . worth notice/' changing weare (line 7) to beare. With No. 77 
compare Whetstone, "The forsaken lover sheweth to what intent he weareth 
tawnie," in The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 134), which ends, 

Even I my selfe do weare this tawnie hue, 
To shewe I serv'd a Cressid most untrue; 

Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. Green, p. 134), "For mourners, 
blacke," "The man refus'd, in Taunye doth delite"; Matthew Grove, Poems, 
1587 (ed. Grosart, 1878, p. 62), "the men forsake[n] in tawney chuse their 
weede"; Lodge, Rosalynde, 1590, Q4 V (JVorks, ed. Hunterian Club, i. v. 128), 
"As they were thus drinking and readie to goe to Church, came in MONTANUS 
apparailed all in tawney, to signifie that he was forsaken; on his head he wore a 
garland of willowe"; Robert Tofte, Alba, 1598 (ed. Grosart, 1880, p. 104), 

TAWNY and BLACK, my Courtly Colours be, 
Tawny, (because forsooke I am) I weare: 
Black, (since mine ALBAS Loue is dead to me, 
Yet liueth in another) I do beare. . . . 

Yet I in BLACK and TAWNY Weedes will goe, 
Because forsooke, and dead I am with woe; 

and The Queen, or the Excellency of her Sex, 1653, act n (ed. W. Bang, 1906, pp. 
13 f.), "Buy me a veil Ingrayn'd in tawny. Alas, I am forsaken." 

7 Croune of Bayes. On bays, or laurel-leaves, cf. 61.18 n. Lines 7-10 
are the refrain, or undersong. They are to be added also after 79.3. 

1 6 bis. This direction to repeat wo worthe (it appears also in line 24 and 
at 79.3) shows clearly that the poem was written to be sung. Cf. 92.21, 27, etc. 
See a similar direction in Misogonus, 1577 (which Brandl, reprinting the play in 
his ^uellen des Weltlichen Dramas, p. 447, fails to understand), "Here ostice, 
here ostice, I come quater," i. e., "I come, I come, I come, I come." 

29 hid. I. e., to hide. 

30 alantida. Read lalalantida, with line 22 and with B-H. 



79. 5 (No. 78) He complaineth thus. This poem is in A only. The three 
stanzas are very irregular in metre and length. The first four lines with their 
initial word Lo represent a tradition begun by the concluding stanzas of Chau- 
cer's Troilus and Criseyde (book v, stanzas 262, 265). Thus Thomas Howell, 
writing a poem on Cressida in his Newe Sonets, and pretie Pamphlets, 1568 
(Poems, ed. Grosart, pp. 121 f.), ends it: 

Lo here the ende of wanton wicked life, 

Lo here the fruit that Sinne both sowes and reapes; 

Lo here of vice the right rewarde and knife. . . . 

For further examples see Gascoigne's Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i, 115; and 
Whetstone's Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, pp. 91, 330). 

7 that 1 . Read the. 

26-27 happie is that woyng, That is not long a doyng. Proverbial. Cf. 
Thomas Morley, Madrigals to five voyces, 1598, no. vii (ed. Wilhelm Bolle, 
Palaestra, xxix [1903], 171), "Thrice happie, men do say, is that sweet woo- 
ing, Where love may still bee noted Swift in doing"; Porter, The Two Angry 
Women of Abingdon, 1599, I2 V (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "Short woing is the 
best, an houre, not yeares, For long debating loue is full of feares"; Thomas 
Lorkin, in a letter dated 1619 (Birch, The Court and Times of James I, n, 146), 
"And surely, if it be true, ' Blessed is the wooing that is not long a doing/ we 
must give him for a happy man"; Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, 
in. 2. v. 5, "Blessed is the wooing, That is not long a doing"; Thomas Flat- 
man (?),D0# Juan Lamberto, 1661 (The Somers Tracts, ed. Scott, vii [1812], 
1 1 6), "often hath my nurse spoken proverbially unto me, saying, happy is that 
wooing which is not long a doing." See Logan, A Pedlar's Pack, pp. 364 f.; The 
Journal of American Folk-Lore, xx, 273, xxvm, 159; and the numerous earlier 
examples cited in the Handful, p. 87. 

30 Findyng. This key-word should have been printed in italic type in 
A, for it points to an italic word. 

80. 2 (No. 79) Findyng no relief, &c. In every edition (sigs. I4 V -K in EC, 
K2 in D, I2 v -l3 in E, I2-I2 V in F-7); assigned to R. H. (R. Hill) in A, R. Hill 
in CDE, H. Hill in F-I, and R. Hall in B. The last two variations are obvi- 
ously misprints for R. Hill, to whom undoubtedly the poem belongs. On the 
stanza- form see 17.2 n. 

7 / dreame of this, &c. For this read bliss, with HI. I "divine of woe" 
(i. e., interpret my dream in a woful sense) because dreams go by contraries. 

8 my swetefo. Cf. 82.3 n. 

28 (No. 80) Beyng in loue, &c. In A only. This title is repeated for the 
poems at 82. 19, 91.11, and 121.2. The stanza-form is an attempt at ottava rima. 

3 1 or whether height or /owe. For height read high. The first or is, accord- 
ing to modern usage, pleonastic: What god, whether he be high or low. 

81. 3 But he, &fc. A pentameter, instead of the usual tetrameter, line. 

5 with her mates. I. e., her sisters Tisiphone and Megaera, the Furies. 


81. 7 sifts . . . in hellishe gates. ^Eneas, on his journey to Hades, saw the 
city of the lost with its gate of adamant which no god or man could break; and 
by the "hellish gate" he saw an iron tower on which Tisiphone, the Fury, kept 

8 seeks still whom thei maie destroy e. Cf. I Peter v. 8, "Be sober, be 
vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, 
seeking whom he may devour." 

9 tis destinie. From the rhyme and stanzaic-scheme of the first and 
third stanzas, it is evident that an entire line has dropped out after these words. 

13 happ as yet holds hardly still. Up to the present my fortune with 
difficulty holds fixed (i. e., good, propitious). 

14 Forfeare I set, &c. Forfeare read where: For where I set my friend- 
ship so (i. e., still, firm) and think to reap good will in return, etc. 

1 6 striue against the winde. Cf. 75.27 n. 

23 (No. 81) A loner disdained^ complaineth. In A and B (sig. K) only, 
and in both assigned to Lord Vaux. 

25 plaies within her maze. Cf. 82.3. 

82. 3 my swete foe. This is the ordinary characterization of one's sweet- 
heart followed by all Elizabethan lyricists. So in the Amoretti, sonnets 1 1 and 
57, Spenser writes, "She, cruell warriour, doth her selfe addresse To battell," 
"Sweet warriour, when shall I have peace with you?" The phrase (which is 
repeated at 80.8 and 83.29) becomes in Petrarch's sonnets dolce mia guerriera, 
in De Baif's ma douce guerribre, ma douce rebelle, in Desportes's ma douce 

6 yet doe I twiste the twine. I keep on twisting the twine, making the 
thread, that I have begun; i. e., I go on with my enterprise. Cf. Heywood's 
Works , 1562, p. 163, "She hath spun a fayre threede;" and Dray ton's "To 
Prouerbe" (Idea, 1602, sonnet 58, Minor Poems, ed. Brett, p. 45), "You haue 
spunne a fair e thred, he replies in scorne." 

13 jfo their greate paines, &c. Where fortune brings good luck (in love) 
as a reward for their great pain. 

19 (No. 82) Beyng in loue, &c. In every edition (sigs. K-K V in BC, 
K2 V -K3 in D, I3 v -l4 in E, I3~l3 v in F-7); assigned to M. B. (Master Bewe) in 
A only, to the Earl of Oxford in B-I. To Oxford the authorship must be 
credited. The title is also at 80.28,91.11, and 121.2; but in C+ it is for this 
poem changed to "Coelum non solum." In EC it is printed awkwardly at the 
very foot of the page (cf. 69.17 n.). On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

22 Then should my sights, &V. Then my sighs should subside and leave 
my breast in quiet. Cf. 47.30 n. 

29-31 These vertues rare,eche Godds didyelde amate,&c. For Gods (in line 
31) read God, with 5+. Mr. Kittredge explains the passage: "To these rare 
virtues each god (goddess?) did yield as overcome, save that goddess 
who still reigns on earth [the lady he is in love with], the cord of whose 
beauty (not even) the gods can break (or escape from)." 


83. 3 My haples happe, doeth role to resiles stone. For to read the, with 5+ . 
The line means that it is my misfortune (always) to roll the restless stone, i. e., 
never to attain success: perhaps an allusion to the old proverb which Hey wood 
(Works, 1562, p. 26) states as "the rollyng stone neuer gatherth mosse," and 
which occurs also, among many other places, in Piers Plowman, A. x. 101 
("Selden moseth the marbelston that men ofte treden"); TotteFs Miscellany, 
1557, pp. 90 f.; William Spelman, A Dialoge or Confabulation between Two 
Travellers, 1580 (ed. J. E. L. Pickering, p. 3, Roxburghe Club, 1896); Pettie, 
The Civile Conversation ofM. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, n [1925], m); 
The Passionate Morrice, 1593 (ed. Furnivall, p. 87, New Shakspere Society, 
1876); Marston, The Fawn, i. ii (Works, ed. Bullen, n, 122); J. Gruter, 1611, 
n, 185; the ballad of "Seldome comes the better/' 1629 (Roxburghe Ballads, n, 
512; Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 2397); Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 34; 
and Publilius Syrus, maxim 504 (C. Zell's edition, 1 829, p. 17). But the allusion 
may be to Sisyphus rather than to the proverb. Lyly combines the two ideas in 
Euphues and his England, 1580 (Works, ed. Bond, n, 26), "There wil no Mosse 
sticke to the stone of Sisiphus." 

6 where none can iustly craue. Where no one can with justice ask for 

7 chauncc is choise, &c. Where one cannot fas in the present case) 
make a reasonable claim, it is a mere chance when one meets with favor (or is 

9 A happie starre made Giges ioye attaine. Gyges, third king of Lydia 
(ca. 687-652 B. c.), dethroned and put to death his predecessor Candaules, who 
had caused his wife to appear naked before Gyges. He became famous for his 
wealth. See Herodotus, i. 7-13, 91; Painter, The Palace of Pleasure, i (1566), 
novel 6; and Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, in. 3. iv. 2. Lyly, in 
Euphues, 1579 (Works, ed. Bond, i, 210), inquires, "Did not Giges cut Can- 
daules a coate by his owne measure?" In the Republic (ii. 3) Plato makes Gyges 
a shepherd who murdered his master and won the affection of his master's wife 
by means of a magic ring. This ring is often referred to by Elizabethan writers: 
e. g., by Lodowick Lloyd, in Certain English Verses, Presented unto the Queen s 
Most Excellent Majesty, 1586 (Huth's Fugitive Tracts, First Series), "to walke 
vnseene, with Giges ring faine they would "; and by Marston, in The Fawn, 
1606, in. i, "And he had Gyges' ring I would find him." With happie starre 
compare Paradise Lost, viii. 511 ff., " all Heaven, And happy constellations, on 
that hour Shed their selectest influence." 

10 A slauishe Smith. I. e., Vulcan, who won Venus as his wife; but, 
since he was the son of Jupiter and Juno, M. B. is bold to speak (line n) of his 
"rude and rascall race." 

19 (No. 83) A louer rejected, complaineth. In every edition (sigs. K V -K2 
in BC, K3~K3 V in D, I4~l4 v in E, I3 v -l4 in F-7), and assigned in each to the 
Earl of Oxford. 

22 that hue aye seeks. Love is the object, not the subject, of seeks. 



83. 23-24 renew, in dole. Apparently either renew should read anew or in 
dole should read my dole. But \fdisplaie has the meaning of "display myself," 
"express my feelings/' neither emendation is necessary. 

27 Resigne thy voyce. As used here, in the sense of the Latin resignare, 
to unseal, resigne means "utter." The only example in the N. E. D. comes from 
Barnabe Barnes's Divine Century of Spiritual Sonnets (1595). 

84. 3 The haggerd hauke, &c. One of Lord Oxford's lines (Poems, ed. 
Looney, p. 37) says of women, "Unsettled still like haggards wild they range." 
Mr. Looney thinks this important evidence towards proving (pp. Ixxi f.) that 
"Shakespeare" (who, he says, refers to the haggard three times) was identical 
with Oxford. He has been unable to " find much about the haggard hawk" out- 
side of " Shakespeare " and Oxford. This is, however, far from being " rara avis 
in terris," and is referred to by Richard Edwards at 27.22 and 71.3; other ref- 
erences are pointed out in the notes to 27.22, and they could be largely aug- 
mented. Of such a flimsy nature is Mr. Looney's "proof" by parallels (cf. 
pp. lix f., above) that Oxford was "Shakespeare." 

4 tower, the Canon laies on grounde. Cf. 38.11 n. 
1 6 And kisse, &c. Read And shall I kisse, Eft., for the sake of uniform- 
ity and of metre. Cf. Chaucer's address in Troilus, book v, stanza 256, 

Go, litel book . . . 

And kis the steppes, wher-as thou seest pace 

Virgile, Ovyde, Omer, Lucan, and Stace, 

itself an imitation of Statius's Thebaid, xii. 817, "et vestigia semper adora," 
and the concluding poem to Spenser's Shepherds' Calendar, "But followe them 
farre oflF, and their high steppes adore." 

21 let her haue her moste desire with speede. This sentence seems to con- 
tradict the other wishes in the stanza, unless haue means "feel," "let her 
feel the utmost desire without fulfilment." Possibly haue is a misprint for some 
such word as lose. 

25 After this line an old hand in G has added the couplet, 

I may not mlslike w Fortunes Fette 
Sith y like hath hapte vnto my bette. 

27 (No. 84) Not attainyng to his desire, (3c. In every edition (sigs. K2- 
K2 V in EC, K3 V -K4 in D, V in E, 14 in F-I), and assigned in each to the Earl 
of Oxford. 

28 / am not as [7] seme to bee. The bracketed /, necessary for the sense, 
is in all editions except ABE. 

31 I moste in mirthe, moste pensiue sadd. The reading 6? moste in mirthe, 
etc., seems necessary to complete the antithesis. 

33 As Haniball that sawe, &c. Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C., some 
thirty-seven years after Hannibal's death; but perhaps the poet did not intend 
his words to be taken literally. 



85. 4-5 Ccesar . . . Pompeye s princely hedd. According to the usual story, 
Caesar wept, saying," Non mihi placet vindicta, sed victoria." Plutarch in his 
life of Pompey says that " when one of the Egyptians was sent to present him 
[Caesar] with Pompey's head, he turned away from him with abhorrence as 
from a murderer; and on receiving his seal ... he burst into tears/' In his life 
of Caesar Plutarch remarks that "when he [Caesar] came to Alexandria, where 
Pompey was already murdered, he would not look upon Theodotus, who pre- 
sented him with his head, but taking only his signet, shed tears. " To this epi- 
sode English poets delighted in referring. Thus Lydgate, in The Fall of Princes, 
book vi (ed. Bergen, m [1923], 741), wrote: 

The hed of Pompeye, brouht with his statli ring, 

Offrid up to lulius hih presence, 

He be compassioun, the moordre aduertisyng, 

Of his innat imperial excellence 

Brast out to wepe, & in his aduertense 

Thouhte gret pite, a prince of so gret myht 

Sholde so be slayn, that was so good a knyht. 

Cf. also the Earl of Surrey in Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 28, "Yeld Ceasars 
teares vpon Pompeius hed"; Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes, 1586 (ed. Green, 
p. 116), "his head to C/ESAR being broughte, For inwarde griefe, hee wash'd 
the same with teares"; Gervase Markham, 'The Most Honorable Tragedie of Sir 
Richard Grinuile, 1595 (ed. Arber, p. 76), "Had Pompey in Pharsalia held his 
thought, Ccesar had neuer wept vpon his head "; and Francis Davison, A Poeti- 
cal Rhapsody, 1602 (ed. Bullen, i, 90), 

When trait'rous Photine Caesar did present 
With his great rival's honourable head, 
He taught his eyes a stream of tears to shed, 
Hiding in his false heart his true content. 

The source of No. 84 is Petrarch's sonnet 102 (Rime, 1904, pp. 105 f.). 

ii Of wise. By wise men. 

16-17 7 smile to see me, &c. See above, p. Ix, n. 3. 

19 Presents, &V. Read present; i. e., instead of a Pompey's head I pre- 
sent a heart killed by love. 

23 to profixe it. The word should be prefix, meaning "ordain in ad- 
vance"; it, referring to choice, is pleonastic. 

27 / in vaine doe breathe my winde. For winde read mind: Vainly do I 
speak of my feelings, though (line 26) I observe that some do purge their pains 
by uttering complaints. 

29 (No. 85) His mynde, &c. In A, B (sig. K2 V ), and C (sig. K2 V ) only, 
and in each assigned to the Earl of Oxford. 

30 Even as the waxe doeth melt, 6fc. Whitney (A Choice of Emblemes, 
1586, ed. Green, p. 183) imitates this line and the idea of the poem in his em- 
blem beginning "Even as the waxe dothe feede, and quenche the flame/' 


85. 31 so I behold, &c. I. e., so I behold (my own) decay as a result of 
thoughts full of care. 

86. 2 I doe wast, &c. I ruin myself by loving another who hates me. 

3 he that beats the bushe, &c. Cf. Oxford's Poems (ed. Looney, p. 15), 
"For he that beats the bush the bird not gets, But who sits still and holdeth 
fast the nets''; "A Description of Love," 1629 (Arber's English Garner, vn 
[1883], 14), "Twas I that beat the bush; The bird, to others flew"; and 
10.27 n. 

4 sitteth still, and holds the/oulyng netts. Evidently proverbial. See the 
preceding note, and 18.31. 

14 with the care/ull culuer, &c. Cf. Spenser, The Tears of the Muses, 
1591, lines 245 f., "All comfortlesse upon the bared bow, Like wofull culvers, 
doo sit wayling now"; and Amoretti, 1595, sonnet 88, "Lyke as the culver on 
the bared bough Sits mourning for the absence of her mate." 

1 6 neuer am lesse idle loe, then when I am alone. Cf. Cicero, De Officiis, 
iii. i, "Numquam se minus otiosum esse, quam cum otiosus, nee minus solum, 
quam cum solus esset"; Henry Parker, Baron Morley, before 1556, "Never 
was I lesse alone then beyng alone" (MS. Ashmole 48, No. 6, ed. Thomas 
Wright, Roxburghe Club, 1860); Romeo and Juliet, i. i. 133 f., "I, measuring 
his affections by my own, That most are busied when they're most alone"; 
Gibbon's Memoirs (Miscellaneous Works, \ [1814], 117), "I was never less 
alone than when by myself"; Samuel Rogers, Human Life, 1819 (Poems, 1838, 
p. 94), "never less alone than when alone." 

1 8 (No. 86) Of the mightie power of Loue. In A only. 

19 My meanyng is to worke. My intention is to write of. 

22 Record . . . of Paris, &c. I call to witness those who read about 
Priam's son, Paris [whose love for Helen caused the destruction of Troy]. 

24 When he refused wittfor loue. I. e., when Paris refused Pallas's prof- 
fered gift of wisdom and, by giving the golden apple to Venus, accepted the 
gift of love. 

26 There be of his posteritie aliue. There are (now some) of his de- 
scendants (i. e., lovers) alive. 

27-28 Whom I might, &c. Whom (i. e., the "posteritie" of Paris, or 
lovers) I might well condemn, if I were to be a cruel judge who commits the 
crime that I censure in others. 

30 Beyng. This key-word should have been printed in italic type in A, 
for it points to an italic word. 

87. 2 (No. 87) Beyng disdained, he complaineth. In every edition (sigs. L v 
in BC, L V -L2 in D, K2-K2 V in , K V -K2 in F-I), and assigned in each to Lord 
Vaux. On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

3 frendlesse. A better reading would be friendly or fraud/ess. 

II thy. Read the, with B+. 

17-20 On that I gape, &c. To gape on is to be eager for; for my in line 19 
read me. The passage means: I eagerly desire that the establishment of my 



simple faith (its acceptance as genuine) may be the outcome of my complaint. 
If that fails to be established, let justice confute me (and pronounce me guilty). 
If, on the other hand, that places me among the guiltless, then do thou restore 
by judgment my good name. 

87. 23 hast. A misprint, I think, for hest (request). 

28 (No. 88) Of the meane estate. In every edition (sigs. L V -L2 in EC, 
L2-L2 V in D, K2 V in E, K2 in F-7); assigned to Lord Vaux in A, to William 
Hunnis in E-G, anonymous in HI. Probably Hunnis was the author; in any 
case, the evidence of the late editions, HI, is worthless. 

29 The higher that the Ceder tree, &c. A commonplace, repeated at 5 5.30, 
99-4-5) an d 120.16-17. Draxe (1616, p. 366) includes among his adages, "The 
higher that the tree is, the greater is his fall," "The higher that I clime, the 
greater is my fall," and others similar to these. 

30 gan blowe. Evidently the reading should be can blow. 

32 heapes of ill . . . in suche estate. Cf. the story of Damocles, No. 51. 

88. 8 stepps unsure. The reading in C+ may be sleeps unsure, which would 
perhaps be preferable. 

1 1 might . . . might. The reading probably should be night . . . rest. 

17 (No. 89) Of a contented myndc. In every edition (sigs. L2-L2 V in EC, 
L2 V in D, K2 V -K3 in E, K2-K2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Lord Vaux. 
It is reprinted in Ellis's Specimens, n (1801), 58 f., (1803), 88 f. 

19 The moste. Read He moste. 

26 Companion none is like, vnto the mynde. Cf. Sir Edward Dyer's lyric 
beginning "My mind to me a kingdom is"; William Byrd's Psalmes, 1588, song 
xiiii (words and music reprinted in volume xiv of E. H. Fellowes's English 
Madrigal School, 1920); The Shirburn Ballads, 1585-1616, ed. Andrew Clark, 
1907, pp. 1 13-1 1 5; Additional MS. 15,225, fols. 43~43 V ; MS. Egerton 2009, fols. 

55 V ~5 6 - 

30 Our wealth leaues vs . . . our kinsmen at the graue. Perhaps this line 

was written with the morality Everyman in mind. 

89. 5 (No. 90) Trie before you trust. In every edition (sigs. L2 V in EC, L2 V - 
L3 in D, K3 in E, K2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Lord Vaux. The title is 
proverbial (cf. 28.7 n.). 

6-10 To counsel! my estate, &c. Here counsel! is used in the Latin sense 
of "take counsel for (the advantage of)." For // set in line 7 read is set, with 
)_}... g e (li ne 9 ) i Sj I suppose, plural (= are), acquaintance being taken as a 
kind of collective plural, parenthetical toforgedfrendes (line 7); and the stanza 
would go better if lines 8 and 9 were transposed. The meaning seems to be: In 
order to plan for the good of my estate, which has been abandoned to the 
spoil of false friends whose grossest fraud has the most misleading appearance 
(and all too dear is the acquaintance of such most treacherous people!), and 
in order to establish the fidelity of true-dealing men, I have come to the follow- 
ing determination (have adopted the following principle or precept), "Whoso 
doth practise friendship," etc. 



89. IQ-II frende so, As though, &c. Cf. Publilius Syrus, maxim 972 (C. 
Zell's edition, 1829, p. 33), "Ita amicum habeas, posse ut facile fieri hunc 
inimicum putes." 

14 eares . . . hide a serpents harte. A curious figure. 

19 For gold that winnes, &c. Cf. 48.i4n.; and Munday's Banquet of 
Dainty Conceits, 1588 (Harleian Miscellany, ix [1812], 223), 

A proverbe there is both auncient and true, 

'While welth will hold out, thou shalt have freends store*; 

But money once failing, they bid thee adiew, 

They scorne then to know thee as they did before. 

21 bende his eare. So a ballad (ca. 1625) in my Pepysian Garland, p. 224 ^ 
says, "Parents come bend your eares, listen what followed on." 

25 (No. 91) He renounceth, &fc. In every edition (sigs. L2 V -L3 in BC, 
L3~L3 V in D, K3~K3 V in E, K2 V -K3 in F-7), and assigned in each to Lord 
Vaux. On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. 

31 the gain e is lesser then thejruite. Presumably the poet intends to say 
that the fruit of love is not all gain by any means, that there is more loss than 
gain in even a successful love-affair. 

90. 10 'These wilie Watts. Wily Wat (Walter) must have been a proverbial 
name for a sly fellow. Cf. such names as Tom Tell-truth, Jack Juggler, Piers 
Penniless, Kind Kit, Lazy Laurence, Cuthbert Cutter, Simple Simon. 

12 stoppeth. Read stoopeth, with B+. 

22 hath mefedd. Read hath me led, as the alliteration (observe ahofedd 
in line 20) demands. 

24 at. Read as, with B+. 

27 (No. 92) Beyng in sorrowe, &c. In A only. 

30 Suspect that breede the thought, &c. For breede the Mr. Kittredge sug- 
gests the reading breedeth; for and thought read and thoughts. The passage then 
means: Suspicion breeds thought (i. e., sad or melancholy thought), and (such) 
thoughts change to (i. e., become) sighs, and sighs have sought out, etc. The 
that seems to be superfluous. 

91. 8 Beleue not euery speache, &fc. Cf. the Fool's rhymes in King Lear, i. 
iv. 132, 135, " Speak less than thou knowest," "Learn more than thou trow- 

ii (No. 93) Beyng in loue, he complaineth. In every edition (sigs. L3 V - 
L4 in BC, L4~L4 V in D, K4~K4 V in E, K3 V -K4 in F-I), and assigned in each to 
R. L. The same title is used for poems at 80.28, 82.19, and 121.2. 

13 you would me write. I. e., you wish me to write. 

15 A wretched tale, &c. Cf. Chaucer's Troilus, i. 12-14: 

For wel sit it, the sothe for to seyne, 
A woful wight to han a drery fere, 
And, to a sorwful tale, a sory chere. 


18-19 what can be greater greif, &c. For That read Than, and insert a 
strong stop after 6? lacke. The sense of the lines is: What can be a greater grief 
than to have and yet not to have? [In such a situation] that which pleases one 
most must be one's greatest cause of sorrow. 

21 That hast. Read Thou hast, with HI. 

28 hope of dreade. Read hope or dreade. Lines 28-29 mean: Whose joys 
spring from or depend upon hope of winning (on the one hand) or dread of los- 
ing (on the other); or, more literally, Whose joys do rise by hope to conquer so 
great a wealth or by dread to lose (the same). And for example, etc., may mean: 
And thus show themselves as an example, that is, as a strange case. 

30 golden flese, stoode lason, &c. For early ballads and books on Jason 
and Medea see the notes in the Gorgeous Gallery y p. 189. The story was, of 
course, familiar from its inclusion in Chaucer's Legend of Good Women. 

31 Medeas hope of helpe. I. e., hope of Medea's help. 

92. 7 not like hym for to be. Because Jason deserted Medea for Creusa. 

8 kyng Priamus. The reading should be King Priamus son (Troilus). 
In an old hand in B this emendation is indicated by the word "sone" in the 

12 her Lazares death I wishe. Cf. 1 17.2 n. 

13 ///. Read if thou, with 5+. 

15 (No. 94) Beyng in trouble^ &c. In every edition (sigs. L4~L4 V in 5C, 
L4 V in D, K4 V in , K4 in F-7); assigned to T. M. (T. Marshall) in A only, to 
William Hunnis in B-I. The authorship undoubtedly belongs to Hunnis. Mrs. 
S topes (William Hunnis ', pp. 109 f.) believes that this poem was written as a 
result of Hunnis's imprisonment in the Tower, and that it does "not suggest a 
hard- won pardon, but a sudden deliverance, full and free; a watchful and faith- 
ful friend to bring him the good news, and garments fit to wear abroad." It is 
reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry > n, 313. 

1 8 from case. Read/row? cause, with B+. The initial word, In y should 
perhaps be changed to A y so that did call and crie in line 19 may have a sub- 

21 Bis. A direction for singing. Cf. 78.16 n. 

23 To totter tide. Thus I stood trembling there, as if tied upon a totter 
[oscillum~]> in defence of my fidelity; that is, in a precarious condition as to 
whether my innocence would protect me. 

93. 9 (No. 95) Beyng troubled in mynde, &c. In every edition (sigs. L,4 V -M 
in 5-D, K4 V -L in E [but E lacks sig. L], K4~K4 V in F-I) y and assigned in A- 
DFGHI to Jasper Heywood. It is imitated by Thomas Howell (H. His De- 
uises y 1581, F4) in a poem beginning "The bitter smarte that straines my 
mated minde." No. 95 was borrowed from the Paradise by the Gorgeous Gal- 
lery y p. 72, where it is called "The paynfull plight of a Louer remayning in 
doubtfull hope of his Ladyes fauour." Variations between the texts, except 
those of spelling and punctuation, are: 



93. II sweate] sweete 
12 that] which 

17 that] which 

1 8 alwaie] alwayes 

19 mated] matched 
21 betwene] betwixt 
24 the] their 

26 paines] panges 

27 hope] hap: no] none 
29 I. H.] Om. 

93. 12 'The carelesse count , that doeth the same embrace. The careless careful- 
ness (or the heedless heed) that doth encompass my heart. 

1 8 My luckles lot, doeth alwaie take in worthe. On the idiom " to take in 
worth" see 26.15 n. Mr. Kittredge paraphrases lines 17-22 thus: "'My greedy 
will always insists on regarding my lot (which is really a luckless lot) as fortu- 
nate or hopeful; and at the same time (antithetically) my piteous plaint helps 
to express my despondent mind, which fears that my suit is vain/ Thus his 
desire insists on being confident of success, and his discouraged mind presages 
failure. Between the two he is tossed to and fro as between two waves of a 
raging sea/* 

28 to blowe. Read do blow, with BCDF+. Cf.j^.2o n. 

30 (No. 96) Looke or you leape. In every edition (sigs. M in BC, M-M V 
in D, K4 V -L in F-I, torn out of ), and assigned in A-DFGHI to Jasper Hey- 
wood. The title is proverbial. Of course or means "before." Cf. Hey wood's 
Works, 1 562, pp. 6, 1 29, "Thus by these lessons ye may learne good cheape, In 
weddyng and al thing, to looke or ye leape," "Looke er thou leape"; A poore 
Knight his Pallace of priuate pleasures, 1579, L2 V , "First looke, then leape," 
"Then looke I pray, before you leape"; Thomas Proctor, 'The Trivmph of 
Trueth, ca. 1584 (Collier's reprint, 1866, p. 12), "Look ere thou leap haue care 
vpon, the danger of thy fall "; Samuel Rowlands, A Whole Crew of Kind Gos- 
sips, 1609, D, "Then I would flaunt it, I would cut it out, And wiser, ere I 
leapt would looke about"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 180, "Looke ere yee leape"; 
Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, in. 2. v. 3 (cf. also n. 3. vii), 
"look before ye leap, as the proverb is"; "The Virgin's A, B, C," 1656 (Rox- 
burghe Ballads, n, 652; Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 2817), "Looke ere you 
leape, the proverbe still doth say." See also 105.16, 128.10, and the examples 
given in the Handful, p. 104. 

33 Spende no more words, &c. Compare the proverb (as given by Draxe, 
1616, p. 409), "Few words are best"; and 88.27. 

94. 13 The lookers onfinde surest grounde. Hazlitt, English Proverbs, p. 390, 
cites this line as a proverb. Similar to it is Fletcher's statement (Love's Pil- 
grimage, in. ii), "They that look on See more than we that play." Cf. also 
Pettie, The Civile Conversation of M. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, i 
[1925], 118), "Another used likewyse to say, that this world was a stage, wee 
the players whiche present the Comedie, and the gods, the lookers on"; Draxe, 



1616, p. 400, "The lookers on and the standers by, may see more oftentimes 
then they that fight "; Sir Arthur Pinero, Mid-Channel, 1909, act i, "Good 
gracious, you're not going to remark that lookers-on see most of the game!"; 
and (as a grand climax) W. A. Garrett, Doctor Ricardo, 1925, p. 43, " I was also 
presented as a looker-on, and I reflected that in that capacity I would prob- 
ably see most of the game." 

15 This doeth persuade in all here ment. This seems to mean: These 
facts persuade in everything that I have meant to express in this poem. 

17 Theprouerbe is not South and West. The proverb referred to is given 
in line 19. Possibly the present line means that the proverb is not South and 
West alone, but all points of the compass, i. e., universally true and applicable, 
not merely half-true. 

18 be saied. I. e., been said (as DF+ read). 

19 Of little medlyng cometh rest. Proverbial. Cf. 15.12; The Prouerbis of 
Wysdom, ca.itfS (ed. Zupitza, Herrig's Archiv fur das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen, xc [1893], 247, 266 f.), "Lytyll medlyng makythe mych rest"; A 
Newe Interlude of Impacyente Pouerte, 1560 (ed. McKerrow, 1911, p. 6), "Take 
hede my frende thus sayth the texte In lyttle medlynge standeth great rest"; 
Porter, The Two Angry Women of Abingdon, 1599, G v (Tudor Facsimile Texts), 
"in litle medling commeth great rest." See also Heywood's Works, 1562, p. 47; 
J. Gruter, 1611, n, 182; Draxe, 1616, p. 405; Ray's Proverbs, 1670, p. 120. The 
N. E. D. quotes Taverner, 1539 (The Proverbcs or Adagies . . . of Erasmus, 
1545, p. 57), "In litle medlinge lyeth greate ease," as the earliest example. 
Hazlitt, English Proverbs, p. 240, states the proverb as " In little meddling lieth 
much rest," and refers to its use in Skelton's Works (n [1856], 232, "With 
litell besynes standith moche rest") and in The Countryman s New Common- 
wealth, 1647. The proverb seems to be referred to in Chaucer's Manciples Tale 

(H. 3 49fO> 

The Fleming seith, and lerne it, if thee leste, 
That litel jangling causeth muchel reste, 

as well as in his ballad of "Truth," line 10, " Gret reste stant in litel besinesse." 
21 in all worlds sent. I suppose that worlds should be words, and that 

the line means: The best way is altogether expressed in words [which follow in 

line 22]. 

24 (No. 97) He bewaileth his mishappe. In A only. On the stanza-form 

see 17.2 n. 

95. 3 maie pitie winne. The sense and metre demand the reading may 

never pity win. 

13 (No. 98) The complaint of a Synner. In every edition (sigs. M2-M2 V 
in EC, M2 V -M3 in D, L2 in F-I, torn out of ). Assigned to Francis Kinwel- 
marsh in A-D; unsigned in F-I, but the title (see the Misprints and Variant 
Readings) in DF-I runs, "and sung by the Earl of Essex upon his death-bed in 
Ireland," i. e., by Walter Devereux, first Earl of Essex. That nobleman, a 


Knight of the Garter and Earl Marshal of Ireland, died in Ireland on Septem- 
ber 22, 1 576. Rumor went that he had been poisoned; and, though an investiga- 
tion disclosed the falsity of the report, the story was repeated as true in the 
anonymous Leicester's Commonwealth, 1584 (see Burgoyne's reprint of the 1641 
ed., i90 4 ,pp.37ff.). 

The editor of Notes and Queries, 4th series, in, 361 f., affirmed Essex's au- 
thorship of the poem, identifying it with the hymn which, according to his sec- 
retary, Edward Waterhouse (Camden's Annals, ed. Hearne, i [1717], p. xcvii), 
Essex sang on his death-bed. Waterhouse writes (I quote from the "Devereux 
Papers/' ed. H. E. Maiden, Camden Miscellany, xui [1924], 9) that " the night 
before he died, he willed William Hayes his musicion, to playe on the virgyn- 
alls, and to sing. * Playe/ said he, 'my songe, and I will singe yt my self.' And 
so he did most joy fullie; not as the howlinge Swan, still lokinge downe, wayleth 
her end, but as the swete lark, liftinge upp his hands and castinge his eyes upp 
unto his God." A version of No. 98 is then given. 

Grosart accepts the statement of Waterhouse as definite proof of the Earl's 
authorship. He prints (Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library, iv, 45 1-453) 
a copy from Sloane MS. 1896, which has a new final stanza and the refrain, 

But wheras woordes & deeds agree, 
Accept them freends and credit me. 

But, as both the stanza and the refrain are part of a ballad that is preserved in 
the early Maitland Folio Manuscript (ed. Scottish Text Society, pp. 287 f.), 
they cannot be of Essex's composition. That ballad occurs also in Additional 
MS. 15,225, fol. 38, whence it is reprinted in my Old English Ballads, pp. 223- 
225; in John Forbes's Cantus, Songs and Fancies, 2d ed., 1666, song vii, whence 
it is reprinted by W. Bolle in Herrig's A 're hi 'v fur das Studium der neueren 
Sprachen, cxxxn, 40; and in the Maitland MS., whence it is reprinted in John 
Pinkerton's Ancient Scotish Poems, 1786, n, 212 f. (where it is entitled "On 
Fals Freyndschip"). 

So far as I can see, there is no reason at all why No. 98 should be regarded 
as the work of Essex. He died late in 1576, by which time the Paradise, with 
the poem attributed to Francis Kinwelmarsh, was already in print. To Kin- 
welmarsh the poem was assigned in all the editions down to and including 
1585; and the evidence of later editions is not trustworthy. I agree with Collier 
and Maiden that the authorship belongs to Kinwelmarsh. The earliest men- 
tion of Essex's death in the Stationers' Register was on July i, 1577 (Rollins, 
Analytical Index, No. 740), when Gerard Dewes (or Dewce) secured a license 
for " thepitaphe of therle of Essex." It hardly seems probable that a song com- 
posed by Essex on his death-bed should have become common property and 
have been printed before his death had been celebrated in an elegy. 

After the title in G an old hand has added, "To the Tune of Rogero." For 
that tune see William Chappell, Popular Music of the Olden 'Time, i, 93. 

Other copies and reprints of No. 98 (in addition to those of Grosart and 



Maiden) will be found in MS. Cotton Vespasian A. xxv (ed. Boeddeker, Jahr- 
buchfur romanische und englische Sprache, N. F., n, 225 fF.); Additional MS. 
5830, fol. 122; Additional MS. 15,117, fol. 4 (with music); Gough Norfolk MS. 
No. 43, Bodleian Library (reprinted by J. P. Collier in "Ancient Biographical 
Poems," Camden Miscellany, in [1855], J 9 f -); Farr > Select Poetry, n, 316 f.; 
Additional MS. 28,635, fol. 2o v . It is not worth while to collate these versions. 
Possibly the ballad called "The complaint of a sinfull soule &c." that Yar- 
rath James registered for publication on August i, 1586 (Rollins, Analytical 
Index, No. 356), was a version of No. 98. 

95. 16 Opowre thy precious oyle of grace, &c. In the most remarkable of his 
borrowings, Melbancke (Philotimus, 1583, Q [cf. 16. 6-8 n.]) combines this 
passage with 20. 8-19, when Castibula laments thus: "O Mightie God, most 
great, most good, that wreakes thy wrath on them that breake thy vowes, for- 
giue my sinnes. O poure thy precious oyle into my wounded harte, and let the 
droppes of mercy swage the rigour of my smarte. Thy blessed will I haue de- 
spisd, thy lore forlorne, my crooked wil I haue disposed, thy statutes to re- 
peale. But nowe my Lord, my loadstarre bright, my former deedes doe dule 
my hart, & sorrow doth her selfe submit, to take death for her dowrie: yet not 
that lasting death (O Lorde) O God preuent that preiudice, though merite say 
Amen to Hell, yet let thy mercie deigne mee heauen. The humble harte hath 
daunted the proude mind, eke wisdome hath giuen ignoraunce a fall, and triall 
hath taught y follie could not finde, and penitence hath crueltie her subiacent 
thrall. Thou that didst graunt y wise king his request, thou that in Sea thy 
people didst preserue, thou that forgauest the wounding of thy brest, thou that 
didst saue the Thiefe in state to sterue, wipe out of mind my faultes, and this 
newe moody facte, and since with faith I flie to thee, and hope by faith to at- 
taine desire, let praiers appease thy righteous ire, and we enioy thy heauenly 

25 life. An old hand in G suggests the preferable reading,/^/. Cf. Mat- 
thew vii. 13-14. 

30 flam. A misprint far plaint (BCDF+). 

96. 7 (No. 99) Thejruite, that sprynges, &?r. In every edition (sigs. M2 V in 
B, M2 V -M3 in C, M3 in Z), L2-L2 V in F-I, torn out of E), and assigned in A- 
DFGHI to Yloop. 

1 6 pieties vse prickt forth my prime, &c. Wealth ("the use of plenty") 
animated me in my youth to search, etc. 

1 8 speede. A faulty rhyme. 

22 he that euill seede doeth sowe, 6fr. Cf. Galatians vi. 7, "Whatsoever a 
man soweth, that shall he also reap." 

25 want is nexte to waste. Proverbial. Cf. Hazlitt's English Proverbs, 
p. 466, "Waste makes want," "Waste not, want not." 

27 When neighbours next house burnes, &c. Proverbial. J. Gruter (1611, 
ii, 187) phrases the proverb, "When they [_sii] neybowrs house doth burne, be 
careful of thine owne." Hazlitt (English Proverbs, p. 483) has, "When thy 


neighbour's house doth burn, be careful of thine own," and he refers to the line 
from Horace (Epistles,\. 18. 84) quoted in Ray's Proverbs (1670, 1678, etc.), 
"Tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet." Hazlitt also has (p. 480), "When 
the house is burnt down, you bring water." Cf. Draxe, 1616, p. 419, "When 
thy neighbours house is on fire, looke to thine owne"; and Outlandish Proverbs > 
Selected by M T . G. //., 1640 (Facetia. Musarum Delicia, &V., n.d., n [1874], 
511; also Ray, 1670, p. 106), "When my house burnes, it's not good playing at 

96. 28 breds. Read breed for the sake of rhyme (BCDF+). 

30 Who dims to high selde falleth soft. A proverb which takes various 
forms. Closely related to the present phrasing are the following: James Cran- 
stoun, Satirical Poems of the Reformation, i, 161 (Scottish Text Society, 1891), 
"Quha heichest clymmis the soner may thay slyde"; Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, 
p. 136, "We see what falles they haue, that clyme on trees vnknowne"; Mirror 
for Magistrates, 1587, ed. Haslewood, i (1815), 180, "Who climeth so highe his 
fall is not soft "; Edmond Elviden, A Neweyeres gift to the Rebellious persons in 
the North partes of England, 1570 (Huth's Fugitive Tracts, First Series), "And 
who that hyest sekes to clyme, Attaynes the greatest fall"; William Spelman, 
ADialoge or Confabulation between Two Travellers, 1580 (ed. J. E. L. Pickering, 
p. 96, Roxburghe Club, 1896), "Remember the ould saynge (the higher thou 
clymeste, and thy foote slyppe, the greater is thy fall)"; Pettie, The Civile 
Conversation of M. Steeven Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, i [1925], 101), "It may 
be well saide of such men, that which the Poet writeth, 

He falles most lowe, who seekes to climbe most high"; 

Lodge, Scillaes Metamorphosis, 1589, E (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, i. iv. 37), 
"High climing wits doo catch a sodein fall"; Camden's Proverbs, 1614, p. 333, 
"The highest tree hath the greatest fall." Dedst ebbe hath highest flowe, i. e., 
the deadest (lowest) ebb has the highest flow, is also more or less proverbial. 
In his English Proverbs, p. 387, Hazlitt quotes from Claudian (In Rufinum, 
i. 22 f.), "Tolluntur in altum ut lapsu graviore ruant," and adds, "The higher 
flood hath always the lower ebb." Cf. also Draxe, 1616, p. 366, "There is not 
so great a flood, but there is as low an ebbe." 

99. i The Paradise of daintie deuises. For convenience, the headlines in 
the poems I reprint from B-D are continued unchanged from those of the 
second half of A. Such variations in spelling and typography as occur in the 
original editions are sufficiently indicated in the descriptions in the Introduc- 

2 (No. 100) Who wayteth on this wauering world, &c. In B-I (sigs. A3 V - 
A4 in B-E, A3-A3 V in F-I), and assigned in each to Jasper Hey wood. 

4-5 Amid the vale, &c. A commonplace. Cf. 87.29 n. 

9 Oxe. Read Oke (Oak), with D+. 
1 8 thy, thee. Referring to the reader of the poem. 



99. 20 resthsse tipe of nulling wheele, &c. I.e., under too heavy a load the 
rim slips off the wheel. 

28-29 Who so thou be, &c. Added from C; also in D+. 

29 loue his. I. e., Jove's. 

30 Icarus. A ballad on the exploits of Daedalus and Icarus begin- 
ning "In Crete when Daedalus first began his state and long exile to wail" 
had been published before 1568; for in that year Thomas Howell, in his Newe 
Sonets, and pretie Pamphlets, F4 (Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 151), imitated it with 
a ballad-poem called "The Louer deceaued, writes to his Ladie. To the tune 
of in Greet when dedalus." Only two stanzas of the ballad remain; they are 
reprinted (from Harleian MS. 7578, fol. 103) in my Old English Ballads, 
pp. 329 f. Various references to the ballad are enumerated there, but to them 
should be added the quotation made by Luxurioso in The Return from Par- 
nassus, ^.1598, i. i. 

31 Itarion. Read Icarian (really a seaport of the /Egean Sea). 
33 nor ben. I. e., nor (had he) been. 

100. 3 or place, 6ff. Read are placed, with C+; for to guide read do guide. 
7-8 And in that 'Tombe, &c. Added from C; also in D+. 

12 (No. 101) He perswadeth his freend, &c. The first three stanzas of 
this poem appear in A as No. 23 (p. 26 ). The present version of five stanzas 
occurs in B-I (sigs. D v in BC, D2 V in D, D V -D2 in E, D-D V in F-I), and is 
signed in each by Thomas Churchyard. 

19 prayes. Read^ry (cf. 27.4 n.). 

20-21 noyse, disprayse. On this rhyme cf. 27.6-8 n. 

25 little sparkes. Cf. 27.i6n. 

101. 2 (No. 102) A replie to M. Edwards May. In B-I (sigs. D3 in BCE, 
D4~D4 V in D, D2 V in F-I), and assigned in each to M. S. (Master Sand?). 
This is a reply to No. 6 (p. 9). 

17 me f test. Read meetest, with C+. 

19 Who may and will not take. Proverbial. Cf. Hazlitt's English Pro- 
verbs, p. 199, "He that will not when he may, when he would, he shall have 
nay"; Gower, Confessio Amantis, iv. 1498 ff., 

Bot what Maiden hire esposaile 
Wol tarie, whan sche take mai, 
Sche schal per chance an other dai 
Be let, whan that hire lievest were; 

Preston, Cambyses, ca. 1570 (Dodsley-Hazlitt, Old Plays, iv, 187), "If ye will 
not now, when ye would, ye shall have nay"; Hugh Rhodes, The Boke of 
Nurture, 1577 (ed. Furnivall, 1868, p. 107, E.E.T.S.), 

He that may and will not, 
He then that would shall not, 
He that would and cannot, 
May repent and sighe not; 



Greene, Alphonsus (Plays, ed. Collins, i, 130), "he that will not when he may, 
When he desires, shall surely purchase nay"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 178, "He that 
wil not when he may, when he would he shal haue nay"; Camden's Proverbs, 
1614, p. 336, "Who that may not as they would, will as they may"; Clark, The 
Shirburn Ballads, 1585-1616, p. 225, 

The proverbe oulde on me is verifyed, 

the same yow know full well, 
For she that maye, and often will say nay, 

(thus reason hath concluded) 
Shall be denayde (as proof the same shall shew) 

because she once refused; 

Burton, The Anatomy oj Melancholy , 1621, m. 2. v. 5, "He that will not when 
he may, When he will he shall have nay"; "The Baffled Knight" (Percy's 
Reliques, ed. Wheatley, n, 338), "He that wold not when he might, He shall 
not when he wold-a"; A. Murphy, The Upholsterer (Works, n [1786], 131), 
"She that will not when she may, When she will, she shall have nay." 
101. 26 And May. The reading of HI, And pray, is preferable. 

28 (No. 103) An Epitaph vpon the death of Syr Edward Saunders, &c. 
In B-I (sigs. D 4 V -E V in BC, E V -E 3 in D, D 4 -E V in E, D 3 V -E in F-I), and in 
each assigned to Lodowick Lloyd. According to the D. N. B., Saunders died on 
November 12, 1576; Lloyd's poem was therefore written too late to be included 
in A . It was registered for publication by Henry Disle, the printer of the Para- 
dise, on December 3, 1576 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 765), as "an epi- 
taphe vppon the deathe of Syr Edward Saunders knight late Chief baron of 
Thexchequer," and a copy (Y) of that broadside issue the first edition of the 
poem is reprinted in Collmann's Ballads, pp. I74- 1 ? 6 - It: has the colophon, 
"Imprinted at London by H. S. for Henry Disle, dwellyng at the Southwest 
doore of Saint Paules Church, and are there to be solde. December 3"; and in 
its title the date of Saunders's death is given as November 19. From a copy of 
the broadside (Y) the Paradise poem was evidently set up by the printer. In Y 
the following variants appear: 

1 01. 28 of] of the honorable, 

29 Exchequer.] Exchequer, who dyed the .19. of Nouember. 1576. 

102. 2 you 1 ' 3 ] your 

5 vermine] vermines 
13 sods] flooddes 

1 5 for a ] our 

21 Vertues 1 ' 2 ] vertuous 

30 ferce] erce 

104. 28 triump] triumph 

105. 2 ascended] descended 

6 Finis] Om. 

101.31 Parcasdome. I. e., the judgment, or decree, of the Parcae, or Fates. 
102. 2 you . . . you. Read your in both cases, with Y above and C+. 



102. 6 Impes of loue . . . in Libethres noursht. I. e., the children of Jove, 
the Muses, who are called by Virgil (Eclogues, vii. 21) "nymphae Libethrides" 
from the fountain Libethra, one of their haunts. The plural form Libethres may 
be from the Greek plural r& Ae(/3?j0pa, which was used for the whole region 
about the fountain. Cf. W. A., "To the friendly Reader," A Special! Remedie 
against the furious force of lawks se Loue y 1579, Aj, "I was neuer acquainted 
with the Muses . . . nor tasted the pleasaunt liquor of the well of Libethres"' 
and John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester (Collected Works, ed. John Hayward, 
1926, p. no), "Ye sacred Nymphs of Lebethra be by/* 

13 sods. The reading of Y (above, 101.28 n.) and D+, floods, seems 
preferable, though alliteration lends countenance to sods (suds). 

19 Cuma . . . sage Sibilla. Cf. E.G., Emaricdulfe y 1595, sonnet 39, 
"Sibill more wise then Cumas Sibill was." 

28 What helplesse is, must carelesse be. Cf. Hazlitt's English Proverbs, 
p. 470, "What cannot be cured must be endured"; Adenes le Roi, Li Roumans 
de Cleomadks (ed. Andre van Hasselt, 1866), lines 13847 f., 14903 f., "Car sens 
est de laissier ester Ce que on ne puet amender," "Mais ce qu'il n'el pot 
amender Couvint qu'il le laissast ester"; Jean de Conde, Li Lays dou Blanc 
Chevalier (Dits et Contes, ed. Scheler, 1866, n, 39), "La besongne que on ne 
puet Amender, Tendurer Festuet"; Alpharts tod Dietrichs Flucht Rabenschlacht 
(ed. Ernst Martin), lines 7629 f. (Deutsches Heldenbuch, n [1866], 175), "swes 
niht rat sin kan, daz sol man lazen vtir sich gan"; Ned Ward, 'The London-Spy ', 
1703, p. 270, "What Can't be Cur'd, must be Indur'd." 

30-33 Where is, &c. Cf. the ubi sunt theme discussed in the notes 
on 5.1. 

103. 2-3 So long there Fortune fast did floe, &c. So long, in the cases just 
mentioned (there), Fortune was in the flood, and Fortune bade Fame sound 
the trumpet. Fortune was propitious up to the moment when she frowned and 
wrought destruction by fate, of which (fate) Fortune was herself the deviser. 

6 fauoured Saunders lure. I. e., Fortune came to his lure (as does a 
falcon) when he called, favoring him. 

10 Who welmgh, &fc. This line and the next are quoted by Mr. H. H. 
Child, in his chapter on "The New English Poetry" in the Cambridge History 
of English Literature (in, ch. viii, p. 189), as a particularly bad illustration of 
Lloyd's style. 

27 Saba sage. The poet uses Saba for the Queen of Sheba, who was 
reputed to be wise. 

28 Susan, Sara, Hesters mace. According to the apocryphal book of 
Daniel, Susanna, the wife of Joachim, falsely accused of adultery by the two 
Elders, was saved from execution and vindicated by Daniel. On Sara, the wife 
of Abraham, see Genesis, chapters xvi-xvii. On "Hester" see the book of 
Esther, especially ii. 17, v. 2, viii. 4. 

29 ludiths sword. Referring to Judith, heroine of the apocryphal book 
of that name, who slew the Assyrian general, Holofernes. 


104. 7 Gordius knot. The well-known story of the cutting of the knot of 
Gordius the Phrygian is told in Plutarch's life of Alexander. 

12 peerlesse pearle, &c. At the end of H, in the Huntington copy 
formerly owned by Steevens, some loyal Elizabethan wrote, in a devastating 
hand, the following apostrophe, which is based on line 1 2 : 

O pearles pearle, O diamond deare 
O queene of queenes live longe 
Thy royell maiestie Jove preserve, 
Lett this be Englandes songe. 

As the aged Queen had already ruled about forty-two years, this pious wish 
has considerable interest. 

21 your Queene. In /, printed in 1606, this is changed to your King in 
deference to James I, a change that hardly agrees with 1576, the date of 
Saunders's death, or with Queene and Queenes in lines 11, 12, 14. 

22 rise. Read riseth (d.floweth in the same line). 

24-25 The sunne to darknes shalbe turnd, fcfc. See Joel ii. 31. 
30 Earth, water, ayre, and fire. The four elements. 
33 earth, to earth shall goe. A reference to the burial service in the Book 
of Common Prayer. 

105. 7 (No. 104) Of a Freend and a Flatterer. In B-I (sigs. E4 V in BC, F v 
in D, 4 in E, E3 V in F-I), and in each assigned to Richard Edwards. 

8 Trustie. Read faithful (cf. lines 9-10), with F+. 

14 fanning foe. One might expect fawning friend; but perhaps a fawn- 
ing foe (cf. 7.17) was one who pretended to be a friend. 

15 til. Read while ^ with C+. 

1 6 Looke first, then leape. Proverbial. Cf. 93.30 n. 

17 Burnt Child . . . dread the fire. Proverbial. Cf. Chaucer, The 
Canon's Yeoman's Tale (G. 1407 f.), "they that han been brent, Alias! can 
they natflee the fyres hete?"; Hoccleve, The Regement of Princes, 1412 (Works, 
ed. Furnivall, in, 86, E. E. T. S.), "He that is brent, men seyn, dredith the 
fire"; Queen Mary I, in a letter to M. Douglas, 1553 (Mrs. Stopes, William 
Hunnis, p. 41), "burnt Bairne fire dreads"; Wilson, prologue to The Arte of 
Rhetorique, 1560 (ed. Mair), "A burnt child feareth the fire"; Phineas Fletcher, 
Sicelides, 1615, in. iv, "the burnt child dreads the water"; Draxe, 1616, 
pp. 379, 4 X 9 (also 4 2I )> "The burnt childe feareth the fire." See further Ida von 
Diiringsfeld, Sprichworter, I, 531; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, p. 373; and the 
numerous examples cited in the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 180. 

19 Short horse . . . soone curried is. Proverbial. Cf. the fifteenth- 
century Sloane MS. 747 (edited in Anglia, XLII [1918], 204 and note), 
"Short horse ys sone coryed"; Heywood, Works, 1562, p. 134, "A shorte hors 
is soone coride"; Edwards, Damon and Pithias, ca.i$6$, C2 (Tudor Facsimile 
Texts), "A shorte horse soone curried"; Fletcher, Valentinian, 0.1614, 11. i, 
"Your short horse is soon curried"; J. Gruter, 1611, n, 173; Camden's Pro- 



verbs, 1614, p. 318; Draxe, 1616, p. 397; Hazlitt's English Proverbs, pp. 

36, 349- 

105. 21 (No. 105) Ifthou desire . . . quiet rest. In 5-7 (sigs. 63 in EC, 64 
[misprinted 04] in D, 62 in , G v in F-I), and in each assigned to William 
Hunnis. The word quiet should be omitted (as the old owner of B indicated by 
scratching it out), since it does not appear in line 26. In A Discourse of English 
Poetrie, 1586 (Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays, i, 277), William 
Webbe comments as follows: 

A like inuention . . . haue I scene often practised in framing a whole dittie to the Letters of 
ones name, or to the wordes of some two or three verses, which is very witty: as for example, this 
is one of W. Hunnis, which for the shortnes I rather chusde then some that are better. 

If thou desire to Hue in quiet rest, 

Gyue eare and see, but say the best. 

These two verses are nowe, as it were, resolued into dyuers other, euery two wordes or sillables 
being the beginning of an other like verse, in this sort. 

He then quotes the entire poem, which is exactly like the Paradise version ex- 
cept that others (line 26) appears as other and do (line 28) as thy. Constructed 
on a similar scheme is a poem in Humfrey Gifford's Posie of Gilloflowers , 1580, 
I3 V ; and many such poems are added to Robert Chester's Loves Martyr, 1601, 
T3-Y4 (New Shakspere Society, 1878, pp. 141-167), under the title of "Can- 
toes Verbally written/* Cf. also No. 5 (p. 9). 

1 06. 2 (No. 1 06) A dialog, fcfc. In B-I (sigs. H3 in EC, H3 V -H 4 in D, H v 
in E, H in F-I), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. The poem belongs to 
the class of debats so popular in mediaeval literature. See especially H. R. Lang, 
"The Eyes as Generators of Love," Modern Language Notes, xxm (1908), 
126 f.; J. H. Hanford, "The Debate of Heart and Eye," ibid., xxvi (i9ii),i6i- 
165; and the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 194. For general works on the debat see J. E. 
Wells, A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1400 (1916), p. 831. 
What was evidently a poem similar to No. 106 "a proper newe ballad 
wherein is declared whether the grief we take by the eare or that we receaue by 
the eye is more greater" was registered for publication by Thomas East on 
June 26, 1578 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 2930). 

1 6 mights. Read mightst, with C+. 

20 Cupids shape of golde. Cf. Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 265: 

This Cupide hath a shaft of kinde, 
Which wounded many a wight: 
Whose golden hed had power to binde, 
Ech hart in Venus bandes. 

But, as the same poem (p. 266) tells us, 

An other shaft was wrought in spite, 
Which headed was with lead: 
Whose nature quenched swete delight, 
That louers most embrace. 



A stage-direction in Preston's Cambyses, 0.1570 (Dodsley-Hazlitt, Old Plays, 
iv, 224)5 is," Enter . . . Cupid blind: he must have a bow and two shafts, one 
headed with gold and the other headed with lead." See also A poore Knight his 
Pallace of priuate pleasures, 1579, D v , 

The quiuers which thou doost behold, which stand this God in stead, 
The one is full of golden shaftes, the other full of lead. 
The golden strike, the feruent wights, which pas their daies in loue, 
The leade doth wound the brasen harts, who no complaint can moue; 

Spenser's Colin Clout, 1595, line 807; and the notes in my Gorgeous Gallery, 
p. 157. 

107. 2 (No. 107) No paines comparable, &c. In B-I (sigs. 12 in BC, 13 in 
D, H4 V in E, H4 in FHI, torn out of G), and assigned in A-FHI to William 
Hunnis. The words, as well as the music (by Thomas Tallis), of No. 107 are 
reprinted in Sir John Hawkins's General History of the Science and Practice of 
Music, v (1776), 45-45 2 - Cf.yijin. 

12 (No. 1 08) He repenteth hisfollie. In B-I (sigs. I2-I2 V in BC, Ij- 
I3 V in D, H4 V in E, FLj. in FHI, torn out of G), and assigned in A-FHI to 
William Hunnis, in whose Seven Sobs of a Sorrowful Soul for Sin, 1583, it was 
reprinted. It is also reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, i, 153 f. Opposite the title 
in B is written in an old hand, "Vide cantuw 18" (i. e., No. 17 in this reprint). 
Cf. 19.27 n. The same title occurs at 65.23. 

21 In youth what I thought sweete. Evidently a reminiscence of Lord 
Vaux's famous poem (Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, p. 173) beginning "I Lothe 
that I did loue, In youth that I thought swete." 

23 as the Egle casts her bill. Cf. Psalms ciii. 5, "so that thy youth is 
renewed like the eagle's." On the eagle's repairing its bill and renewing its 
youth see the Middle English Bestiary (Richard Morris, An Old English Mis- 
cellany, p. 3, E. E. T. S., 1872), and compare William Smith, Chloris, 1596, 
sonnet 19 (Arber, An English Garner, vm [1896], 184), "The sky-bred Eagle 
fresh age doth obtain When he, his beak decayed doth renew." 

26 (No. 109) The fruite offeinedfrendes. In B-I (sigs. I2 v -l3 in BC, 
14 in D, I in E, H4 V in FHI, torn out of G). The first thirteen lines of this poem 
appear also in A over the initials of William Hunnis, and are reprinted above 
as No. 72 (p. 73); the last two lines, signed by Edwards, appear only in B+. 

1 08. ii (No. no) Verses written of 20. good precepts, sfc. In B only (sigs. 
K3~K4 V ). Most of these precepts (cf. also the notes on 15.6-21 and 127.2) 
come either from Dionysius Cato's distichs or from the brief sentences that 
precede them. Many of them are repeated also in Richard Barnfield's Affec- 
tionate Shepherd, 1594 ("The Second Day's Lamentation," stanzas liv-lxviii). 

12 Robart Cudden. An entry in Joseph Foster's Register of Admissions 
to Gray's Inn, 1521-1889, p. 47, shows that Robert Cuddon (sic) was admitted 
to Gray's in 1574/5. For Cudden Whetstone also wrote a poem, "A briefe 
discourse of the discommodities of quarelling, written at the request of his 



especiall friend and kinseman, Maister Robert Cudden of Grayes In," which 
appears in The Rock of Regard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. 222). 

17 Are rather forst of cause, &c. My words come not naturally or spon- 
taneously, but from the fact that I have occasion to write (since you have 
asked me to do so). 

1 8 Your theames are short. "Themes" are perhaps most familiar from 
the numerous accounts, preserved in Tarlton s Jests, of how Dick Tarlton, the 
famous Elizabethan comedian, orally improvised upon the topics that were 
shouted to him by his audience. For a ballad which Tarlton was credited with 
writing upon a "theme," see my Analytical Index, No. 2501. 

20 Same God. Cf. Cato's precept cited at 15.6 n. 

24 vsing course. Following the logical course of action. 

26 Obey thy Prince, or Tyborne coole thy pride. Cf. Cato's precept, 
"Magistrum metue." Criminals were usually hanged at Tyburn, a spot near 
the present Marble Arch, Hyde Park. 

109. 2 Like well thy frende, &c. Cf. Cato's precept, "Amorem libenter 
ferto," and his Disticha, i. n, "Dilige sic alios, ut sis tibi charus amicus." 

3 /rends . . . to ALsopes tongues compare. I. e., friends are both the 
best and the worst things in the world. La Fontaine, in the life of /Esop 
taken, of course, from an old biography which he prefixed to his own Fables, 
relates (see Thornbury's translation [1868?], pp. xxxix-xl) how Xanthus 
ordered /Esop, his slave, to buy the best of everything for a feast, "and no- 
thing else." What was his dismay, therefore, to find nothing served at table but 
tongues! When reproved, /Esop replied: "What is better than the tongue? It is 
the very bond of civilised life, the key of all the sciences, the organ of reason 
and truth." "Purchase then for me to-morrow the worst of everything," com- 
manded Xanthus; " the same gentlemen who are now present will dine with me, 
and I should like to give them some rarity." But again only tongues were 
served, /Esoy explaining that " the tongue is the worst thing which there is in 
the world; for it is the author of wars, the source of law-suits, and the mother of 
every species of dissension." Lodge has a reference to this fable in his novel, 
Euphues Shadow, 1592, H2 (Works, ed. Hunterian Club, n. iii. 59), "courting 
me onelye with /Esops dish, wherein were more meates of subtiltye then to 
satisfie"; and one Thomas Preston also refers to it in a ballad (Clark, 'The 
Shirburn Ballads, 1585-1616, p. 348), "some tounges to swift, and some to 
slowe, both good and bad, Esopp doth showe." Cf. also Whitney's emblem on 
"Silentium" (A Choice of Emblemes, 1586, ed. Green, pp. 60 f.), in which he in- 
sists that "The tounge, althowghe it bee a member small, Of man it is the best, 
or worste of all." Pettie, translating The Civile Conversation of M. Steeven 
Guazzo, 1581 (ed. Sullivan, i [1925], 122), remarks: "I have read that a king of 
Egypt, to proove the judgement of Solon, sent him a beast to sacrifice, injoyn- 
ing him to choose out that part of the beast which he judged best, and that 
which hee judged worst, to sende backe unto him. Solon to accomplish the 
kings hestes, sent him only the tongue." 



109. 6 Shun many words ,&c. Cf. Cato's Disticha, i. 3, "Virtu tern primam 
esse puta compescere linguam; Proximus ille Deo, qui scit ratione tacere." 

9 And beast aplyde, &c. And the best application (of the saying Shun 
many words) is, 'Fair words seldom stand the test/ 

10 Auoyde anger. Cf. Cato's Disticha, ii. 4, "Iratus de re incerta con- 
tendere noli; Impedit ira animum ne possit cernere verum." 

1 8 Be merciful haue Diues scourge, &fc. Cf. Cato's Disticha, i. 5, "Si 
vitam inspicias hominum, si denique mores; Cum culpent alios, nemo sine 
crimine vivit." 

22 Slaunder no man, mirth is a leach to mone. Cf. Cato's precept, 
"Maledicus ne esto"; and Proverbs xvii. 22, "A merry heart doeth good like a 

26 Report the 'Truth, once there one tryal standes. Tell the truth! When 
once firmly established there, one can stand trial. Cf. Cato's precept, "Nihil 
mentiri debes." 

27 good Susannas foes. For ballads on Susanna and the Elders see my 
Analytical Index, No. 379; cf. also 103.28 n. 

30 Take heede of drinke. Cf. Cato's precept, "Vino te tempera." 
no. 2 Disdayne no man. Cf. Cato's precept, " Minorem te non contemp- 

3 All is not fyre . . . that seemes to blaze. Presumably a proverb. 

4 Once. Read Ones ( = one's) ? 

6 Thy secreates keepe, &c. Cf. Cato's precept, "Pauca in convivio 
loquere"; and his Disticha, i. 3 (cf. 109. 6 n.), and iii. 18 ("Inter convivas fac 
sis sermone modestus"). 

10 Try are thou trust. Cf. 15.8 n., 28.7 n. 

11 The Crocadill. Cf. 73.20 n. 

1 8 Ayde honest mindes. Cf. Cato's precept, "Bonis benefacito." 
22 Shun wanton Dames. Cf. Cato's precept, " Meretricem fuge." 

25 sweete delites . . . sower repentance. Cf. 70. 1 1 n. 

26 Sucker souldiers. Whetstone himself was a soldier of considerable 
active experience; hence this advice. 

in. 6 Thinke on thy end. the tydefor none doth waight. For the first pro- 
verb cf. 25.17 n. and 51.19 n. For the second see Hazlitt's English Proverbs, 
p. 400, "The tide tarrieth no man"; Everyman (Dodsley-Hazlitt, Old Plays, i, 
105), "For, wit thou well, the tide abideth no man"; Piers of Fullham (Haz- 
litt, Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of England, n [1866], 13), "The tide 
of love abidith no man"; Udall, Ralph Roister Doister, ca. 1554, i. ii (ed. 
Cooper, p. 4, Shakespeare Society, 1847), "And the tide, they say, tarieth for 
no man"; George Wapull's play, The Tyde taryeth no Man, 1576; Gabriel 
Harvey, letter to Spenser, 1579 (Works, ed. Grosart, i, 20), "The Tyde 
tarryeth no manne, but manye a good manne is fayne to tarry the Tyde"; 
the Handful, 1584, line 332, "The tide will not tarrie"; Burns, Tarn o'Shanter, 
"Nae man can tether time nor tide"; and 15.22 n. 



in. 10 Forma nulla fides. An adaptation from Juvenal, ii. 8, "fronti nulla 
fides/* Whetstone appears to have used this phrase as a signature; for it is 
printed at the foot of each of the four title-pages in The Rock of Regard, as well 
as at the end of the epilogue on p. 91 and of a poem on p. 218 (Collier's reprint). 
Furthermore, it is the signature used by him at the conclusion of commenda- 
tory verses which he prefixed to Timothy Kendall's Flowers of Epigrammes 
(1577). Cf. 32.3 n. 

1 1 (No. in) That Loue is requited by disdaine. In B-I (sigs. L in 5, 
K4 V -L in C, L-L V in Z), K V -K2 in , K-K V in F-7), and assigned in each to 
William Hunnis. 

17 terrour . . . from heauen. Of course, the thunderbolts of Jove. 

27 vessall. I. e., vassal (C+). 

29 (No. 112) Of a contented state. In B-I (sigs. L in J5C, L v in D, K2 in 
E, K v in F-/), and assigned in each to William Hunnis. 

112. 3-5 pastes. The reading in C+ is possess. Lines 2-5 were evidently 
mixed up in the printing; for the logical sequence of thought, as well as the 
obvious rhyming-scheme, shows that they should stand in the following order: 

These welthy men do seme to want, thei seme to want y most thei haue 

That most thei haue thei thinke but skant, the more possess y more thei craue, 

The more thei craue y greater store, 

Yet not content, wo be therefore. 

Compare the lines in A Poetical Rhapsody ^ 1602 (ed. Bullen, n, 35), 

The more I have, 

The more I crave; 

The more I crave, the more desire. 

1 1 (No. 113) Bethinking hym self of his ende, &c. In B-I (sigs. L3~L3 V 
in 5C, L3 V -L4 in Z), K3 V -K4 in , K3-K3 V in F-7), and assigned in each to 
Lord Vaux. Reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry , n, 303 f. 

115. i The Paradise of daintie deuises. For the form of the headline see 
99.1 n. 

2 (No. 114) Written vpon the death of . . . lohn Barnabie. In C-I 
(sigs. K in C, K2-K2 V in D, I3-I3 V in , I2 v -l3 in F-7), and assigned in each 
to H. D. (probably Henry Disle, the printer). 

1 6 I force nor friend nor faith. I. e., I care neither for friend nor faith. 
Cf. Churchyard, 1552 (Collmann's Ballads , p. 68), "I force not what ye brue"; 
John Awdeley, 1569 (ibid., p. 3), "I [Death] force not for their hye estate"; 
Humfrey Gifford, A Posie of Gilloflowers , 1580, M4, R/3 V (Complete Poems, ed. 
Grosart, pp. in, 142), "I force it not a beane," "I force not a pinne"; Thomas 
Campion, Fourth Book of Ayres, 1617, No. 12, "Easely could I then obtaine 
What now in vaine I force." 

1 1 6. 2 (No. 1 15) No ioy Comparable, fcfc . In C-I (sigs. K3 in C, K4 V -L in 



D y K-K V in E, I4 V -K in F-I), and assigned in each to Candish. Reprinted in 
Fair's Select Poetry, n, 308 f. On the stanza- form see 17.2 n. 

1 1 6. 7 beares him here in vewe. The him is the spirit ("the carefull ghost ") 
which the body bears in view, i. e., which it clothes. 

15-16 The will . . . fleshly foe. Cf. Matthew xxvi. 41, "The spirit 
indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." 

19 Esteeming showes of fickell fancies knowen. Putting a high value on 
things that are known to be caused only by fickle desire. 

26 Both. A preferable reading would be But. 

30-32 Thisfruite not mine, &c. Because daily in everyone's eyes I do 
sin, may God (so that I may revive my soul in Christ) give me (literally us) 
such a conscience as can say, This action is not my own but sin's. Cf. Romans 
vii. 15-20. 

117. 2 (No. 1 1 6) A Complaint. In C only (sigs. K3 V -K4). This poem and 
its sequel, No. 117, form a two-part ballad which was registered for publication 
on June 23, 1581 (Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 595), as "A proper ballad 
Dialoge wise betwene Troylus and Cressida." Nos. 116 and 117 are reprinted 
in Hazlitt's Complete Poems of George Gascoigne, n, 331-333; but there is no 
valid reason for attributing them to Gascoigne (cf. pp. Ivi f., above). In pass- 
ing, it may be noted that Hazlitt (n, 323) professes to print these poems from 
D collated with B, whereas they occur in C only. On the stanza-form see 
22.13 n. 

The two poems are interesting as showing how inextricably the leprous 
Cresseid (cf. 92.12) of Robert Henryson's 'Testament of Cresseid was confused 
with Chaucer's Criseyde. As I have remarked in my article on "The Troilus- 
Cressida Story from Chaucer to Shakespeare" (Publications of the Modern 
Language Association of America, xxxn [1917], 413 f.), Cressida says it was 
not a "gadding moode, but forced strife" that took her from Troy: " if Troilus 
had only made her his wife, they might have lived happily together. As it is, 
she asks for pity, not blame; and grieves because Troilus is * blazing' her 
'plague to make it more.' In the Testament Troilus is profoundly touched by 
the resemblance of the leper to Cressid, and almost dies of grief when he dis- 
covers that the leper was Cressid. Such a production as this ballad, then, keeps 
to the spirit of neither Henryson nor Chaucer, but the ballad-writer was re- 
flecting the popular idea of the unfortunate woman." 

9-10 Nor Diomede had not vpbrayed, &c. And Diomedes would not 
have reproached worthy Troilus with the spoil of Cressid, i. e., would not have 
spoken tauntingly to him about his conquest of her. 

ii these two worthies had not frayed. See Chaucer's Troilus, v. 1758 ff. 
(and cf. also v. 1045 ^-) : 

And oftc tyme, I finde that they mette 

With blody strokes and with wordes grete, 

Assayinge how hir speres weren whette; 

And god it woot, with many a cruel hete 

Gan Troilus upon his helm to-bete. 



117. 18 The Campe where women winne no fame. Referring to Henryson's 
Testament of Cresseid, where we read (lines 76 f.) that, after Diomedes cast 
Cressida off. 

Than desolait scho walkit vp and doun, 

And, sum men sayis, into the Court commoun. 

24 the Lepre Ladies skinne. This phrase was suggested by Henryson's 
line 474, "Ane Lipper Lady rais, and till hir wend/* 

1 1 8. 15 (No. 117) A Reply e. In C only (sigs. K4~K4 V ). Cf. the notes on 

1 8 If 'Troylus would haue vowde his wife. For Troilus to make Cressida 
his wife was practically impossible, as Chaucer takes pains to show and as 
Cressida herself realized. But the ballad-writer did not understand that point. 

23 the Kingly heast. Priam's command that Cressida be exchanged for 
An tenor. 

24 rine. Read brine . 

31 By rightfull force to keepe his owne. Chaucer also explains this point 
fully. In book iv, stanzas 78 ff., Troilus tells Pandarus why he cannot fight to 
keep Cressida: Troy has already been ruined because one woman, Helen, has 
been forcibly retained; furthermore, even to ask Priam to rescind the decree 
and permit Cressida to stay in Troy would be utterly to blast her reputation. 
Later on, Troilus admits that he should forcibly have rescued Cressida but for 
the fear that in the fray she might be killed. 

119. 24 Who bred the bud, &V. Cressida declares, in effect, that Troilus 
started her on the path of unchastity, so that for her to live sinfully with 
Diomedes was a logical consequence. 

27 (No. 1 1 8) A description of the world. In C-7 (sigs. M V -M2 in CD, 
L-L V in F-I, torn out of ); attributed to G. G. in C, to G. Gask(e) in DF-I. 
By both signatures, without doubt, the name of George Gascoigne is meant. 
Accordingly, Hazlitt included No. 118 in his edition of Gascoigne's Complete 
Poems , n, 334 f., with the note (cf. above, p. xxxi, n. 4), " Waldron, in his Liter- 
ary Museum , 1789 [really 1792], prints the piece from an edit, [of the Para- 
dise^ of 1592, with which I am unacquainted"; and Alexander Chalmers 
(Works of the English Poets, n [1810], 462 n.), who followed Waldron in refer- 
ring the poem to a 1592 Paradise, also attributed the authorship to Gascoigne. 
It is curious that Hazlitt did not know that this poem is made up of six stanzas 
lifted bcdily from Whetstone's A Rcmembraunce of the wel imployed hfe, and 
godly end of George Gaskoigne Esquire, who deceassed at Stalmford in Lincolne 
Shire the 7 of October 7577 (reprinted by Chalmers, loc . cit., pp. 457-466, the 
stanzas in question being within quotation-marks on pp. 462 f.). Undoubtedly 
Whetstone was the author. Cf. p. Ivi, above. 

The following variations occur in Whetstone's poem (Y): 

119. 31 lothsome bayre] toothsome baight 

1 20. 4 doe blinde . . . eyes] the judges eyes doo blinde 



1 20. 15 thou shalt] the shall 

1 6 haute] huge: Okes] Dkes (?) 

17 weedes] reeds: weather] wethers 

24 Whoso] Whose: long] longer 

25 vpon] unto 
30 time] living 

The first four stanzas of No. 118 are reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 307. 
On the stanza- form see 17. 2 n. 

119. 31 bayre. Read bait, with Y above and DF+. 

120. 4 eyes. Read eyen (with DF+) for the sake of rhyme. Observe also 
the reading given above from Y. 

9 Conceaude in sinne. Cf. Psalms li. 5. 

1 6 haute hie Okes. I. e., haught (= haughty) high oaks, though in all 
later editions it is changed to haughty oaks. On the figure compare 87.29 n. 

22 The Colly ers Cut, fifr. Melbancke's Philotimus, Ee v (cf. 16. 6-8 n.), 
combines this line with 8. 4: "My Courtiers steede had not bene turned to a 
Colliers cut, nor passed welth to present wante." 

27 the lofty towers. A commonplace, like that at 55.30-32. Cf. 87.29 n. 

30 time is. Bad rhyme (which I cannot amend) and bad rhythm. 

121. 2 (No. 119) Being in Loue, he complaineth. In C only (sig. M2). 
On the stanza-form see 17.2 n, on the title 8o.28n. 

4 My feare to find, where, &c. My fear that I shall not find a place 
where, etc. 

1 1 Desyre a new, &c. After this line an entire line was omitted by the 
original printer. With a new compare 129. ion. 

1 8 cannot I, nor loue will me forsake. I cannot forsake love, and love 
will not forsake me. 

21 (No. 120) An Epitaph vpon . . . syr William Drury, &c. In C 
only (sigs. M3-M4). On the stanza-form see 17.2 n. Born in 1527, Drury had a 
distinguished military career. In 1544 he served in the joint armies of Henry 
VIII and Charles V in France; in May, 1573, he besieged and captured Edin- 
burgh Castle (cf. 123.12); at the time of his death (about October 13, 1579, 
according to the D. N. B.) he was Marshal of Berwick and Lord Justice to the 
Council in Ireland. He was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. "An 
epitaphe on Sir William Drury," registered for publication on April n, 1580 
(Rollins, Analytical Index, No. 737), was probably the present production by 
Barnabe Rich. There is an account of "The Roed made by Syr William 
Druery, Knight, into Skotland" in The Firste Parte of Churchy ardes Chippes, 
1575 (Collier's reprint, pp. 86 ff.). 

27 There Fooles may prate, &c. Cf. Hazlitt's English Proverbs, pp. 12, 
13, "A fool's bolt may sometimes hit the mark," "A fool may give a wise man 
counsel." A similar idea is expressed in Pope's famous line, "For fools rush in 
where angels fear to tread." 

28 Why spare I then to speake. A reference to the well-known pro- 



verb. Cf. Skelton, The Bowge ofCourte (Poetical Works, ed. Dyce, i [1856], 40), 
"Who spareth to speke, in fayth he spareth to spede"; Dray ton, "To Pro- 
uerbe" (Idea, 1602, sonnet 58, Minor Poems, ed. Brett, p. 45), "That spares to 
speake, doth spare to speed"; William Rowley, A Search for Money, 1609, 
p. 24 (ed. Percy Society, vol. n, 1840), "remembring the proverbe (spare to 
speake, and spare to speed)." See also Draxe, 1616, pp. 366, 415; Hazlitt's 
English Proverbs, p. 355; and the numerous examples cited in the Handful, 
p. 89, and the Gorgeous Gallery, p. 155. 

122. 15 with weapons traylde on ground. Military etiquette at funerals, 
which Rich, himself an army officer, naturally referred to. 

26 He liucth he. The pronoun is repeated for emphasis, a construction 
more common with I (cf. 76. 30 n.) than he. 

123. 7 Charles of Rome, and Henrie King of Fraunce. Charles V (1500- 
1558), Holy Roman Emperor, and Henri III (1551-1589). 

12 Mayden tower. Edinburgh Castle. See the note on 121. 21. 

13 perforce. This word evidently means "in spite of," a meaning not 
given in the N. E. D. 

15 Thy luck is losse. See the discussion on pp. Ivi f., above. 

124. 8 Viuit post funcera virtus. These words occur at the end of John 
Higgins's legend of Sir Nicholas Burdet, 1587, in the Mirror for Magistrates 
(ed. Haslewood, n [1815], 440), and are signed to Whetstone's A Remem- 
braunce of 'the welimployed life, and godly end of George Gaskoigne (cf. 1 19.27 n.) 
and to his Epitaphe on Robert Wingfield (The Rock of Regard, 1576, Collier's 
reprint, p. 235). They also appear in A poore Knight his Pallace of priuate 
pleasures, 1579, L v ; they form the motto of the Irish earls of Shannon; and in 
the phrase "Vivet tamen post funera virtus" they were used on the device of 
the Elizabethan printer John Day (McKerrow's Printers' & Publishers' De- 
vices, 1913, no. 128). 

127. i The Paradise of daintie deuises. For the form of the headline see 
99.1 n. 

2 (No. 121) Golden precepts. In D-I (sigs. D-D V in D, C4-C4 V in E, 
C3 V -C4 in F-I); unsigned in DE, attributed to Arthur Bourcher (Bourchier) 
in F-I. The poem is reprinted in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 297 f. (with lines 27-30 
omitted). Like No. no, which it resembles in phraseology, it borrows consid- 
erably from themes in Cato's distichs. 

5 the blinde doe go, &c. Cf. Chaucer, Troilus, i. 628 f., "I have my- 
self eek seyn a blind man go Ther-as he fel that coude loke wyde"; a ditty en- 
titled "A Comfort vnto him that is blynde," #.1575 (Rollins, Old English 
Ballads, p. 320), "Then blynd doth se as well as he that hath most perfecte 
eyes to se"; Philip Stubbes, The Anatomy of Abuses, pt. n, 1583 (ed. Furni- 
vall, p. 53, New Shakspere Society), "forte luscus capiat leporem somtime by 
chance a blind man may catch a hare"; Porter, The Two Angry Women of 
Abingdon, 1599, H4 (Tudor Facsimile Texts), "for a blinde man may kill a 
Hare"; William Haughton, Englishmen for my Money, 1616, D2 V , "yet some- 



times the blinde may katch a Hare"; John Taylor, the Water Poet, Works, 
1630 (Spenser Society reprint, p. 201), " A blind man may (by fortune) catch 
a Hare." 

127. 9 A Whetstone cannot cut, &c. Undoubtedly (cf. line 5) borrowed 
from Chaucer's Troilus, i. 631 f., "A whetston is no kerving instrument, And 
yet it maketh sharpe kerving- tolls." Cf. also Roger Ascham, foxophilus, 1545, 
p. 9 (Whole Works, ed. Giles, n [1864]), "the same man, peradventure, will 
marvel how a whetstone, which is blunt, can make the edge of a knife sharp"; 
John Wytton, in commendatory verses prefixed to Whetstone's Rock of Re- 
gard, 1576 (Collier's reprint, p. xiii), 

Though Whetston be no carving toole, yet vertue hath it such 
As will the durest metalls sharpe, though they be dulled much; 
And sure the author of this worke, whom wee do Whetston call, 
To prove his nature, hits his name, to edge blunt wittes withall; 

Lyly, Euphues, 1579 (Works, ed. Bond, i, 196), "the finest edge is made with 
the blunt whetstone"; Hazlitt, English Proverbs, p. 40, "A whetstone though it 
can't itself cut, makes tools cut." 

13 looke to honest thrift. Cf. Cato's precepts cited at 15. 16 n. 

14 that bed be thought a graue. This is the motif of Churchyard's 
"Verses Fitte for Euery One to Knowe and Confesse" (reprinted from his 
Wonders of the Air, 1602, in Farr's Select Poetry, n, 403-405). Compare these 

The bed presents the graue: 
In shrowding sheetes we lie. . . . 
Then Hue as thou shouldst die, 
When God shall please to stncke: 
The graue whereon our bodies he, 
And bed, are both alike. 

A similar passage appears in Clark's Shirburn Ballads, 1585-1616, p. 150: 

The softned bed whereon thow lyest 

doth represent the place to thee, 
Wherein the carrion corps at last, 

by course of kinde, interd shall be. 

See, further, "A Christian's nightly Care" in the Roxburghe Ballads, in, 188. 

19 Ere thou doest promise make, consider well the ende. Cf. 17.2 n., 
25.17 n., and Cato's precept, " Jusjurandum serva." 

23 Forget no freendships debt. Cf. Cato's precept, "Beneficii accept! 
memor esto." 

34 Inough sufficethforafeast. Proverbial. Cf. Hey wood, Works, 1562, 
p. 159, "As good ynough as a feast"; W. Wager, A Comedy or Enterlude in- 
titled Inough is as good as a feast, ^.1565 (ed. De Ricci, 1920); Wilson, <The 
Arte of Rhetorique, 1560 (ed. Mair, p. 119), "Enough is as good as a feast"; 
Gascoigne, Supposes, 1566, iv. iii (Complete Poems, ed. Hazlitt, n, 234), 



"enough were as good as a feast"; Tom yler and his Wife, 1661 ed. (Malone 
Society reprint, line 658), "Enough is enough, as good as a feast "; Camden's 
Proverbs, 1614, pp. 321, 336; Draxe, 1616, pp. 373, 396; Sir John Vanbrugh, 
Ihe Relapse, 1697, v. v, "O, enough's as good as a Feast." 

128. 5 (No. 122) Inprayse of the Snayle. In D-/ (sigs. D V -D2 in D, C4 V - 
D in E, C4~C4 V in F-I), and in each anonymous. 

9 for rule. For conduct; i. e., as his habitual method of life. 

10 Leape not before thou looke. Cf. 93.30 n. 

11 Sayle. Read snail, with E+. 

17 duke Fabe. I. e., Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (^203 B.C.), 
who in the Second Punic War against Hannibal won the nickname of "Cunc- 
tator" because of his purposely dilatory tactics, which have become proverbial 
as "Fabian policy." 

21 Saue enuies frets, &c. Except for the fretting of those who envy 
you, there are few who shall harm you, no matter how much the envious may 

27 the salue from thee ensues, &c. In his Natural History, xxx. 43, 
Pliny gives many medicinal uses for the snail, especially to cure female com- 
plaints. He also says that snails are valuable as cosmetics and as ointments for 
an irritated skin. Crased sore was a favorite expression of the Elizabethans: 
sore is an adverb, and the phrase means those who are very infirm or sorely 

29 / weare thee still. I. e., as my device (as in a shield or coat of arms). 

1 29. 2 (No. 1 23) A young Gentleman, &c. In D-I (sigs. K4~K4 V in D, I4 V - 
K in E, I4-I4 V in F-I), and in each anonymous. On the stanza-form see 
22.13 n. With the subject-matter of this poem one should compare the stric- 
tures on travelling in Lyly's Euphues and his England, 1580 (Works, ed. Bond, 
n, 25 f.): "The Trauailer that stragleth from his own countrey, is in short 
tyme transformed into so monstrous a shape, that hee is faine to alter his 
mansion with his manners, and to Hue where he canne, not where he would 
... he that leaueth his own home, is worthy no home." Euphues himself, 
however, admits that travelling is not "ill if it be vsed wel," just as Horace 
(Epistles, i. xi. 27 ff.) had declared, 

Coelum, non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt. 
Strenua nos exercet inertia, navibus atque 
Quadrigis petimus bene vivere; quod petis hie est. 

So in "Self-Reliance" Emerson remarks that "the soul is no traveller; the wise 
man stays at home," a sentiment that is reflected in several of dough's poems. 
7 Who seekes, fisfc. This line appears in D only; in all other editions 
line 5 is mistakenly repeated here. 

10 anewe. Read a new, with EHL Cf. 121.11 n. 

130. 2 lason. Cf. 91.30 n. 

3 wandring Prince. A rather ambiguous reference to Paris (cf. line 5). 



8 'The worthies nyne. The Nine Worthies usually included three 
pagans Hector, Alexander, Caesar; three Jews Joshua, David, Judas 
Maccabaeus; and three Christians Godfrey of Bouillon, Arthur, Charle- 
magne. But the names sometimes varied. Thus, near the end of Love's Labour's 
Lost Shakespeare introduces Pompey as "Worthy/' 

10 Carpet knightes. Cf. 46.24 n.; Gifford, A Posie of Gilloflowers, 1580, 
K3 (Complete Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 85), "Yee curious Carpet knights, that 
spende the time in sport & play"; Patrick Hannay, A Happy Husband, 1619 
(2d ed., 1622, Works, ed. Hunterian Club, p. 174), 

A Carpet Knight, who makes it his chiefe care, 
To tricke him neatly vp, and doth not spare 
(Though sparing) precious time for to deuoure, 
(Consulting with his glasse). 

15 (No. 124) A wittie andpleasaunt consaite. In D-I (sigs. M2-M2 V in 
D, L v in F-I, torn out of ), and assigned in DF-I to Jasper Heywood. 
26 finde. The reading of HI, finds, would be preferable. 

131 . 2 reeles to woe. The figure of reeling and spinning would be improved 
by the reading reels by woe, as in F+. 

3 roling. One might expect reeling. 

5 bringes. Metre requires (and grammar favors) brings a, the reading 


11 (No. 125) Maister Edwardes his I may not. In D-I (sigs. M3~M3 V 
in D, L2 V -L3 in F-I, torn out of E); not signed, but in DF-I the title attributes 
the poem to Edwards. It is a sequel to No. 6 (p. 9). 

24 her. Read his. 

25 skinne. The reading should probably be kinne. The snake gets a 
new lease of life in May and can then propagate. 

132. 3 in pleasure barge. Read in pleasure s barge. 

7 (No. 126) 'The complaint of a sorrowful/ Soule. In D-I (sigs. M3 V - 
M4 in D, L3-L3 V in F-I, torn out of ), and assigned in DF-I to Jasper Hey- 

ii and end. Read an end, with F+. 

17 As haue in one by sound aduise, &fr. Perhaps for one and by the 
reading should be me and thy (= God's). 

24 doth bragge me downe. Perhaps brag means "bully," but probably 
(as the alliteration indicates) the reading should be drag. 

133.15 (No. 127) Alludinghis state to the prodigall child. In D-I (sigs. M4~ 
M4 V in D, L3 V -L4 in F-I, torn out of ), and assigned in DF-I to Jasper Hey- 
wood. The poem is written in rhyme royal: cf. 45.28 n. 

20 Mate. Read May, with F+. 

29 no good hap could seeke to any vse. No good fortune could arrive at 
any utility; i. e., could come to any good result in my conduct. 



Titles are enclosed in quotation-marks. 


Alack when I look back upon my youth that's past 107 

All mortal men this day rejoice 13 

"All Things Are Vain " 41 

"Alluding His State to the Prodigal Child" 133 

Although the purple morning brags 41 

"Amantium Irae Amoris Redintegratio Est" 50 

Amid the vale the slender shrub is hid from all mishap 99 

Behold the blast which blows the blossoms from the tree 9 

"Being Asked the Occasion of His White Head He Answereth Thus" 52 

"Being Disdained He Complaineth". . 87 

"Being Forsaken of His Friend He Complaineth" 54 

"Being Importunate at the Length He Obtaineth" . 73 

"Being in Love He Complaineth" . . .... 80,82,91,121 

"Being in Sorrow He Complaineth" . . . 90 

"Being in Trouble He Writeth Thus" 92 

"Being Trapped in Love He Complaineth" . . . 39 

" Being Troubled in Mind He Writeth as Followeth" 93 

"Bethinking Himself of His End Writeth Thus" 112 

"Beware of Had I Wist" . 7 

Beware of had I wist whose fine brings care and smart 7 

"Beware of Sirens" . . ... ... 63 

Bitter sweet that strains my yielded heart, The . . . 93 

"Bunch of Herbs and Flowers, A" .... 60 

By painted words the silly simple man . 21 

Come Holy Ghost eternal God and ease the woful grief 14 

"Complaining to His Friend He Replieth Wittily" .... 70 

"Complaint, A" . . . ... . 117 

"Complaint of a Lover Wearing Black and Tawny, The" 78 

"Complaint of a Sinner, The" . . . 95 

"Complaint of a Sorrowful Soul, The" ... . . 132 

"Con tented Mind, Of a" 88 

"Contented State, Of a" ill 

Cony in his cave the ferret doth annoy, The . 64 

Crown of bays shall that man wear, A . . . . . 78 

Cur mundus militat sub vana gloria . . . . 5 

Day delayed of that I most do wish, The 18 

Deep turmoiled wight that lives devoid of ease, The . 128 

"Description of the World, A" . . . 119 

"Dialogue between the Author and His Eye, A" . . 106 

"Donee Eris Felix Multos Numerabis Amicos" . 48 

Each one deserves great praise to have 57 

"Easter Day" . . . ... 13 

Enforced by love and feAr to please 91 

"Epitaph upon the Death of Sir Edward Saunders, An" 101 

"Epitaph upon the Death of Sir William Drury, An" 121 

Even as the raven the crow and greedy kite 48 

Even as the wax doth melt or dew consume away 85 



"Evil to Him That Evil Thinketh" 68 

"Fair Words Make Fools Fain" 10 

Faith that fails must needs be thought untrue, The 49 

"Finding No Joy He Desireth Death" 64 

" Finding No Relief He Complaineth Thus " 80 

"Finding Worldly Joys but Vanities He Wisheth Death" 29 

Fire shall freeze the frost shall fry, The 70 

"For Christmas Day" 12 

"For Whitsunday" 14 

Forlorn in filthy froward fate 29 

"Fortitude. A Young Man of Egypt and Valerian" 57 

"Fortune's Power, Of" 32 

Fraud is the front of fortune past all recovery 32 

"Friend and a Flatterer, Of a" 105 

" Friendly Admonition, A " 35 

From Virgin's womb this day did spring 12 

"Fruit of Feigned Friends, The" 107 

"Fruit That Springs from Wilful Wits Is Ruth and Ruin's Rage, The" .... 96 

" Fruits of Feigned Friends, The " 73 

"Golden Precepts" 127 

"Having Married a Worthy Lady and Taken Away by Death He Complaineth 

His Mishap" 30 

"He Assureth His Constancy" 69 

" He Bewaileth His Mishap" 94 

"He Complaineth His Mishap" 67 

"He Complaineth Thus" 79 

"He Desireth Exchange of Life" 18 

" He Persuadeth His Friend from the Fond Affects of Love" 26, 100 

"He Renounceth All the Affects of Love" 89 

" He Repenteth His Folly" 65, 107 

"He Requesteth Some Friendly Comfort Affirming His Constancy" 66 

Hidden woes that swelleth in my heart, The 39 

Higher that the cedar tree, The . . 87 

"His Comparison of Love" ... . 68 

"His Good Name Being Blemished He Bewaileth" 32 

"His Mind Not Quietly Settled He Writeth This" 85 

"Hope Well and Have Well" 65 

How can the tree but waste and wither away 72 

I am a virgin fair and free 41 

I am not as I seem to be 84 

I have no joy but dream of joy 76 

I rage in restless ruth 96 

I read a Maying rime of late 101 

I sigh? why so? for sorrow of her smart 45 

I would it were not as I think 67 

I would to God I were Actaeon that Diana did disguise 54 

If care or skill could conquer vain desire 82 

If Cressid in her gadding mood 117 

If ever man had love too dearly bought 81 

If fortune be thy stay thy state is very tickle 16 

If fortune may enforce the careful heart to cry 42 

If friendless faith if guiltless thought may shield 87 


If nature bear thee so great love 59 

If pleasures be in painfulness 28 

If that each flower the gods have framed 60 

If thou delight in quietness of life 105 

"If Thou Desire to Live in Quiet Rest" 105 

If thou in surety safe wilt sit 93 

In choice of friends what hap had I 73, 107 

"In Commendation of Music" 63 

In every wight some sundry sort of pleasure I do find 36 

In friends are found a heap of doubts 28 

In going to my naked bed 5 

"In His Extreme Sickness" 11 

In hope the shipman hoiseth sail 65 

In loathsome race pursued by slippery life 116 

In May by kind Dame Nature wills 131 

In my accompt the promise that is vowed 17 

In place where wants Apollo with his lute 121 

"In Praise of the Snail" 128 

In quest of my relief I find distress 80 

In search of things that secret are in 

In terrors trap with thraldom thrust . . 92 

In wealth we see some wealthy men abound .in 

In wretched state alas I rue my life 94 

In youth when I at large did lead my life in lusty liberty 30 

In youthful years when first my young desires began .10 

"Instability of Youth, Of the" 19 

"Judgment of Desire, The" 77 

"Justice. Zaleucus and His Son " .... . . 58 

"Lady Forsaken Complaineth, A" 28 

Let rulers make most perfect laws .... 58 

Life is long which loathsomely doth last, The 51 

Like as the doleful dove delights alone to be . . 107 

Like as the hart that lifteth up his ears . . . 89 

Lively lark did stretch her wing, The 77 

Lo here the man that must of love complain . . 79 

" Look or You Leap " 93 

"Lover Disdained Complaineth, A" 81 

"Lover Rejected Complaineth, A" 83 

"Lover Wisheth Himself an Hart in the Forest as Actaeon Was for His Lady's Sake, 

The" 54 

"Lover's Joy, A" 76 

"Man's Flitting Life Finds Surest Stay Where Sacred Virtue Beareth Sway". . 23 

"Master Edwards's I May Not" ... . . 131 

"Master Edwards's May" . . ... . 9 

"Mean Estate, Of the" . 87 

"Mighty Power of Love, Of the" 86 

Mine own good father thou art gone 115 

Mistrust misdeems amiss whereby displeasure grows 90 

Mistrust not troth that truly means 31 

"Most Happy Is That State Alone Where Words and Deeds Agree in One" . . 21 

Mountains high whose lofty tops, The 66 

My eye why didst thou light on that 106 



My friend if thou wilt credit me in aught 14 

My haught desire too high that seeketh rest 121 

My meaning is to work what wonders love hath wrought 86 

"No Foe to a Flatterer" 67 

No gadding mood but forced strife 118 

"No Joy Comparable to a Quiet Mind" 116 

"No Pains Comparable to His Attempt" 71, 107 

"No Pleasure without Some Pain" 8,72 

"No Words but Deeds" 17 

"Not Attaining to His Desire He Complaineth" 84 

Not stayed state but feeble stay 8 

"Nothing Is Comparable unto a Faithful Friend" 24 

"Now Mortal Man Behold and See This World Is but a Vanity" 62 

O heavenly God O Father dear 95 

O sovereign salve of sin who dost my soul behold 132 

"Of Sufferance Cometh Ease" 38 

Old friendship binds though fain 1 would refuse 108 

"Oppressed with Sorrow He Wisheth Death" . 42 

"Our Pleasures Are Vanities" 9 

"Perfect Trial of a Faithful Friend, The" 8 

"Perfect Wisdom, Of" 34 

Perhaps you think me bold that dare presume to teach 127 

Polycrates whose passing hap caused him to lose his fate 32 

Poor that live in needy rate, The 22 

"Promise Is Debt" 17 

"Prudence. The History of Damocles and Dionysius" 55 

Rejoice rejoice with heart and voice 12 

"Reply, A" 118 

"Reply to Master Edwards's May, A" 101 

"Requiring the Favor of His Love She Answereth Thus" 75 

"Respice Finem" 25 

Sailing ships with joy at length do touch the long-desired port, The ... 27 

Saint I serve and have besought full oft, The 70 

Shall I no way win you to grant my desire . . . . . . 73 

Shall rigor reign where youth hath run .... . ... . . 67 

Sith this our time of friendship is so scant 24 

Spider with great skill doth travail day by day, The 68 

Sturdy rock for all his strength, The ... 23 

Subtle shly sleights that worldly men do work, The 68 

"Sundry Men Sundry Affects" . . . . ... 36 

Sweet were the joys that both might like and last .... 8 

"Temperance. Spurina and the Roman Ladies" 59 

"That Love Is Requited by Disdain" in 

"Think to Die" . 51 

"Though Fortune Have Set Thee on High Remember Yet That Thou Shalt Die" 39 
"Though Triumph after Bloody Wars the Greatest Brags Do Bear Yet Triumph of 

a Conquered Mind the Crown of Fame Shall Wear" . . 33 

"Time Gives Experience" 37 

To be as wise as Cato was 25 

To counsel my estate abandoned to the spoil 89 

To die Dame Nature did man frame 39 

To seem for to revenge each wrong in hasty wise 38 



"Translation of the Blessed Saint Bernard's Verses, The" 5 

Trickling tears that falls along my cheeks, The 83 

Trusty friend is rare to find, A 105 

"Try and Then Trust" 70 

"Try before You Trust" 28,89 

"Unconstant Stay of Fortune's Gifts, Of the" . 16 

"Verses Written of Twenty Good Precepts at the Request of Master Robert 

Cudden of Gray's Inn" . . 108 

"Virtuous Gentlewoman in the Praise of Her Love, A" . . . ... 41 

Wandering youth whose race so rashly run, The ... . ... 133 

"Wanting His Desire He Complaineth" . .... . . 27 

We read what pains the powers divine . . . . . 37 

What death may be compared to love . ... ... . 75 

What doom is this I fain would know . . . 80 

What fond delight what fancies strange .... . . 130 

What grieves my bones and makes my body faint . . . . . II 

What is this world ? a net to snare the soul . . . . ... 119 

"What Joy to a Contented Mind" . .... . -49 

What watch what woe what want what wrack . . . . . 71 

When all is done and said ... . .88 

When first mine eyes did view and mark . . 65 

When I behold the bier . . . . .112 

When I look back and in myself behold . 19 

When May is in his prime then may each heart rejoice . . 9 

When sage Ulysses sailed by ... .... . 63 

Where griping grief the heart would wound . . 63 

"Where Reason Makes Request There Wisdom Ought Supply" . . 45 

Where seething sighs and sour sobs . 52 

"Who Minds to Bring His Ship to Happy Shore Must Care to Know the Laws of 

Wisdom's Lore" . ... 14 

Who seeks the way to win renown . . . . . .129 

Who shall profoundly weigh or scan . .... .62 

"Who Waiteth on This Wavering World and Vieweth Each Estate" . 99 

"Who Will Aspire to Dignity by Learning Must Advanced Be" . . 22 

W T hoso doth mark the careless life . . 33 

Whoso is set in princely throne 55 

Whoso will be accompted wise . . . -34 

Why art thou bound and mayst go free . . 26, 100 

Why doth each state apply itself to worldly praise . . 5 

Why should I longer long to live . . -54 

With painted speech I list not prove . .... 69 

"Witty and Pleasant Conceit, A" . .... 130 

"Worthy Ditty Sung before the Queen's Majesty at Bristol, A" . . . . 31 

"Written upon the Death of His Especial Good Friend Master John Barnabie" . 115 
Wrong is great the pain above my power, The . .... 17 

Ye stately wights that live in quiet rest . . . . . . 35 

You muses wear your mourning weeds 101 

"Young Gentleman Willing to Travel into Foreign Parts Being Entreated to Stay 

in England Wrote as Followeth, A" 129 



References are to pages. Numbers in parentheses refer to lines of the text, an n. to the 
note on a line. This Index is meant to make readily accessible a certain amount of lexico- 
graphical material, and consequently it contains many obsolete words, and the like, which 
present no difficulties to any educated person. 

a, one, once upon a, 54 (6) 

A, ah, 63 (12) n. 

A., E. See Alldc 

A., W., xxxii n., 210, 257 

abbreviations, use of, explained, xiv, 137 

able, enable, 20 (31) 

Abraham, 257 

accompt (account), estimation, 17 (3) 

accompt, give account, 40 (29) 

Adams, H. M., xxvi 

Adnitt, H. W., xlvi 

advised, be, come to the determination of, 

89 (10) 

^Elian, 221, 231 
^Eneas, 242 
^Esop, 229, 232 ff.; ^Esop's dog, 70 (16) n., 

and tongues, 109 (3) n. 
afeard, 104 (n) 
affect, Jove, 47 (10) 
affection, partiality, 33 (29) 
affects, effects, passions, desires, 26 (26), 

36(15), 89(25), 100(13) 
afore, before, 55 (i 8) 
Alexander the Great, 235, 258, 270 
Alison, Richard, 198 
all and some, every one, 112 (30) 
all one\y,just merely, 42 (13) 
all to, completely, 48 (21), 107 (6) 
Allen, H. W., 193,211, 236 
allowed, approved, 17 (5) 
alowe, low down, 67 (27), 80 (11), 99 (28) 
Alpharts tod Dietrichs Flucht, etc., 257 
a maine (amain), 88 (14) 
amate, overcome, 82 (29) n. 
Ames, Joseph, xvi f. 
amidds, amidst, 83 (14) 
amongs, amongst, 63 (29) 
ancres, anchorite's, 78 (27) 
and (an), if, 75 (22, 32), 76 (10) 
Anglia, 201, 207, 258. See Draxe 
annoy, annoyance, 8 (9), 76 (25), 81 (6), 


anonymous contributors to the Paradise, 

list of, xlii f. 
Antenor, 265 
Anthony of Guevara, 194 
Apollo, 36 (28) 

approve, prove, 18 (4) n., 22 (n), 47 (14) 
araide (arrayed), afflicted, 13 (14) 
aray (array), martial order, 23 (3) 
Arber, Edward, Iv n., Ixv, 191, 198, 209, 

227, 233, 245 f., 260. See Tottel's 
are, ere, 109 (2), no (10) 
Arion, 63 (10-11) n., 206 
Aristotle, 221, 231 
Arthur, King, 270 
as, as if, 52 (7); that, 12 (20), 17 (26), 24 

(15), 25 (13), 41 (15), 67 (29 f.), 93 

(16), 109 (17), in (5); as then, then, 

65 (26) 

Ascham, Roger, 268 

aspire, seek to attain, 46 (4); ? attain, 83 (2) 
assayes, trials, 20 (24) 
assingde (assigned), 88 (9) 
at, at the time of, 49 (26) 
attaint, affect, seize upon, n (14) 
avow, vow, 74 (19) 
Awdeley, John, 263 
awrie (awry), wrongly, unluckily, 71 (24); 

pass awrie, turn from its proper course, 

55 ( I0 ) 
aye, 83 (22) 

ayer (heir), 67 (8) 

azured, blue-colored (veins), 66 (30) 

B., G., xliii 

B., M. See Bewe (Master) 
Babington, Anthony, Ixiv 
Bacchus' Bounty, 215 
Bacon, Sir Nicholas, Ixiv 
bagged, pregnant, 131 (i 6) 
baier (bier), 112 (12) 
Baif, Jean Antoine de, 242 
Ballad Society, 182. See Roxburghe Bal- 



ballads, examples of, in the Paradise, 

Ixviii; referred to, Iv, 186, 188,213,223. 

See Clark (Andrew), Collection, Coll- 

mann, Manuscript Percy, Rollins 
bands, chains, 103 (19) 
Bang, Willy, li, liv, 193, 195, 211, 213, 240 
Barley, William, 236 
Barnabie, John, epitaph on, 115 (2) n. 
Barnes, Barnabe, 244 
Barnfield, Richard, 233, 260 
Bartlett, Henrietta C., xviii, xxi, xxiv, 


bays,6i (i8)n., 7 8(7) 
beams, glances, 76 (2); horns, 131 (20) 
bear a port, make a good appearance, 105 

(n); bear the bell, surpass, excel, 59 

(20), 61 (18) n. 
Beard, Thomas, 220 
bears out, endures, 44 (15) 
beast (best), 109 (9), no (9) 
beats (baits), enticements, 75 (31) 
Beaumont, the lord of, a story, 220 
beck, curtsey, 51 (12) 
bedeck, clothe, 93 (4) 
Bedford, Earl of. See Russell 
bedless board, 72 (4) n. 
been (' binne ') to win, had, were still to be 

won, 130 (4) 
belike, probably, 77 (4) 
bend the ears, listen, 109 (21) 
Benedictis. See Jacobus 
Bensley, T., xxxvi 
Bentley, Richard, 221 
Bercher, William, 219 
bereave, snatch away (one's breath), 70 (2) 
berent, berend, 67 (13) n.; torn to pieces, 

92 (29) 

Bergen, Henry, 220, 245 
Bernard (' Barnard '), Saint, of Clairvaux, 

poem by, xliii, 180 ff. 
berrie, burrow (of a rabbit), 64 (24) n. 
beshrew me, 74 (7, 16, etc.) 
besprent, besprinkled, 58 (28), 107 (5), 

122 ( 4 ) 

Bestiary, the, 231, 260 

betost (betossed), 11 (18, 27) 

betyde (betied), tied round, tied fast, II 

(i?) n. 

Bew, William, xliii 
Bewe, George, xliii 
Bewe, Master (M.B.), xliii, Iviii f., 54 (29) 

n., 69(17) n., 73(28) n., 82(19) n. 

bewraie (bewray), reveal, 82 (23), 83 

(25 f.), 122 (3,16) 
Bias, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, 6th 

century B.C., 102 (15) 
Bible, Holy, and the Apocrypha, cited, 

192, I 9 6, 205, 218, 220, 253, 257 f., 264, 

266; quoted, 182, 185, 189, 201, 203, 

205 f., 210, 217 f., 22 4 , 233, 2 4 2, 253, 
26o, 262, 264 

Bibliographical Society, xxxi n., xl n. 

Birch, Thomas, 234, 241 

Bird, Robert, xlii 

bis, a direction for singing, 78 (16) n. 

black worn for mourning, 78 (5-6) n. 

Blanck, Agnes, liii 

blaze, spread abroad, 118 (2), 119 (7, 14) 

bloody ('bloudy'), bloodthirsty, 67 (25) n. 

bloumed (bloomed), 107 (4) 

blubbered, tearful, 122 (3) 

blunt, dull, stupid, 127 (10) 

Boas, F. S., 198 

Bodenham, John, liv f., Ix, 189, 194, 198 

201,221, 223, 233 

bodyed, having a body or trunk, 99 (8) 

Boeddeker, K., 200, 228, 253 

Bohn, H. G., xvii n., xxi n., xxx n., xxxi n., 


Bolle, Wilhelm, 188, 210, 236 f., 241, 252 

Bolte, Johannes, 218 

bond, bondage, 27 (17) 

Bond, R. W., 186, 189, 197, 210, 213, 215, 

2i9> 2 35> 2 43> 26 8f. 
Book of Common Prayer, 258 
Booker, John, xxxv 
boord, borde (board), plank, 72 (4) n.; 

dining-table, 99 (24, 26) 
boss (of a bridle), 100 (31) 
bote, bit, 58 (4) 

botes (boots), avails, 50 (7), 58 (14) 
Bourchier, Arthur, sketch of, xliii f.; 

poem by, 127 (2) n. 
Bourchier, John, xliv n. 
Bourchier, Thomas, xliv n. 
bow, compliance, consent, 46 (22) 
Bower, Richard, xlviii 
bowier (bowyer), 61 (10) 
brag, ? bully, 132 (24) n. 
brags, pomp, display, 33 (11) 
brainsick, 128 (13) 
branches, fallen, foresters' rights to, 61 

(5) n. 
Brand, John, xxvii 



Brandl, Alois, 240 

Brandon, Samuel, 196 f. 

Breton, Nicholas, xxxiii, 183, 194, 239 

Brett, Cyril, 186, 242, 267 

Brewster, Edward, xlii 

briberie, extortion, 132 (24) 

Brice, Thomas, 227 

Brigham, Margaret, liii 

Brigham, Nicholas, liii 

Bristol ('Bristowe'), a ditty sung before 

Queen Elizabeth at, 31 (11) n. See 

Norton of Bristow 
British Bibliographer, The, xxxv, Iv 
Bronte, Charlotte, 187 
Brown, Carleton, 181 
Browne, C. F. See Ward (Artemus) 
Browne, William, 183, 224, 233 
Browning, Robert, 213 
brute, reputation, 123 (10) 
brutish, 69 (27) 
Brydges, Sir S. E., xvii, xxix, xxxi, xxxiii f., 

xlv, xlvii, Iv, Ixi f., Ixv; his edition 

of the Paradise described, xxxiv ff., 

xxx vii f. 

Bugbears, The, 230 
Bullen, A. H., Ivii n., 187, 210, 235, 237, 

243, 245, 263 
Bullokar, William, 229 
Burdet, Sir Nicholas, 267 
Burgh, Benedict, 201, 207 
Burghley, Lord. See Cecil 
Burgoyne, F. J., 252 
Burns, Robert, 262 
Burton, Robert, 183, 215, 220, 234, 241, 

*43> 2 5> 2 5 6 
but, except, 44 (13, 36), 87 (16) 

Butler, Samuel, 193, 239 

by, because of, by means of, 37 (17), 63 (7) 

Byrd, William, Ixviii, 188, 247 

Byrne, M. St. Clare, xlix n. 

C., E., 257 
C., G., 199 
C, H., 228 

C., I. See Poor Knight 
C., R., 236 

Caesar, 270; and Pompey, 85 (4-5) n. 
caitiff, miserable, 45 (2) 
calculate, ascertain (by astrology), 64 (6) 
Calendar of State Papers, Ixv 
Cambridge History of English Literature, 
Ixi n., 257 

Camden, William, 179, 183, 186, 191, 
193 ff., 207, 232 f., 252, 254, 256, 258 f., 

Camden Miscellany, 252 f. 

Camden Society, xlviii n., 181 

Camell, Thomas, xlv 

Campion, Thomas, xxxiii, 263 

cancred (cankered), depraved, 35 (23) 

Candaules, 83 (9) n. 

Candish (Cavendish), xlv; poem by, 116 

cankerworm, 119 (32) 

cannon, 84 (4) 

cap and knee, at, bareheaded and kneeling, 

51 (M) 

Capell, Edward, xxvi 

carcas, corpse, 65 (5) 

card (cared), 102 (14) 

Careless, John, Ix n. 

cark, burden, vex, 29 (36); worry, 129 (30) 

cark(e), heed, care, 74 (i i), 90 (24) 

carpet knights, 130 (10) n. 

carpet trade, 46 (24) n. 

carping, 92 (19) 

carraine (carrion), 40 (20) 

carren corpes, corsse (carrion corpse), 

48 (17), 112(13) 
Carthage, 85 (2), 244, 269 
cased, enclosed, 65 (5) 
cast, test, try, 89 (28); shed, 131 (24) 
casual, subject to chance or accident, 88 (23) 
Cato, Dionysius, 179, 190 ff., 201, 207, 

260 ff., 267 f. 

Cato Uticensis, 25 (18) n., 102 (11) 
catterwaling (caterwauling), lecherous, 117 

(13); lechery, 118 (5) 
Cavendish, Richard, xlv 
Cavendish, Thomas, xlv. See Candish 
Cavendish, William, Duke of Newcastle, 


cayes, keyes (of love), 121 (9) 
Cecil, Sir William, Lord Burghley, Iviii 
Censura Literaria, xxix, xxxi n., xxxiv, 

Ixvn., 1 80, 182 

Cephalus and Procris. See Edwards (T.) 
Cervantes, 210 
Chalmers, Alexander, 265 
Chamberlain, John, 234 
Chapman, George, 235 
Chappell, William, 217, 227, 237, 252 
Chard, Thomas, xxxi 
Charlemagne, 270 



Charles V, Emperor, 266 f. 

Charon das, 220 f. 

charter, privilege, 46 (n) n. 

chastity and beauty, incompatibility of, 

59 (14-1 5) n. 
Chaucer, xlix, 187, 190 f., 192, 196, 206 f., 

210, 213, 219, 222, 22 4 , 2 4 I, 2 44 , 2 4 8 f., 

check, rebuke, 51 (12), 82 (6); stop sharply 

and turn aside, 47 (3) n. 
check, a false stoop, when the hawk forsakes 

her proper game for another that crosses 

her path (N. E. D.), 71 (5) 
chest, coffer, 6 (15); coffin, 65 (5) 
Chester, Robert, 259 
Chevalier d FEspie, Do, 200 f. 
Child, F. J., 201 
Child, H. H., xxxiv, Ixi n., 257 
Chilo(n), one of the Seven Sages of Greece, 

6th century B.C., 102 (14) 
choice, choosing (of a lover), 83 (7), 85 (23) 
Christie-Miller, S.R., xiv, xix, xxi, xxiii, 

xxvi, xxix f. 

Christmas carol, a, 12 (2) 
Churchyard, Thomas, xix, xlvi, Hi, Ixi, 

Ixiv, Ixvii; sketch of, xlv f.; cited, 202, 

204, 227, 266; poems by, 26 (25) n., TOO 

(12) n.; quoted, 186, 189, 235, 263, 268 
Cibber, Theophilus, xxxi 
Cicero, 205 f., 210, 219, 221, 246 
Circes (Circe), 63 (24, 31), 64 (14), 90 (9) 
clap, clapper-dish (of a leper), 1 17 (22) 
Clark, Andrew, Shirburn Ballads, 247, 

256, 261, 268 
Clarke, Samuel, 220 
Claudian, 254 
Clawson, J. L., xxxiii n. 
clean, entirely, 60 (3); handsome, 59 (21) 
close, secret, 75 (4) 
clotte (clot), 112 (28) 
Clough, A. H., 269 
cogging, false, 127 (27) 
Cohen, Helen L., 181 
Collection of Seventy-Nine Black-Letter 

Ballads, A, 186 
collers (choler's), 127 (31) 
Collier, J. P., xvii,xix, xxxv n., xliv, Ix n., 

Ixii n., 182, 185 ff., 94 f-> I9 6 ff -> 2OI > 

20 4 , 207, 210 f., 223, 227, 235 f., 239, 

241, 250, 252 f., 261, 263, 266 ff.; his 
reprint of the Paradise, xxxvii f. 
Collins, J. C, 235, 256 

Collmann, H. L., Ballads (ed. Roxburghe 
Club), xliv f., xlvii, 179, 186, 189 f., 227, 
256, 263 

Colman, George, 215 

Colwell, Thomas, 185 

Colyn Blowbols Testament, 233 

commodity, advantage, 25 (6) 

Compton, Sir Henry, Baron Compton, 
xiv, xviii, xxi, xxiv, xl, xlix, lix; bio- 
graphical sketch of, 1 80 

Compton, Peter, 1 80 

Compton, Sir William, 180 , 

Compton, William, Earl of Northampton, 
1 80 

conceit ('conseyte'), fancy, imagination, 
21 (6), 42 (15); notion, thought, 5 (26), 
127 (26) 

Conde, Jean de, 257 

contain, comprise, 7 (8) 

contentation, 26 (16) 

cony (coney), 64 (22) 

cooler, less spirited, 109 (12) 

Cooper, W. D., 187, 262 

cope, strike a bargain, 27 (10) n. 

corse, body, 13 (12), 29 (35) 

Corser, Thomas, xvii, xxiii, xxvii, Ixv n. 

cost (coast), land, country, 103 (32) 

could (cold), 103 (8) 

counsel, plan for the advantage of, 89 (6) n. 

count, carefulness, 93 (12) n. 

Countryman s New Commonwealth,^ 'he, 25 1 

couper (cooper), 61 (10) 

coupled, mated, 131 (13) 

Court of Venus, The, lix 

Courthope, W. J., xxxiv, xlvi 

cousloppe, cowslip, 42 (4), 60 (22) 

Covell, William, xxxiii 

Cowper, J. M., 236 

Craig, Alexander, 209, 219, 221, 230, 236 

Cranstoun, James, 196, 202, 254 

erased sore, 128 (27) n. 

Crawford, Charles, 217 

Cressida, Ivi, 264 f.; poem in complaint of, 
117 (2) n.; poem signed, 118 (15) n. 

Cresus (Croesus), 25 (19), 40 (14) 

Creusa, 249 

crocodile, 73 (20) n. 

Croft, H. H. S., 182, 213, 220 

crokadill. See crocodile 

Croll, M. W., 1 n. 

Crosse, Henry, 235 

croust (crust), 130 (31) 



Cudden (Cuddon), Robert, 108 (12) n. 
culuer, apparently a pigeon or dove, 86 

(14) n. 
Cumse, Italy, the abode of the Sibyl, 102 

(19) n., 104 (6) 
Cupid's arrows, 106 (20) n. 
cut, a common or laboring horse, 120 (22) 
Cycnus, Cygnus ('Signus'), 40 (16) n. 

D., H. See Disle (Henry) 

D.,M.,xlvi,lii,28 (29) n. 

D., R., xlvi f., 17 (22) n., 28 (29) n. 

Daedalus and Icarus, 99 (30) n. 

dame, mistress, lover, 78 (22, 30) 

Damocles, poem on, 55 (27) n. 

Damon, 102 (10) 

Daniel, 257 

Daphne, 61 (20) n. 

Darius, 235 

darnel, a deleterious grass, tares, 21 (13) 

date, end, 51 (21); term of life, 5 (20), 7 (8) 

daungerd, disdained, 46 (17) 

David, 270 

Davison, Francis. See Poetical Rhapsody 

dawes, dawns, 51 (34) 

Day, John, dramatist, 193, 21 1 

Day, John, printer, 267 

daynde (deigned), condescended to accept, 


deare (deer), 84 (2) 
Death, the dance of, 52 (9) n.; harbingers 

of, 53 (26) n. 

debate, strife, quarrelling, 49 (16), 109 (14) 
Mats, 1 06 (2) n. 
deck, adorn, 69 (22), 71 (4) 
decline itself, pull itself down of its own 

weight, 99 (19) 

dedly (deadly), (kill) to death, 74 (10) 
dedst (dead'st), deadest, lowest, 96 (30) n. 
deed (dead), 123 (30) 
deep, deeply, 128 (6) 
degrees, social position, 130 (21) 
Dekker, Thomas, xxxiv, 189 f., 199, 211, 

delaide to keepe, hindered (by delay) from 

keeping, 32 (6) 
Deloney, Thomas, 237 
Delphos (Delphi's), 104 (6) 
depraved, 57 (20) 
De Ricci, Seymour, xviii, xxi, xxiv, xxvii, 

xxx, 268 
Desainliens, Claude ('Hollyband'),xlix 

desart (desert), 10 (15), 15 (21) 

desease (disease), discomfort, 81 (19), 93 


despight (despite), serve only for, serve 

only to injure people, 61 (13) 
Desportes, Philippe, 242 
destraine (distrain), break asunder, 82 

deuine (divine), interpret, 80 (7) n. 

deuise (device), fanciful contrivance, 10 
(20); plan, idea, 73 (7); worldes deuise, 
the world's shows, 5 (17) 

Deutsches Heldenbuch, 257 

Devereux, Robert, Earl of Essex, Iviii 

Devereux, Walter, Earl of Essex, 1, liii f., 

95 ( : 3) n - 

Devereux Papers, 252 
Dewes (Dewce), Gerard, 252 
Diana, 36(18) 
Dibdin, T. F., xvii 
Dictionary of National Biography, xlvi, 

xlix, Ixi, Ixiii ff., 179 f., 256, 266 
Dillington, Robert, xlvii 
ding, strike, beat, 32 (30) 
Diodorus Siculus, 221 
Diogenes Laertius, 220 
Diomede, 117 (9-10) n. 
Dionysius and Damocles, 55 (27) n. 
discharging, driving away, 77 (10) 
Disle (Disley), Henry (H. D.), xiii f., xxxii, 

xxxviii, xlvi, xlix, lix, Ixviii, 180, 256; 

sketch of, xl f.; poem probably by, 115 


Disle, John, xl 

display, ?reveal one's feelings, 83 (24) n. 
Dives, 109 (18) n. 
divine of woe, 80 (7) n. 
Dobson, Ethelreda, 1 
Dodsley, Robert, Old Plays, 186, 192, 255, 

260, 262 

doings, ' makings," poetry, 4 (13) 
dole, ?fatal, dismal, 52 (19) 
dome (doom), decree, judgment, 58 (15), 66 

(22), 80 (2 9 ), 87 (20), 105 (3) 

domps (dumps), doleful, low spirits, mel- 
ancholy, 63 (3) 
Don Juan Lamberto, 241 
Dorset, Earl of. See Sackville 
doubtlesse, undoubting, 20 (26) 
Douce, Francis, 217 
Douglas, M., 258 
dout,fear, 41 (16) 



drag of death, 67 (9) 
drave, drove, 134 (2) 
draw, endure, 1 9 (4) 
draw the stake, win the wager, succeed, 19 


Draxe, Thomas, 179, 183, 187 f., 191 ff., 
194 f., 197 ff., 201, 203, 205 ff., 210, 212, 

" 5> 22 3> 2 3> 2 3 2 ff-/ 2 35> 2 37> 2 39> 2 47> 

250 f., 254, 258 f., 267, 269 
Dray ton, Michael, xxxiii, 186, 242, 267 
dread, dreaded, 92 (4) 
drenched, drowned, 19 (n) 
dress, prepare (the way), 53 (27) 
drift, draw this, ? begin this matter or 

scheme, 46 (30) 

drifts, cogitations, purposes, 31 (21) 
drive forth, go on, pass away, 83 (14) 
drome (drum), the Muses*, 101 (30) 
drossy, 105 (4) 

drowned, suffused with tears, 94 (27) 
Drummond, Henry, 179 
Drury, Sir William, epitaph on, 121 (21 ) n. 
dub, 131 (4) 

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, liii, 180 
Durand, W. Y., xlix 
dure, endure, 52 (5) 
duty, dues, 40 (5); of duty, necessarily, 6 


Dyboski, Roman, Hi, 179 (ed. Hill's Songs, 

q. v.) 

Dyce, Alexander, 182, 197, 267 
Dyer, Sir Edward, xlvi, 247 
Dyer, Sir James, Ixiv 
Dyngley, Ethelreda, 1 

E., M., or R. E. See Edwards (Richard) 

each where, 129 (19) 

eagle, the, renews its bill and youth, 107 
(23) n. 

eare, ere, 18 (14) 

Earle, Giles, 237 

Early English Text Society, lii, 179, 191 f., 
222, 231, 236, 255, 258, 260. See Hill, 

earst. See erst 

Easter, 13 (2) 

Ebbe, Saint, 223 

Edward VI, xlv, xlvii 

Edwards, Richard (M. E., R. E.), xiii, xix, 
xxxiv, xxxviii, xl, xliii, xlvi, lii f., Iv, 
Iviii ff., Ixvi, Ixviii, 180; sketch of, 
xlvii ff.; poems by, 9 (20) n., 10 (9) n., 

27 (19) n., 32 (22) n., 33 (11) n., 34 
(15) n., 50 (9) n., 55 (27) n., 57 (5) n., 58 
(12) n., 59 (11) n., 63 (2) n., 66 (9) n., 68 
(30) n., 70 (25) n., 73 (13) n., 73 (28) n., 
105 (7) n., 107 (26) n., 121 (2), 131 
(11) n.; quoted, 210, 258 

Edwards, Thomas, Cephalus and Procris, 
xxxiii, 234 

effect, accomplishment, 7 (17). See affects 

egall, equal, 58 (15) 

eglantine, 61 (17) n. 

Egypt, a young man of, and Valerian, 57 

eithe, easily, without difficulty, 112 (15) 

Elizabeth, Queen, xxx, xlviii, 1 f., liii ff., 
Iviii, 1 80; ditty sung before, at Bristol, 
31 (11) n.; lines in praise of, 258 

Ellis, George, xiv, xvii, xxxiv f., Ixii n., 
183, 185, 198, 209, 214, 218 f., 247 

Elviden, Edmond, 254 

Elyot, Sir Thomas, 182, 213, 220 

emblem. See Whitney, Wither 

Emerson, R. W., 269 

emong, tmongs, among (st), 58 (22), 87 (19) 

Endymion, 83 (5) 

enforce, violently cause, 45 (7) 

England's Helicon, xxxii, liv, Iviii, 187, 210 

England's Parnassus, Iviii, 217 

English Dialect Society, 181 

enured (inured), 94 (29) 

Erasmus, 221, 251 

errand, message, 91 (14) 

erst ('earst'), formerly, 29 (29); first, 129 

Essex, Earls of. See Devereux 

estate, state, personal condition, 10 (15) 

esteem of, to, 7 (15) 

Esther, 103 (28) n. 

Etheridge, George, xlvii 

cue (yew), 61 (10) 

euery chone, every one, 57 (33) 

Euripides, xlix, liv 

Evans, R. H., 214 

Everyman, 186, 192, 247, 262 

excercise (exercise), prescribed task, 118 (8) 

eyne (eyen), eyes, 53 (9) 

Fabius ("Cunctator"), 128 (17) n. 
Faceti<s, 254 

fail, break in pieces, 5 (n) 
fained, ?pleasant, 29 (10 ) n. 
fales (falls), 83 (20) 



falshed (falsehood), 5(1 8) 

fancies, fansies (fancy's), Jove's, 46 (10), 66 

(2), 106(15) 
fancy, Jove, 106 (ic ff.) 
Fane, Mildmay, Earl of Westmorland, 193 
fantasy, caprice, 54 (32) 
farced. See forst 
Farmer, Richard, xiv, xxix 
Farquhar, George, 188 
Farr, Edward, Poems (ed. Parker Society), 
xlv, 179, 184, 188 f., 195, 198 f., 205 f., 
209 f., 217 f., 227 f., 249, 253, 260, 263 f., 
266 ff. 

faue\\, duplicity personified, 108 (5) 
fawning foe, one who pretends to be friendly, 

7 (17), 105 (14) n . 
feare (fere), companion, mate, 31 (3) 
fell, savage, 70 (2) 
Fellowes, E. H., 188, 198, 206, 247 
fet, fetched, taken away, 53 (3) 
fetch, frame a, contrive a trick or stratagem, 

28 (22) * ' 

Field, Nathaniel, 185, 234 

filed, polished (deceitful), 90 (10) 

fillip, a smart stroke or blow (with the thumb, 

fist, etc.), 5(11) 
find, supply, provide, 70 (19) n. 
fine, end, 7 (14); in fine, in short, 84 (12), 

in (18) 

fit, a painful experience, 70 (20) 
Fitzmaurice-Kelly, James, 188, 196^,202, 

205 f., 210, 235 

Flatman, Thomas, 241 

flawe, ? sudden rush, gust of wind, 44 (31) 

flearyng, fleryng (fleering), grimacing, 68 

( 2 )i 8 9 (13) 
fl ^e, fly, 32 (19) 

Fleming, Abraham, 196 

Fletcher, John, 191, 193, 250, 258 

Fletcher, Phineas, 258 

flete (fleet), hasten, 51 (33) 

flock, coarse tufts of woo} used for stuffing 

mattresses, 99 (23) 
floe, be in flood, 103 (2) 
Flood, W.H.G.,xlviiin. 
floud (flood), water in general, 59 (24) 
flouring (flowering), 42 (10) 
flow, abound in, 41 (21) 
flurt (flirt), a fickle person, 127 (27) 
foe, sweet, 80 (8), 82 (3) n. 
Forster, Max, 179. See Anglia, Draxe 
foil. See foyle 

foile, thin leaf of gold or silver, 89 (7) 

Folger, H. C., xxiii 

fondjoo/ish, silly, 5 (26), 7 (22), 29 (19), 

47 (25) 

fondness, foolishness, 34 (19) 
Foote, Samuel, 236 
for, instead of, 10 (27); for that, because, 
20(5), 101 (8,14), 116(16); for why, 
because, 43 (34), 64 (18), 116 (31) 
Forbes, John, 184, 197, 252 
force, care for, regard, 115 (16) n.; offeree, 

of necessity, 81(31), 82(9) 
forced, strained, 6 (7) 
fatpzst, previously passed, $i (22) 
forslowed, impeded, 108 (21) 
forst, farced, stuffed, 19 (5, 6 n.); forced, 

108 (17) n. 
Forsythe, R. S., 198 
Fortune, the goddess, 16 (16) n. 
Fortune, The Book of, 215 
Foster, Joseph, 260 
fosters bane, 69 (10) n. 
foule,/0w/, bird, 18 (13), 32 (18), 51 (2), 
etc.; perhaps a misprint for soul, 63 (9) n. 
foule, ugly, 60 ( 4 ) 
Foxe, John, 235 
Foxwell, A. K., Jxv 
foyle (foil), destroy, 117 (12) 
Airfreighted, 82 (15) 
framed, created, 60(12); ? stationed, 32 

(3) n - 

frank,/?, 115 (26) 
fraught, furnish, equip, 23 (9) 
Fraunce, Abraham, xxxiii, 214 
frayed, fought, 117 (11) 
freak ffreek,' 'freke'), whim, vagary, 16 

(33), 3i (13) 
fred (freed), 46 (12) 
free, innocent, 38 (19) 
freek, freke. See freak 
frended, ? sincere, 29 (10) 
fret, adorned, 30 (i 8) 
frie (fry), burn, 70 (26) 
friend, practise friendship, 89 (10, 16, 22) 
Froissart, Jean, xliv n., 235 
front, forehead, 32 (3) n. 
frowardness, 67 (8) 
frumps Jeers, flouts, 47 (28) 

Fuller, Thomas, 229 f. 
fumes, anger, 128 (21) 
Furies, the, 81 (5) n. 



Furnivall, F. J., 181 ff., 191 f., 194, 196, 

222, 234, 243, 255, 258, 267 

G., F., 1, 30 (2) n. 

G., G., 1, Ivi, Ixiii; poem signed by, 119 

(27) n. 

gad, 119 (21) 
gadding, wandering lewdly, 117 (3, 28), 

118(16), 119(9) 
Galen, 43 (18) n. 
game, pleasure, 37 (7) ; way of life, actions, 

gan,%*,56 (25^65 (25); f, 87 (30) n.; 

did, 10 (13); does, 73 (22), 108 (4) 
gape, wonder at, 62 (17); gape on, be eager 

for, 87 (17) n. 
Garrett, W. A., 251 
Gascoigne, George, xlii, 1, liv, Ix f., Ixiv, 

180, 182, 211, 213 f., 241, 264, 267; dis- 

cussed, Ivi f., 265; quoted, xlix n., 192, 

210, 268 f. 
Gask(e), G., 1, Ivi, Ixiii; poem by, 119 

(27) n. 

Gawdy, Philip, xlvi n. 
gaze, gauze, or thin, transparent silk, 104 

(17); drive me from the gaze, stop my 

looking at in wonder or delight, 93 (26); 

into the gaze, to a state oj fascination or 

bewilderment, 81 (27) 
gelliflower (gillyflower), 60 (23) 
Gellius, Aulus, 229 
Gentleman s Magazine, Ivii n. 
gesse (guess), judgment, 31 (17) 
gesse (guess), think, 15 (5) 
Gesta Romanorum, 199, 219, 221 
ghostly, like a ghost's, 1 1 6 (6) 
Gibbon, Edward, 220, 246 
Gibson, Leonard, 186 
Gifford, Humfrey, Ivii, 197, 206, 233, 259, 

263, 270 
gifts, natural good qualities, 42 (10, 23 f.), 

69 (22) 

Giges (Gyges), 83 (9) n. 
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, Ixiv 
Gilbertson, William, xlii 
Giles, J. A., 268 

Gill (Jill), a loose woman, 117 (19) 
gilt (guilt), 77 (12) 
Glapthorne, Henry, 215 
goddes (goddess), 70 (7); (goddess's), 83 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 270 

Godly Queen Hester, liv, 193 

Golden Fleece, 91 (30) 

good, goods, property, 15 (16) 

Googe, Barnabe, xlix 

Gordius, King of Phrygia, 104 (7) n. 

Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, A 
(ed. Rollins), xlv, Ixvii f., 179; borrow- 
ings of, from the Paradise, xxxi f., 38 
(15) n., 54 (17) n., 93 (9) n.; cited, 187, 
196, 198 f., 207, 209, 213, 218 f., 233, 
239, 249, 258 ff., 267 

Gosson, Stephen, 201 

gost (ghost), the soul, 115 (6), 116 (5) 

got, deserved, earned, 58 (35) 

Gower, John, xlix, 182, 211, 219, 222, 255 

granted, acknowledged, 38 (23) 

grating, 28 (17) n. 

gravity, 3 (22) 

Green, Henry, xliv n., 194, 196, 199, 219, 
229, 234, 240, 245, 261 

Greene, Robert, xlii, 198, 232, 235 f., 256 

greeting words, 28 (18) n. 

Greg,W.W, 187, 193 

Greville, Sir Fulke, Lord Brooke, 1 

Griffith, William, 185 

gripe, vulture, 37 (22) 

grips (gripes), 107 (7) 

Grosart, A. B., xxxiii n., xlvi n., Ivii n., 
Iviii, Ixiii, 186 f., 192 f., 196 ff., 200, 
206, 209, 226, 233, 235 ff., 239 ff., 252, 
255, 262 f., 270 

ground (groaned), 53 (8) 

Grove, Matthew, 180, 240 

Gruter, J., 179, 183, i86ff., 189, 191, 
193 ff., 199, 207, 230, 232, 243, 250 f., 

2 53> 2 5 6 > 2 5 8 
Guazzo, Stefano, 211, 223, 229, 234, 243, 

250, 254, 261 
guise, custom, 38 (17) 
Gyges, 83 (9) n. 

R, G. See Herbert (George) 

H., I. (J.) See Heywood (Jasper) 

H., R. See Hill (Richard) 

H., W. See Hunnis (William) 

hagard (haggard), a wild female hawk, 27 

(22), 71 (3),8 4 (3)n. 
Hakluyt, Richard, 238 
Hales, J. W., 181 
Hall, R., 80 (2) n. 
Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., Ixii n., 185, 225, 




hand, out of, immediately, 59 (28) 
Handful of Pleasant Delights, A (ed. Rol- 
lins), xiii, xxxii, Ixvii, 179; first edition 
of, Ix; cited, liv, 183, 187, 194, 196, 209, 
213, 2 33> 2 35> 2 4i, 250, 267; quoted, 
Hanford, J. H., 259 
Hannah, John, 183 
Hannay, Patrick, 215, 270 
Hannibal, 84 (33) n., 269 
hap, bad fortune, 83 (3) n.; good fortune, 

81 (13) n., 91(23 f.) 
happest (happiest), 59 (29) 
happy, beneficent (star), 83 (9) n. 
harbraine (hairbrained), 109 (n) 
Harington, Henry, li 

Harington, John, Ixi f.; sketch of, If.; 
poems attributed to, 19 (27) n., 51 
(19) n. 

Harington, Sir John, 216 
Harleian Miscellany, 191, 215, 248 
Harmsworth, Sir R. L., xxi, Ixix 
Harris, Sir Augustus, xxvii 
Harvey, Gabriel, 187, 192 f., 262 
Haslewood, Joseph, xvii f., xxiii, xxxv f., 

182, 189, 194, 202, 205, 211, 214, 224, 

232 ff., 254, 267 

Hastings, Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, 1 80 

hatch, half-door, 46 (32) 

Haughton, William, 267 f. 

Haupt's Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Alter- 
thum, 200 

Haureau, B., 181 

haute, 43 (3?) n -5 haught, haughty, 120 
(i6)n., 121 (3) 

have to pass, execute, 58 (26) 

Hawkins, Sir John, explorer, 238 

Hawkins, Sir John, historian of music, 
xviff., 196, 214, 227, 260 

Hayes, William, 252 

Hayward, John, 257 

Hazlitt, W. C., xvii, xxvii, xxx f., xlix n., 
Ivif., Ixn., 179 f., 182 f., i86f., 189, 
191 f., 193 ff., 197, 201 f., 207, 210 f., 
213 f., 224, 229, 231 ff., 234, 236, 241, 
243, 250 f., 253 ff., 257 f., 260, 262, 
264 ff., 267 f. 

he, repetition of, for emphasis, 122 (26) n. 

headles (heedless), 46 (26) 

Health to the Gentlemanly Profession of 
Servingmen, A, 191 

heap despite, 7 (18) n. 

heard (herd), 99 (12) 

heares (hairs), 14 (33) 

Hearne, Thomas, 252 

hears (hearse), bier, 65 (5) 

heast. See hest 

Heber, Richard, xiv, xix, xxvii, 179 

Hector, 270 

Helen of Troy, 86 (22) n., 265 

helm, helmet, 60 (16) 

Henri III, 267 

Henry VIII, xliv n., 1, Ixiii, 266 

Henryson, Robert, 264 f. 

Henslowe, Philip, 187 

Herbert, George (G. H.), 254 

Herbert, J. A., 221 

Herbert, William, xvi ff. 

Herbert, Sir William, Earl of Pembroke, 


Hercules, 25 (20), 40 (10) n. 
hermonicall (harmonical), 54 (5) 
Herodotus, 205, 229, 243 
Herrick, Robert, 185 
Herrig's Archiv, 182, 230, 251 f. 
Hesiod, xlix 
hest (' heast'), request, 66(25), 118 (23), 

133 (5) 

Hester, 103 (28) n. 
Heywood, Jasper (I. H., J. H.), xlvi, 

Ixviii; sketch of, li f.; poems by, 13 

(2) n., 14 (28) n., 93 (9) n., 93 (30) n., 

99 (2) n., 130 (15) n., 132 (7) n., 133 

(15) n. 
Heywood, John, li; Works (ed. Spenser 

Society), 179, 182, i86f., 191, 193 ff., 

197, 199, 205, 207, 211 f., 230, 233 ff., 

236, 242 f., 250 f., 258, 268 
Heywood, Thomas, 195, 213 
Hibbert, George, xxiii 
hid (hide), 59 (31), 7 8 ( 2 9) n -5 P ut aside > 

make of no avail, 33 (29) 
hie (high), 66 (u), 80 (11), 115 (19), 120 


Higgins, John, 267 
hight, be called, 99 (31) 
Hill, Richard (R. H.), xviii n.; discussed, 

Hi; poems by, 17 (2) n., 35 (15) n., 36 

(15) n., 37 (i 5) n., 80 (2) n., 94 (24) 
Hill, Richard, Songs (ed. E. E. T. S.), 179, 

181,186,194, I97> 201 
Hippolytus, 40 (13) n. 
hire ('hyre'), reward, 7 (16), 44 (18), 82 

> 93 



Hobson, Thomas, xxxi 

Hoccleve, Thomas, 192, 222, 258 

hoiseth, hoists (a sail), 65 (10) 

Holbein, Hans, 217 

hollow,/0/j^, 10(21) 

Hollyband, Claude. See Desainliens 

Holofernes, 257 

homely, of a -plain, unrefined fashion , 44 

Homer, xlix, 209 

Hoole, Charles, 179 

hoped, hoped for, 7 (16) 

Horace, 219, 227, 254, 269 

hounds of hell, 32 (16) 

how, a sailor s cry, 72 (9) n. 

Howard, Henry, Earl of Surrey (by cour- 
tesy), xlv, Hi, Ix, Ixii n., Ixvii, 179, 217, 
245. See Tottel's 

Howell, Thomas, xlii, Ix, 186, 192, 200, 
207,209, 226, 241,249,255 

Hunnis, Robert (Robin), liii 

Hunnis, William, xliii, xlvi, xlviii, Hi, Ivi, 
Ix ff., Ixiii ff., Ixviii, 179; sketch of, Hi ff.; 
poems by, 8 (17) n., 9 (2) n., 52 (30) n., 
64 (21) n., 65 (9) n., 65 (23) n., 67 (2) n., 
67 (22) n., 68 (12) n., 69 (17) n., 73 
(13) n., 87 (28)n., 9 2 (15) n., 105 (21) n., 
106 (2) n., 107 (2) n., 107 (12) n., 107 
(26) n., in (11) n. 

Hunterian Club, 183, 185, 187, 209, 215, 
219 ff., 229, 232, 236, 238 ff., 254, 261, 
270. See Rowlands 

Huntingdon, Earl of. SW Hastings 

Huntington, H. E., xiv, xviii n., xxiii, xxvi, 
xxix ff., xxxv n., Ixix, 179, 258 

Huth, Henry, xxiii, xlv, Iv n., 205, 235, 

243> -54 

Hutton, Henry, 188 
hyre. See hire 

I, repetition of, for emphasis, 76 (30) n. 

Jack Juggler, 231, ,233 

Jacob and Esau, liv 

Jacobus de Benedictis, 181 

Jahn, Robert, xxxi n. 

Jahrbuch fur romanische und englische 

Sprache, 200, 228, 253 
James I, Iv, Iviii, 258 
Janus, 40 (12) n. 
Jason, 91 (30) n., 130 (2) 
ibent (ybent),/>.^>. of 'bend,' 57 (11) 
Icarus and Daedalus, 99 (30) n. 

Jeayes, I. H., xlvi n. 

Jerome, Saint, 220 

jesting stock, no (7) 

Jews, 13 (13) 

Image of Hypocrisy, The, 182 

Impatient Poverty, 182, 251 

imps, children, 9 (25), 102 (6); men and 

women, 67 (10) \young people, 23 (8) 
Indian, 104 (17) 

indifferent flyA impartial (ly), 37 (4 f.) 
infect, injected, 62 (25) 
inspect, examination, 43 (14) 
in steede (instead), 116 (8); in better 

steede (stead), 16 (12) 
invention, originality, 4 (4) 
Joachim, 257 

John Eon and Mast Parson, 187 
John of Salisbury, 191 
Jolley, Thomas, xxiii 
Jonah, 20 (15), 196 
Jones, William, xl 
Jonson, Ben, 198, 235 
Jonsonus Virbius, xliii 
Joshua, 270 

Journal of American Folk-Lore, 241 
Journal of Germanic Philology, xlix n. 
joy, ^^W, 95 (8), in (23); enjoy ^(^ 

rejoice in, 7 (20 f.), 54 (13), 131 (13) 
irke, irksome, 19 (21) 
Irus, 40 (15) n. 
Itarion, 99 (31) n. 
Judas Maccabseus, 270 
Judith, 103 (29) n. 
Juvenal, 204, 223, 263 

K., F., or M. K. See Kinwelmarsh (F.) 

Keeper, John, 186 

Kendall, Timothy, 193, 229, 263 

kind, nature, race, 73 (14); in their kind, 

according to their nature, 56 (2), of their 

genus, 51 (3) 

Kindlemarsh. See Kinwelmarsh 
kindly, characteristically, 128 (17); goodly, 

excellent, 53 (3) 
Kinwelmarsh, Anthony, liv 
Kinwelmarsh, Edmond, liv 
Kinwelmarsh (' Kindlemarsh '), Francis 

(F. K.,M. K.), 1, Ixviii; sketch of, liv f.; 

poems by, 12 (2) n., 14 (2) n., 16 (15) n., 

21 (2-3) n., 22 (13) n., 24 (n) n., 41 

(2) n., 41 (34) n., 76 (23) n., 95 (13) n. 
Kinwelmarsh, Marcion and Mary, liv 


Kinwelmarsh, Richard, liv 

Kinwelmarsh, Robert, liv 

Kittredge, G. L., Ixix, 192 f., 204, 208, 

212 f., 216, 223, 236, 242, 248, 250 
Kyd, Thomas, 198, 202, 215 f. 

L., R., Iv, 91 (ii)n. 

ladies, ladyes (lady's), 30 (30), 31 (7), 75 

(i8), 9 2( 4 ) 

La Fontaine, Jean de, 199, 261 
Lais and Zenocrates, 220 
Lamport Library (Sir Charles E. Isham), 


Landor, W. S., xlv 
Lang, H. R., 259 
Langlois, E. H., 217 
lappe, clothe, 128 (20) 
lare (lair), 32 (5) 

La Rochefoucauld, Frangois de, 239 
Latimer, Hugh, 191, 198 
lazares (lazar's), lepers, 92 (12), 117 (21) 
leagwes, legs, 109 (17) 
learnde (learned), taught, 96 (12) 
least (lest), 33 (30), no (10). See lest 
leave ('leue'), cease, desist (from), 55 (11); 

leave to look, stop looking, 82 (26) 
leave ('leut 1 }, gratification, 27 (10) n. 
Lecky, W. E. H., 220 
Lee, Sir Sidney, Iv n. 
leech (' leach '), physician, 109 (22) 
Leicester, Earl of. See Dudley 
Leicester's Commonwealth, 252 
Lemon, Robert, xliii n. 
lenger,/orr, 54(31) 
lenght (length), 27 (20) 
length, lead the, show the distance, 53 (30) 
lering, learyng (leering), 69 (10), 90 (2) 
Le Roi, Adenes, 257 
lesson (lessen), 47 (19) 
lest (least), at, 57 (24), 58 (30). See least 
let, hinder, 30 (6), 115 (17) 
lethall, deadly, fatal, 29 (30) 
leude (lewd), /A* wicked, 108 (25) 
leue. See leave 
level (an instrument), 31 (16) 
lewe (lieu), 47 (29) 
Lewkenor, Lewis, xlvii 
lewres (lures) , temptations, 57 (30) 
Libethres, 102 (6) n. 
Library, tfhe, xxxi n. 
lies (lees), 100 (28) 
lightly, gaily, 49 

like, alike, 35 (11) n.; likely, 79 (15) 

like, please, 8 (18), 60 (19, 26), 61 (28) 

liking, pleasure, 10 (6) 

Lily, William, 214 

Linche, Richard, Iv 

line of, by, in accordance with, 58 (16) 

Lingua, Ixvi 

Linton, W. J., 237 

list, a desire, 27 (10) n. 

Lithgow, R. A. D., Ixii n. 

liuelest (liveliest), 41 (24) 

lively, animatedly, strikingly, 56 (6); full of 
life or vigor, 42 (17), 131 (13); living, 
42 (2); warm and vigorous, 9 (23) 

Lloyd, Lodowick, Ixviii; sketch of, Iv; 
cited, 222; poem by, 101 (28) n.; quoted, 

Lobley, William, xli 

Locrine, Locris, 58 (17) 

Lodge, Thomas, xxxiii, xlii; cited, 220, 

229; quoted, 183, 187 f., 215, 232 f., 

238 ff., 254, 261 
Logan, W. H., 241 
Longfellow, H, W., 193, 208 
lookers-on, 26 (33), 94 (6, 7, 13 n.), 100 

Looney, J. T., Iviii n., lix f., 244, 246 

loose^(lose), 44 (3 1) 

Lorkin, Thomas, 241 

Lowndes, W. T., xvii n., xxi, xxx, xxxi n. 


Ludus Scacchice, xxxv 

Lumley, John, Lord, xxxiii n. 

lure, 103 (6) n. 

lust, list, 129 (29) 

lust, a desire, a wish, 10 (6), 60 (19, 26) 

lusty, vigorous, flourishing, 60 (14) 

Lycurgus, 102 (8) 

Lydgate, John, 191, 220, 222, 245 

Lyly, John, Iviii, 186, 189, 191, 197, 210, 

21 3> 21 5> 2 35> 2 43> 26 8f- 
Lynche, Richard, Iv 
Lynnell, Richard, xli 
Lyon, J. H. H., 234 

M., F., Iv, 29 (17) n. 
M.,T. See Marshall 

Mabbe, James, 188, 193, 196 f., 202, 205 f., 

210 f., 235 f. 
mace, sceptre, 103 (28) 
Macrobius, 206 
Magoffin, R. V. D., 200 



Mair, G. H., 189, 221, 258, 268 

make, bring it to pass, 52 (7) 

Maiden, H. E., 252 f. 

Malone, Edmond, xxiv, Ixv 

Malone Society, 186, 193, 201, 233, 269 

Mandeville, Sir John, 238 

Mann, F. O., 237 

Manuscript Additional 5830, 253 

Manuscript Additional /5,//7, 253 

Manuscript Additional 75,^5, 188, 199 f., 

247, 252 
Manuscript Additional /5,2jj, Ixii, 185, 


Manuscript Additional 23,626, 188 
Manuscript Additional 24,665, 237 
Manuscript Additional 28,635 (modern 

transcript of the Harington MS.), 186, 

X 95> 2I .7> 2 3 2 > 253 

Manuscript Ashmole 48, 217, 227, 246 
Manuscript Balliol 354, Hi (Richard Hill's 

Songs, q. v.) 

Manuscript Bannatyne, 185 
Manuscript Cotton Titus A. XXIV, xlix 
Manuscript Cotton Vespasian A. XXV, 

200, 228, 253 

Manuscript Egerton 2009, 247 
Manuscript Gough (Norfolk) No. 43 

(Bodleian), 253 
Manuscript Harington. See Manuscript 

Additional 28,635 
Manuscript Harleian 6910, 237 
Manuscript Harleian 757<?, 255 
Manuscript Lute, Dd. iv. 23 (Cambridge), 


Manuscript Maitland Folio, 197, 252 
Manuscript Music, f. IT (Bodleian), 188 
Manuscript Percy Folio, 181 
Manuscript Rawlinson 85, 239 
Manuscript Rawlinson Poet. 185, 225 
Manuscript Sloane 7^7, 258 
Manuscript Sloane 1584, 181 
Manuscript Sloane 1896, 252 
Map (Mapes), Walter, 181 
marchant (merchant), 62 (16 f.) 
Marcus Aurelius, 194 
Markham, Gervase, 234, 245 
Markham, Isabella, 1 
Marshall, T. (T. M.), Ivi, Ixii n., 39 

(18) n., 92 (15) n. 
Marston, John, 235, 243 
Martial, 198 
Martin, Ernst, 257 

Mary (Stuart), Queen of Scots, Iviii, 180 
Mary (Tudor), Queen, xlviii, liii, Ixi; 

quoted, 258 
mase (mace), 100 (3) 
Masefield, John, 238 
masking, disporting, 30 (15) 
maste (mast), the fruit of forest-trees, 

acorns, 54 (23) 
mate, 82 (29) n.; associate (equal), 104 

(15, 21); companion, 81 (5), 127 (27), of 

the gods, 102 (25); husband, 115 (22) 
mated, despondent, 93 (19); puzzled, in 


mauger, in spite of, 104 (11), 128 (21) 
May, poems on, 9 (20) n., 101, 131 
maze, labyrinth (of life), 93 (24); on maze, 

in bewilderment, 63 (21); to play within 

(love's) maze, 81 (25), 82 (3) 
mazed, confused, 86 (23) 
McKerrow, R. B., xiv n., xviii, xxvi n., 

xxix n., xxxiii n., xl n., 182, 193, 199, 

221, 251, 267 

mean, means, 63 (27) n. 

Medea, 91 (31) n. 

meed, reward, 60 (7) 

Megaera, 241 

Melbancke, Brian, borrowings from the 

Paradise in his Philotimus, 191, 203, 

217, 253, 266 
Meon, D. M., 200 f. 
Meredith, George, 215 
Meres, Francis, xlviii, lix n. 
Merry Tales, 207 
mette, measure, 19 (31) 
mettel (mettle), quality, 109 (12) 
Midd'leton, Thomas, 187, 235 f. 
Migne, J. P., 220 
Mill, Humphrey, 232 
Milton, John, 215, 224, 243 
mind, determination, 92 (2) 
mind, intend, 14 (28); regard, consider, 52 


Minerva, 36 (22) 
Mirandula, Octavianus, 214 
Mirror for Magistrates, xxxii, xlv, Ixix, 

182, 189, 194, 202, 205, 209, 211, 22 4 , 

232 ff., 254, 267 

Miscellanea Poetica Anglicana Antiqua, 


mislike with, be displeased with, 70 (22) 

Misogonus, 240 

mis(s), misfortune, 118 (3) 



miss, be lacking, 73 (18) 
misspence, wasteful expenditure, 96 (24) 
mo, moe, more, 37 (26), 48 (20), 52 (2), 
59 (3), 101 (4) . ... 

Modern Language Association, Publica- 
tions, 264 

Modern Language Notes, xlix, Ix n., 259 

Modern Language Review, Ix n. 

Montaigne, Michel de, 220, 223 

Monteagle, Lady. See Spencer 

Montgomerie, Alexander, 196 

Moral Play of Wit and Science, The, Ixii n., 
1 85 f., 225 

More, Sir Thomas, 205, 235 

Morgan, J. P., xiv 

Morley, Baron. See Parker (Henry) 

Morley, Thomas, 210, 241 

Morris, Richard, 231, 260 

most, chief, 84(21), 86(6) 

motion, desire, lust, 127 (31); suggestion, 

Motley, J. L., 235 

mowen, mowed, 9 (18) 

mue, cast or shed (horns), 131 (20) 

mum, 121 (28) 

Munday, Anthony, 186, 191, 193, 207, 
233, 248 

Murphy, Arthur, 256 

muse, profound meditation, 122 (20) 

muse, wonder, ponder over, 86 (20) 

music, esteem for, in Elizabethan days, 
227; for poems in the Paradise, Ixviii, 
184, 1 88, 196, 214, 227, 237, 253, 260 

Musical Antiquary, The, 207 

Musical Times, The, 214 

"My luck is loss," xliii, 1; name discussed, 
Ivi f.; poems signed by, 5 (i) n.,7 (13) n., 
45 (28) n., 48 (14) n., 49 (2) n. 

myzers (misers), the wretched, 32 (27) 

naked bed, 50 (10) n. 

Narcissus, 19 (6) n. 

Nashe, Thomas, xxxiii, 193, 199, 221 

Nassau, G. R. S., xxx 

Naylor, E. W., 207 

ne, nor, 47 (29), 50 (26), 51 (2), 66 (6, 28), 

102 (14), 121 (15); ne. . . ne, neither.. . 

nor, 46 (10) 

nere (near), nearer, 72 (9) n.; neer, 130 (7) 
New Custom, 193 
New English Dictionary, Ixvii, 179, 188, 

208, 218, 236, 244, 251, 267 

New Paradise of Dainty Devices, The, 

xxxiv n. 

Newcastle, Duke of. See Cavendish (W.) 
news, these, 132 (23) 
Newton, Thomas, liii 
Niccols, Richard, 231 f. 
nice ('nise'), foolish, 117 (30) 
Nichols, John, xlviii n., 204 
Nine Worthies, 130 (8) n. 
no, not, 69 (28) 

noise, sound (of music), 73 (i 6) n. 
North, John, xxvii 
North, Sir Thomas, 194 
Northampton, Earl of. See Compton 


"Norton of Bristow," lii 
Notes and Queries, Ixv n., 252 
nothing, in no wise, not at all, 57 (8), 62 

(14), 100 (33) 
noursht (nursed), 102 (6) 
Numa Pompilius, 102 (12), 104 (10) 
ny (nigh), 8 1 (30), 82 (8, 17) 

O., E., or L. O. See Vere, Edward de 

Occleve. See Hoccleve 

Odysseus and Irus, 209 

Oesterley, Hermann, 199, 219 

of, by, 12 (19), 30 (35); in, 36 (18); off, 

8(29), 1 8 (6), 470o)n., 71 ( 2 4)> 103 

(4), 1 23 (20); 10/^,30(3 5 f.) 
off or on, 47 (10) n. 
one (on), 69 (12) 
one time, sometime, 49 (23) 
or, ere, 16 (2), 47 (10) 
orphant (orphan), 102 (22) 
out alas, an interjection, 80 (19) 
outfound, discovered, 43 (25) 
Ouvry, Frederic, xix 
overpressed, 45 (32) 
Ovid, xlix, 198 f., 207, 209, 213, 224 
Oxford, Earl of. See Vere 
Oxford Historical Society, xlviii n. 

pack, play upon the, i.e., with playing- 
cards, 1 6 (28) 

Pactolus River, 104 (16) 

pains himself, takes pains, labors, 68 (18) 

painted, false, flattering, 10 (20), 21 (4), 
69(18), 73(19) 

Painter, William, 214, 243 

paise, payse (peise), a weight, 48 (2), 99 (19) 

Palaestra, 188, 210, 229, 236, 241 



pale, fence, 131 (22) 

palmed beams, horns having a 'palm* or 
flat expanded part y with projecting points, 
131 (20) 

Pandarus, 265 

panter (panther), 68 (5) n. 

Paradise of Dainty Devices , The, authors of 
poems in, table of variations in the at- 
tribution of, xiv, discussion and biog- 
raphies of the, xlii-lxv; ballads in, 
Ixviii; borrowings from, by the Gorgeous 
Gallery, xxxii, 38 (15) n., 54 (17) n., 93 

(9) n., by W. A., xxxii n., by Brian 
Melbancke, 191, 203, 217, 253, 266; 
borrowings in, from Petrarch, 85 
(4-5) n., from Tottel's Miscellany, 26 

(10) n., 51 (19) n., 65 (23) n.; contents 
of, table of variations of the, xiv; con- 
tributors to, table of the, xiv, biograph- 
ical sketches of the, xlii-lxv; copies of, 
numbers extant and where found, xiv, 
xix, xxi, xxiii f., xxvi f., xxix f., xl; dedi- 
cation of, to Lord Compton, 180; dic- 
tion of, Ixvii f.; editions, Elizabethan, 
the ten described, xiv-xxx, xxxviii f., 
doubtful Elizabethan and seventeenth- 
century, discussed, xxx f., xlii, modern, 
described, (Brydges's) xxxiv ff., (Col- 
lier's) xxxvii, (Rollins's) xxxvii ff.; ed- 
itorial methods of the present edition 
of, xv, xxxvii-xl; Looney's views on the 
publication of, lix f.; manuscript notes 
referred to or reproduced from the first 
edition (A) of, xviii n., xxxi, from the 
second extant edition (B) of, xl n., 181, 
183 f., 190, 192, 195 f., 198, 200, 203 f., 
206, 209 f., 212, 214, 216, 219 f., 229, 
232, 237, 249, 259 f., from the fifth 
edition (E) of, 184, from the sixth edi- 
tion (F) of, 184, from the seventh edi- 
tion (G) of, 213, 244, 253, from the 
eighth edition (H) of, 258; mechanical 
form of, commented on, xv f., xx, xxii, 
xxiv ff., xxvii-xxx, xxxviii f., 49 (i) n., 
50 (10) n., 69 (17) n., 71 (30. n -> 82 
(19) n.; metrical forms of, Ixviii, com- 
ments on the, 192, 196, 198 f., 208, 21 1, 
213, 241; misprints in the various edi- 
tions of, list of the, 137; music for 
poems in, Ixviii, 184, 188, 196, 214, 227, 
237, 253, 260; other versions of poems 
contained in, 181, 184 ff., 188, 195, 

198 ff., 207 f., 216 ff., 225 f., 228, 230, 
232, 236 f., 239, 249 f., 252 f., 256, 259, 
265 f.; price of, in Elizabethan issues, 
xxxi, in modern auctions, xiv, xix, xxi, 
xxiii, xxvi f., xxix f.; printers of, xl ff.; 
registrations of, at Stationers' Hall, 
xxxi, xl ff.; reputation of, history of, 
xxxi ff., 1 6 (6-8) n.; style of, discussed, 
Ixvi ff.; subject-matter of, Ixvi f.; vari- 
ant readings of the editions of, 137 

Paradise of Dainty Devices, A, by Various 
Hands, xxxiv 

parasites, 120 (5) 

Parcas (Parcae's), 101 (31) n., 104 (23) 

pardy (pardie), 51 (10) 

Paris, 86 (22) n., 130 (3) n. 

Park, Thomas, xviii, xxiii, xxxv, xlix, li, 
183, 194 

Parker, Henry, Baron Morley, 246 

Parker, Martin, 188, 233 f. 

Parker Society. See Farr 

passed, accumulated (and spent) in the 
past, 8 (4) 

passing, exceedingly, 58 (5); surpassing, 6 

Passionate Morris, The, 194, 234, 243 

Passionate Pilgrim, The, 238 

Patch, H. R., 192 

pate, head, 130 (19) 

Paul, 13 (20) n., 52 (23) n. 

Pavier, Thomas, and his wife, xlii 

payse. See paise 

Pearman, W. D., 221 

Pearson, J., 215, 228 

peculiar friends, i.e., their own, and only 
their own, friends, 24 (18) 

Pedlar s Prophecy, The, 211 

Peele, George, xlii, Ivii, 237 

peevish,/00//^, 121 (25) 

peised, held suspended, 56 (28) 

Pembroke, Earl of. See Herbert (Sir 

Percy, Bishop Thomas, xxxiv, Ixii n., 198, 
228, 240, 256. See Manuscript Percy 

Percy Society, xliv n., 1 8 8, 219, 227, 236, 
238, 267 

perforce, in spite of, 123 (13) n. 

Periander, Tyrant of Corinth, 625-585 B.C., 
one of the Seven Sages of Greece, 102 (31) 

Perry, Henry, Ix 

Persius, 206, 219 

Petrarch, 222, 242, 245 





> 68 


Phaedra, 40 (13) n. 

Phasdrus, 208 

Philip II, King, 235 

Philips, John, 199 

Phillipps, L. G., xiv 

Phillips, Edward, Ixv n. 

Philological Quarterly, The, 198 

Phocion, Athenian general ftj 7 7 B.C.), 

1 02 (10) 

phoenix, 90 (24), 104 (14) 
Phcenix Nest, The, xxxii, Iviii, 210, 239 
Pickering, J. E. L., 243, 254 
Pierides place, Mount Pierus in Thessaly, 

the haunt of the Muses, 101 (32) 
Piers of Fullham, 262 
Piers Plowman, 219, 243 
Pinero, Sir Arthur, 251 
Pinkerton, John, 252 
pitte (pit), grave, 40(13) 
Plato, 243 
Plessow, Max, 229 
Pliny, Natural Hi story, 205, 231, 269 
y\\imzs, figurative for pride, 120 (21) 
Plummer, C., xlviii n. 
Plutarch, 245, 258 
Poetical RhaDsody, A (ed. Francis Davi- 

son), xxxii, 245, 263 
point, be at, on the verge of doing some- 

^ing, 57 (34) 
Polivka, Georg, 218 
Polycrates, 32 (23) n. 
Pompey, 270; and Caesar, 85 (4-5) n. 
Pooley (?Yloop), Ixv 
Poor Knight his Palace, A, by I. C., 

xlviii f., 212, 250, 260, 267 
Pope, Alexander, 266 
Porter, Henry, 183, 187, 189, 193, 199, 

201, 234, 2 4 I, 251, 267 

posting-horse, 112 (12) 
power,/orr^, troops, 123 (13) 
poynted (pointed), appointed, 39 (32) 
praie, pray (prey), 63 (9, 22), 71 (23), 74 

(9), 78 (12), no (ii) 
Pratt, Charles, xxxiv 
preach, perch, 71 (10) n. 
prease (press), throng, 48 (27) 
presedent (precedent), 128 (23) 
presently, at once, 59 (25) 
Preservation of King Henry VII, 'The, 201, 


> lo6 

prest, frtsseJ, S3 

(*9), 45 (*9)> s 

(II), J2J (4) 

Preston, Thomas, ballad- writer, 261 

Preston, Thomas, Cambyses, 255, 260 

pretence, intent, 49 (20) 

Priam, 86 (22), 92 (8) n., 265 

Price, Richard, xlvii 

prick, incite, 9 (29), 10 (11) 

pricking, tormenting, 14 (9) 

Prienna, Priene, an Ionian city, 102 (14) 

prime, in the flush of youth, 20 (3); in the 
flush of wealth, 96 (23) 

prince, princess, queen, 108 (28) 

printers. See Allde, Awdeley, Bensley, 
Bird, Booker, Brews ter, Chard, Col- 
well, Day, Dewes, Disle (Henry), Gil- 
bertson, Griffith, Jones, Lobley, Lyn- 
nell, Pavier, Proctor, Rider, Sancho, 
Smith (Richard), Triphook, Walde- 
grave, White (Edward, Sarah), Wright 
(Edward, John) 

prise (price), be in, be esteemed, 57 (31) 

Proctor, Thomas, xxxii, 179, 250 

profixe, 85 (23) n. 

proofs, results, 46 (25) 

prop of stay, support, 49 (23) 

Prouerbts ofWysdom, The, 182, 251 

prove, make trial of, 56 (i i) 

proverbs, proverbial phrases, common- 
places: all that shines isn't gold, 10 
(22) n.; alone, never less, than when 
alone, 86 (16) n.; amantium irce, etc., 
50 (9) n.; barren ground brings forth 
rotten weeds, 22 (6) n.; bear two faces 
in one hood, 21 (23) n.; beat the bush 
and miss the birds, 10 (27) n., 86 (3) n.; 
bird, he who sits still with the net gets 
the, 86 (4) n.; bite on the bridle, 70 
(18) n.; bitter pill, a, is gilded,2i (10) n.; 
blind, the, go where they who see fall 
(the blind man may catch a hare), 127 
(5) n.; burn but blow the fire, to, 75 
(20) n.; burnt child dreads the fire, 105 
(17) n.; cat, the, winks but isn't blind, 
67 (24) n.; cheese or chalk, 46 (20) n.; 
climb the tree, miss the fruit, 27 (25) n.; 
ccelum non solum, 82 (19) n.; crede quod 
habes et habes, 65 (9) n.; crocodile tears, 
73 (20) n.; cut thy coat according to 
thy cloth, 15 (18) n.; deeds, not words, 
ii (8), 17 (22) n., 21 (2-3), 47 (23); 



dog, a, has its day, 18 (17) n.; donee eris 
felix multos numerabis amicos, etc., 48 
(14) n.; dripping water wears away a 
stone, 23 (19) n.; ebb, the lowest, has 
the highest flow, 96 (30) n.; eel, to hold 
an, by the tail, 70 (12) n.; empty hands 
allure no hawks, 15 (17) n.; enough is 
as good as a feast, 127 (34) n.; evil to 
him that thinks evil, 68 (30) n.; fair 
without, foul within, 59 (14-15) n.; fair 
words make fools fain, 10 (9) n.; few 
words are best, 93 (33) n.; fire, all that 
blazes isn't, no (3) n.; fish, to, and 
catch a frog, 70 (17) n.; fool's bolt, a, 
may sometimes hit the mark, 121 
(27) n.^Jormce nulla fides, ill (10) n.; 
fronti nulla fides, 32 (3) n., ill (10) n.; 
fry in frozen ice, to, 19 (14) n.; greatest 
fish, the, is soonest deceived by a hook, 
23 (27) n.; habit is second nature, 27 
(23) n.; had I wist, 7 (13) n., 15 (15); 
haggard hawks in time stoop to the 
lure, 27 (22) n., 128 (18); he that is 
bound must obey, 23 (30) n.; he that 
will not when he may, when he would 
he shall have nay, 101 (19) n.; he who 
climbs high doesn't fall softly, 96 (3o)n.; 
high trees, etc., by stormy winds are 
shaken, 55 (30-32) n., or have the 
greatest fall, 87 (29) n.; honey in the 
mouth and poison in the heart, 28 
(25) n.; hope well and have well, 65 
(9) n.; I watch the nets, others have 
the prey, 18 (31) n.; in trust is treason, 
73 (17) n.; Irus, as poor as, 40 (15)^.; 
it's better to be fortunate than wise, 
33 (7) n.; last but not least, 22 (4) n.; 
^latet anguis in herba, 21 (9) n.; learned 
men can't want, 23 (7) n.; lightly come, 
lightly go, 70 (32) n.; lingering love 
brings mislikinc, 47 (12) n.; little sparks 
make a great fire, 27 (16) n.; look be- 
fore you leap, 93 (30) n., 128 (10), 183; 
lookers-on, the, see most of the game, 
94 (13) n.; many men, many minds, 
36 (15) n.;mean, the, is best, 47 (n) n.; 
memento mori, 51 (19) n.; more hair 
than wit, 14 (33) n.; more haste, the, 
the worse speed, 19 (13) n.; more I 
drink, the, the more I thirst, 19 (7) n.; 
my luck is loss, Ivii; nay, a woman's, 
means ay, 74 (26) n.; no grief for which 

the gods haven't prepared a relief, 
there's, 43 (28) n.; no haste but good, 
47 (n) n.; no pleasure without pain, 
there's, 8 (17) n.; of little meddling 
comes great rest, 94 (19) n.; of suffer- 
ance comes ease, 38 (15) n.; poison is 
hidden in glittering glass or silver (or 
gold) pots, 21 (n) n.; praise at parting, 
give, 26 (9) n.; promise is debt, 17 (2) n.; 
respice finem, 25 (17) n.; rolling stone, 
a, gathers no moss, 83 (3) n.; shame be 
to him that evil thinks, 68 (30) n.; short 
horse, a, is soon curried, 105 (19) n.; 
snake, a, in the grass, 21 (9) n.; soleil, /<?, 
ni la mort ne se peuvent regarder fixe- 
ment, 76 (3) n.; spare to speak, spare to 
speed, 121 (28) n.; spin a fair thread, to, 
82 (6) n.; strike while the iron is hot, 
10 (29) n.; strive against the stream 
and wind, to, 75 (27) n.; strongest 
towers, the, are conquered in time, 38 
(n) n.; sundry men, sundry affects, 
36 (15) n.; sweet meat will have sour 
sauce, 70 (11) n.; tempus edax rerum, 
24 (2) n.; things are not what they 
seem, 38 (29) n.; think on thy end, 
in (6) n.; think to die, 51 (19) n.; tide, 
the, tarries for no man, 15 (22) n., in 
(6) n.; time out of mind, 66 (21) n.; 
time trieth all things, 68 (9) n.; tree, 
the, is known by its fruit, 69 (28) n.; 
try before you trust, 28 (7) n.; vivit post 
funera virtus, 124 (8) n.; waste not, 
want not, 96 (25) n.; wealth, while you 
have, you have friends, 48 (14) n., 89 
(19) n.; what can't be cured must be 
endured, 102 (28) n.; when all is said 
and done, 88 (18); when all the fruit is 
gone, it's too late to climb the tree, 
10 (5) n.; when thy neighbor's house 
burns, take heed of thine own, 96 (27) n.; 
whetstone, a, can't cut but makes tools 
cut, 127 (9) n.; while the grass grows, 
the silly horse starves (dies), 18 (25) n., 
2 9 (33); wisdom is only in gray hairs, 
14 (33) n.; wit's no good till it be 
bought, 14 (32) n.; wolf, to hold a, by 
the ear, 70 (15) n.; wooing, the, that's 
not long a-doing is happy, 79 (26) n.; 
words are wind, 70 (10) n. 

prowes(s), 118 (30) 

Publilius Syrus, 192, 215, 243, 248 



puissant, 61 (11) 

purtend, give, lend, 67 (17) 

Puttenham, Richard (?), xxxiii, xlviii n., 

lix, Ixiii, 209 
Pythagoras, 206 

qd,p(quod), 10 (17), 60 (10), 96 (31), 


Quaritch, Bernard, Ltd., xxi, Ixix 
quayle, /*</<?, wither, 5 (12); destroy, 121 


Queen, The, 240 
quick, bring to life, 121 (13) 
quick, vigorous, active, 19 (10) 
Quintilian, 213 
quite, requite, 54 0*6), 7 6 ( T S)> no ( IO ) 

R., W., Ix f., Ixii; poem by, 8 (17) n. 
race, course, career, 53 (31), 57 (10), 100 

(4), 102 (21); descent, family, 83 (10) 
Radcliffe, Thomas, Earl of Sussex, Ixiv 
rageless, devoid of rage, 38 (19) n. 
raine, to reign, 100 (10) 
raine, a rein, 82 (21), 96 (13) 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, xlii, Ix; attributed 

author of a Paradise poem, 8 (17) n. 
ranger, one fickle in love, 74 (18 f.) 
Rankins, William, Ix 
rase all, low-born, 83 (10) 
rate, manner, 99 (3) 
rated, scolded, 50 (15) 
raught, reached, 39 (9) 
Rawlinson ballads, 199 
Ray, John, 234, 251, 254 
rayes, arrays, display, 30 (18) 
rechlesse, heedless, reckless, 96 (10) 
Redford, John. See Moral Play 
redounded, reechoed, 123 (27) 
refrain, restrain oneself from, 34 (19) 
register, in, on record, 50 (19) 
relent, grow soft, 66 (3) 
remedilesse, incurable, 43 (33) 
remorse, compassion, 94 (32) 
remove, move, affect, 131 (18) 
renowm (renown), 6 (12, 28), 100 (5) 
rent, rend, 64 (29), 78 (20). See to-rent 
repair, long association, 28 (20) 
repugnant, 35 (10) 
require, ask for, 60 (19) 
resight (recite), 12 (28) 
resign, utter, 83 (27) n. 
respect to, have, give attention to, 23 (2), 

62 (25); in respect of, in regard to, 38 


respecting friends, those who are friends 
for selfish considerations, 89 (18) 

retire, withdraw (from friendship), 18 (14) 

Return from Parnassus, The, 255 

retyre (retire), return (of health), 46 (2) 

Review of English Studies, The, xxxiii n., 
Ixiv n. 

Rhadamanthus, 102 (8) 

Rhodes, Hugh, 255 

Rich, Barnabe, Ivii, Ixviii, 180; sketch of, 
Ixi; poem by, 121 (21) n. 

richesse, wealth, 22 (16) 

richly, wealthy, 6 (14) 

Rider, Timothy, xxxi, xli 

Rimbault, E. F., xlviii n. 

rine (rind), 27 (31); misprint for brine, 

Ritson, Joseph, xliv, Ivi 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, 220 

Robinson, Clement, 179 

Rochester, Earl of. See Wilmot 

Rodd, W. T., xiv n. 

Rogers, Samuel, 246 

Rogers, Thomas, 209 

Rollins, H. E., xlvii, Ix n., 179, 1 8 1, 187 f., 
190, 197 ff., 200, 218, 225, 227, 233 f., 
235, 239, 248, 252, 255, 260, 267; Ana- 
lytical Index, xliiin., Iv n., 179, 180, 

185 f., 189, 193, 200, 202, 209, 220 f., 

225, 236, 238, 243, 250, 252 f., 256, 259, 

261 f., 264, 266. See Gorgeous Gallery, 

Romania, 200 

rout, people in general, 51 (10) 
row, run on, take up successively, 52 (9) 
Rowe, Addie F., Ixix 
Rowfant Library (Frederick Locker- 

Lampson), xix, xxxvii 
Rowlands, Samuel, Works (ed. Hunterian 

Club), 182,206,211,231,250 
Rowley, William, 187, 238, 267 
Roxburghe Ballads (ed. Ballad Society), 

xliii f., xliv n., Ivi n., 188 f., 193, 199, 202, 

Roxburghe Club, xlvi n., 217, 227, 234, 

243, 246, 254. See Collmann 
Roxburghe Library, xxi, xxix 
Royal Society of Literature, Ixii n. 
Roydon, Owen, xxxii 
rude, ill-bred, 83 (10) 



rule the case, dominate the situation, 85 

(6); for rule, 128 (9) n. 
Russell, Francis, Earl of Bedford, Ixiv 

S., D. See Sand 

S., E., Ix, Ixiii; discussed, Lxii; poems by, 
8 (17) n.,38 (15) n.,5 4 (3o)n.,75(i2)n. 

S., M., Ixi f.; poem signed, 101 (2) n. 

Saba, 103 (27) n. 

Sackville, Thomas, Baron Buckhurst, Earl 
of Dorset, Ixix, 180; quoted, 209 t 

sad, steadfast, sober, 102 (18), 103 (28) 

sallow, a kind of willow, 61 (14 n., 15) 

Salter, Thomas, 221 

salue, save, 60 (35); protect, 61 (2); miti- 
gate (in a bad, or paradoxical, sense), 1 1 1 


Sancho, William, xxxv 

Sand, D. (D.S.), xlvi, 1, Hi, Ixi f.; dis- 
cussed, Ixi; poems by, 9 (2) n., 25 
(17) n., 28 (7) n., 31 (11) n., 51 (19) n., 
101 (2) n. See S.(M.) 

Sand, Daniel, or David, 204 

Sandys, Edwin, Ixi f. 

Sara, 103 (28) n. 

Saunders, Sir Edward, xl; epitaph on, 
101 (28) n. 

sause (sauce), flavor, 8 (33), 28 (23) 

scape, escape, 64 (25) 

scath, harm, 112 (7) 

Scheler, Auguste, 235, 257 

Schelling, F. E., xxxiv 

Scherer, Hans, 190, 199, 211, 228 

sclender (slender), 8 (5), 10 (11), 99 (4) 

Scott, Alexander, 202 

Scott, Sir Walter, 241 

Scottish Text Society, 197, 202, 252, 254 

sease (cease), 24 (16) 

seaseth, ceaseth, 52 (19) n. 

Seccombe, Thomas, xxxiv 

seeged, besieged, 29 (34) 

seek, seek (to restore), 102 (27); seek to, 
have recourse to, 60 (30) n. 

seely. See silly 

selde, seldom, 83 (2), 96 (30) 

Selden, John, 224 f. 

sely. See silly 

semes (seams), 93 (3) 

Seneca (the younger), li 

sent (scent), 60 (28) 

set it out, display oneself brazenly, 105 
(12); set light, esteem little, 17 (6) 

sethyng (sithing), sighing, 52 (32) 
Sewall, Henry F., xxvii 
sews (sues), ensues, 96 (24) 
Shakespeare, xxxii, xxxiv, xlii, xlviii, Ixi, 

Ixiv; cited, 187, 196, 206 f., 233, 270; 

Looney on, as Lord Oxford, lix f., 244; 

quoted, Ix n., 188, 190 f., 192 ff., 197, 

201 ff., 208 ff., 216, 223, 227 f., 230, 232, 

Shakespeare Society, Ixii n., 186 f., 225, 

Shakspere Society, New, xlviii n., 183, 

194, I9 6 > 2 34, 243, 259, 267 
shalme, 12 (27) n. 
shalyng (shaling), 54 (23) n. 
shamble-fly, 68 (22) 
Shannon, earls of, 267 
Sheba, Queen of, 103 (27) n. 
Sheppard, Samuel, 205 
shere (sheer), turn aside, 72 (13) 
shilde (shield), 87 (15) 
shoe, show, 109 (12). See show 
shoote (shout), 58 (32) 
shooting at, figuratively for aiming to at- 
tain, 56 (14) 
show ('shot'), false appearance, 10(21); 

(persona/) appearance, 73 (19) 
Shrewsbury, Earl of. See Talbot 
shroud, protect, 60 (34); shroude, shrouded, 

buried, 102 (30) 

Sibyl, the, of Cumae, 102 (4, 19 n.), 104 (6) 
Sidney, Sir Philip, xlii, 1, Iviii, Ixiv 
sieldome (seldom), rare, 121 (33) 
sight, appearance, 110(12); eye, 57 (18), 

127 (5); seeing,^ ( 2 5); -^>47 (3) n -> 

82 (22 n., 33) 
sight (sighed), 77 (i 9) 
Signus. See Cycnus 
silly seely/ 'sely'), innocent, helpless, 41 

(18), 44 (19), 46 (33)> 57 (H), us (14), 

116(13), etc. 

silver sound of music, 36 (28) n. 
sinister, 85 (32) 
sins (since), 54 (33), 116(27) 
Str Clyomon and Sir Clamydes, 237 
Sirens, the, 63 (16) 
Sirian (siren), 90 (8) 
Sisyphus, 37 (24) n., 243 
sith (since), 6 (24), 10 (24), 24 (12-14), etc. 
sithyng, sighing, 83 (13) 
Skeat, W. W., 187, 190 ff., 207, 224 
Skelton, John, xlix, 182, 197, 251, 267 



skill, discretion, wisdom, 10 (3), 128 (12) 
sketch, scotched, gashed, 59 (35) 
skowreth (scoureth), washes away, 16 (25) 
slaight (sleight), deceit, 90 (3) 
slake, make smaller (through the birth of 

young), 131 (i 6) 
slily, cunning, 68 (31) 
slipp, a shoot or cutting of a tree, 52 (33), 

60 (17) 
slipper, slippery, fickle, 36 (3), 67 (6), 

?i ( 2 3) 

smart, pain, distress, 7 (14), 14 (9X95 (17) 
smell out, 105 (12) 
Smith, G. C. Moore, 214 
Smith, Gregory, xxxii n., xliii n., xlvi n., 

Hi n., liv n., Iviii n., Ixi n., Ixiii n., Ixv n., 


Smith, Richard, 180 

Smith, William, 260 

snail, poem on the, 128 (5) n. 

Society of Antiquaries, London, xliii n. 

sods (suds), 102 (13) n. 

Solomon, 20 (14) n. 

Solon, one of the Seven Sages of Greece 

^558 B.C.), 102 (12), 261 
some (sum), in, in the end, 51 (7) 
Somers 'Tracts, 'The, 241 
sone (soon), 49 (15), 58 (7, 9), 59 (8), 60 


soner (sooner), 59 (2) 
sonest (soonest), 69 (4-6) 
song (sung), 4 (7), 31 (11) 
sonne (sun), 76 (3), 80 (25), 85 (31) 
sore (soar), 71 (3) 
Sotheby and Company, xiv, xxvi, xxix, 


sounds, sounding-lines, 72 (6) 
South and West, not, 94 (17) n. 
sowry, sour, 8 (24) 
speed, succeed, 46 (23) 
Spelman, William, 243, 254 
Spencer, Anne, Lady Monteagle and 

Compton, 1 80 
Spenser, Edmund, xlii, Iviii, Ixii, Ixviii f., 

1 80, 183, 192, 229, 260, 262; quoted, 

183, 187, 197, 228, 232, 234, 242, 244, 

Spenser Society, 193 f., 229, 268. See 

Heywood (John) 
spheres, music of the, 36 (33) n. 
spild (spilled), destroyed, 102 (32) 
spill, injure, 66 (^), 131 (31) 

Spooner, Henry, 227 

spray, branch, 131 (14) 

sprights (sprites), 63 (6) 

sprigs, 60 (15) 

spring, spring up, be born, 9 (16), 12 (5), 

springing, blooming, 7 (9) 

Spurina, poem on, 59 (n) n. 

stablish, establish, 51 (23) 

stale, decoy-bird, 128 (18) 

stand, be, act as, 70 (7) 

state, in, likely, ready, 20 (17) 

Stationers' Registers, xvii n., xxxi, xl ff. 

See Rollins, Analytical Index 
Statius, 244 
stay, prevent, 68 (21); set in stay, reduce 

to order or quiet, 68 (14) 
stay, a good, quiet condition, 5 (17), 8 (2) 
stayed state, 8 (2) 
steede (stead), 16 (12), 116 (8) 
Steevens, George, xxvi, xxix, xxxiv f., 

Ixiv f., 258 

stelth (stealth), theft, 109 (25), no (28) 
Stephens, Richard, xlviii n. 
sterne, helm, 63 (12) 
starve, die, 18 (25), 20 (17) 
still, forever, 39 (23) 
stilled, distilled, 118 (24) 
stilling, ? deadening, stupefying, 130 (18) 

stomackes, haughty, used figuratively for 
pride, 35 (7) n. 

stope (stoop), 71 (2) 

Stopes, Mrs. C. C., xviii, xxxvii n., xliii, 
xlviii n., liii f., lix n., 215, 230, 233, 249, 

Stow, John, 223 

Strabo, 221 

straight, put in order, 1 1 1 (8) 

streams, rays (of the sun), 131 (21) 

stroke (struck), 56 (30) 

stroke, abide the answer of the, 39 (5) n. 

Stubbes, Philip, 196, 267 

studies, pursuits in life, 5 (27) 

Studies in Philology, 179 

suds of sin, 35 (22) 

Sullivan, Edward, 211, 223, 229, 234, 243, 
250, 254, 261 

sum ('some'), in, in the end, 51 (7) 

Surrey, Earl of. See Howard 

Susan, 103 (28) n., 109 (27) n. 

suspect, suspicion, 28 (19), 38 (22), 90 

(3) n * 



Sussex, Earl of. See Radcliffe 

swads, the husks of peas, beans, etc., 134 (7) 

swage, assuage, 95 (17) 

swarue (swerve), 75 (8) 

swash, strike violently with, 129 (32) 

sweard (sword), 104 (10) 

Swinburne, A. C., 183, 232 

syld, seldom, 109 (9) 

T., M. See Thorn 

Tagus River, 104 (17) 

take (taken), 59 (19); take in worth, 26 

( J 5) n -> 93 ( l8 ) n -; tak e to, 32 (26) 
Talbot, Anne, Lady Compton, 180 
Talbot, George, Earl of Shrewsbury, 180 
talentes (talons), 48 (18) 
Tallis, Thomas, 260 
tane, taken, 90 (15), 99 (24) 
Tantalus, 27 (28) 
Tarlton, Richard, 261 
Taverner, Richard, 251 
tawny, 78 (5-6) n. 
Taylor, Archer, 179 
Taylor, John, 189, 193 f., 268 
Ttll-frotKs New Years Gift, 183 - 
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, 191, 215 
tent, spider s web, 68 (22) 
tent, tend upon, take care o/, 134 (4) 
tenure (tenor), purport, 122 (22) 
Terence, 206, 214, 234 
terreine (terrain), earthly, 36 (3) 
Thackeray, W. M., 215 
than, then, 30 (11), 57 (14), 62 (5), 74 (7, 

1 6, 25, 34), 75 (10, 22, 32), 76 (10), 78 

05> 2 3)> 79 (2) 
that, ;/, 45 (22); what, 16 (26), 20 (10), 

29 (2), 35 (5), 44 ( 4 ), 47 (24), 65 (27), 

67 ( 4 ), 68 (8), 90 (5), 91 (19) n., 1 12 (4), 

127 (29); when, ii (4) 
the(thee),75( 3 i), 128(28) 
"themes," examples of, 108 (18) n. 
then (than), 5 (17, 24), 7 (23), 30 (11), 


Theodorus and Polycrates, 204 f. 
ther(e) (their), 46 (13), 103 (2, 14), no 

(25), in (3), 123(12) 
Thetis, 77 (12) n. 
tho, then, 107 (7) 
Thorn, Master John (M.T.), discussed, 

Ixii; poems by, 23 (15) n., 62 (2) n. 
Thornbury, G. W., 261 
thorough, thorow, through, 14 (4), 39 (5) 

thought, sorrowful thought, grief, 43 (35), 

53 (6), 9 (30) n. 
thrall, enslaved, 116 (23) 
thrall, servitude, 8 (10) 
thrild (thirled), pierced, 53 (6) 
throbs, 53 (2) 

throughly, thoroughly, 62 (7) 
throw (through), no (28), in (3) 
tickle, fickle, insincere, 10 (24), 15 (13), 

i6(i6),6o(2 7 ) 
tide (tied), 92 (23) n. 
til (till), while, 105 (15) n. 
timber, build, 131 (15) 
tipe (tip), rim of a wheel, 99 (20) n. 
tiring, ripping with the beak, 48 (18) 
Tisiphone, 241 
Tityus, 37 (22) n. 

to, for, as, 93 (27); like, 49 (2), 67 (22); 
too, 15 (10, 26, 32), 17 (15), 21 (33), 29 
(ii),3i (21), 34 (28), 47(10), 60 (21 f.), 
61 (32), 77 (4, 3 2 )> 81 (24), 89 (9, 15, 
22), 96 (10), 99 (30), 101 (24), 102 (26), 
121 (3), 127 (21). See all to 
to and fro, 48 (21); to nor fro, 47 (17) n. 
Tofte, Robert, 233, 240 
To m Tyler and his Wife, 201, 269 
too (to), 47 (17), 48 (21 ) 
to-pull, pull violently, 48 (21) 
to-rent, rend to pieces, 107 (6) 
Tottel's Miscellany, xiii, xxxii, xlv, lix, 
Ix n., Ixiii, Ixv, Ixvii f., 179; borrowings 
from, in the Paradise, 26 (10) n., 51 
(19) n., 65 (23) n.; cited, 217, 243; 
quoted, 182, 201, 211, 234, 245, 254, 
259. See Howard, Wyatt 
totter, oscillum, 92 (23) n. 
touch of, by, by reference to, 116 (9) 
toys, amorous sporting, 57 (29, 36); ca- 
prices, 5 (28) 
trackt, tract, passage (of time), 10 (19), 66 

(19)-, track, path, 133 (22) 
trade, course of life, 33 (15) 
Trail!, H. D., 215 
train, arrange, 23 (3); induce, lead, 116 

(25); make a train, lay a trap, 29 (9) 
train, attendants (of the Court), 10 (16); 

deceit, 99 (26); snare, 8 (26) 
trained, ensnared, 21 (5) 
trash, lucre, 129 (30) 
trauell, travail, 68 (13, 20, 27) 
travaile, travelling, 130 (9) 
travelling, strictures on, 129 (2) n. 



treene, made of trees (i.e., of wood), 99 (24) 

trees, lists of, 224 

Trial of Treasure, The, 187 

trifeled forth, wasted, idled, 96 (15) 

Triphook, Robert, xxxv f. 

trips (tripes), entrails, 134 (6) 

Triton, 101 (31) 

trod, path, 7 (2) 

Troilus, Ivi; poem signed, 117 (2) n. 

trone, throne, 55 (28), 95 (15) 

try, find out, 21 (14); prove (of time), 7 1 

(12), 74 (21) 

Tudor Facsimile Texts, Ixvi n., 183, 187, 

189, 193, I9 6 *"> !99> 20I > 2IO > 2 34 *"> 

241, 251, 258, 267 
Turbervile, George, xlii, xlix, Ix, Ixvn, 185, 

187, 196 ff., 207, 210 f. 
turmoiled, distressed, 128 (6) 
turn, guide, direct, 63 (12) 
Turner, William, 220 
turning, of a hare that changes its course as 

it runs, 131 (16) 

Turnus, King of the Rutulians, 102 (30) 
Tusser, Thomas, lii, 181 
twine, twist the, 82 (6) n. 
? wo Wise Men and All the Rest Fools, 235 
Twyne, Thomas, xlix 
Tyburn, 108 (26) n. 

V., L. See Vaux (Thomas) 

vade,/0<fc, pass away, 66 (20) 

vaile,arke of, ark which availed us, 103 (13) 

Valerian and a young Egyptian, 57 (5) n. 

Valerius Maximus, 220 ff. 

valure, excellence, 127 (26) 

Vanbrugh, Sir John, 269 

Van Hasselt, Andre, 257 

vaunst, advanced, raised, 124 (3) 

Vaux, Nicholas, Lord, Ixiii 

Vaux, Thomas, Lord (L. V.), xlix n., 1, lii, 
Ixii, 260; sketch of, Ixii f.; poems by, 
n (n) n., 18 (19) n., 19 (27) n., 38 
(15) n., 52 (30) n., 72 (25) n., 80 (28), 81 
(23) n., 87 (2) n., 87 (28) n., 88 (17) n., 
89 (5) n., 89 (25) n., 90 (27), 112 (u)n. 

vayles (vails), avails, 99 (22). See vaile 

ubi sunt, etc., poems on the theme of, 5 
(i) n., 102 (30-33) 

Udall, Nicholas, 187,262 

Vere, Edward de, Earl of Oxford (E.G., 
L.O.), xliii, xlviii, 244; sketch of, Iviii f.; 
poems by, 32 (2) n., 77 (6) n., 78 (5-6) n., 

82 (19) n., 83 (19) n., 84 (27) n., 85 

(29) n. 

vessall, vassal, 1 1 1 (27) 
Virgil, xlix, 191, 196, 219, 222, 257 
uncomely, improper, 82 (24) 
undoo (undo), ruin, 58 (3) 
unfold, disentangle, 132 (9) 
unkinged, dethroned, 88 (3) 
unknit, untie, 104 (7) 
unskill, indiscretion, lack of sense, 20 (30) 
unthought, unexpected, 68 (16) 
unwares, 64 (25) 
Vocht, H. de, li 
Von Duringsfeld, Ida, 258 
vouchsalfe (vouchsafe), 95 (5) 
upbrayed (upbraided), 117 (9) 
upon, on account of, 95 (22) 
upsidoune, 54 (36) n. 
ure, use, practice, 27 (23) n., 71 (17) 
use, conduct oneself, 71 (19), 101 (12), 108 

(24); practise, 69 (19), no (32), 131 (9); 

treat, 75 (3) 
use, practice, 8 (10) n. 
using course, 108 (24) n. 
Utterson, E. V., xxvii 
Vulcan, 83 (10) n. 

Wager, W., 268 

Wagner, W., 221 

waie (weigh), consider, 84 (7). See way 

wake, lie awake, n (14); wake in watch, 

47 ( l6 ) n - 

Waidegrave, Robert, xli 
Waldron, F. G., xxxi, 265 
Walker, William, 234 
Wallace, C. W., xlviii f. 
Wanley, Nathaniel, 220 
wanne, wan, won, 92 (30), 102 (9), 103 (13, 

31), 123 (12), 130(9) 
Wapull, George, 262 
Ward, Artemus (C. F. Browne), 233 
Ward, B. M., xxxiii n., Ixiv n. 
Ward, Ned, 257 
warely (warily), 127 (11) 
warrantise, authorization, 80 (32) 
Warton, Thomas, xviii, xxx f., xxxiv, xlix 
Wat, Wily, 90 (10) n. 
wat, a hare, 131 (17) 
watch, watchfulness, 71 (32) 
Water-house, Edward, 252 
watrishe, tearful, weeping, 80 (6) 
Watson, Thomas, 202 



way (weigh), ponder over, 61 (4). See waie 

wayfaring, 5 (4) 

wayteth (waiteth) on, observes carefully, 

99 W 
wealefull, prosperous, 34 (9) 

wear, destroy, 112 (25) 

Webbe, William, xxxii f., xliii, xlvi, Hi, liv, 
Iviii f., Ixi, Ixv, 259 

weed, garment, no (4), 122 (2) 

Weelkes, Thomas, 206, 229 

ween, 104 (15) 

Wells, J. E, 259 

Westmorland, Earl of. See Fane 

what, why, 30 (25) 

what time, when, 57 (15), 63 (25), 99 (23) 

Wheatley, H. B., xxxiv n., Ixii n., 198, 228, 
240, 256 

when as, when, 61 (34), 101 (12) 

whens (whence), 133 (7) 

whereas, where, 50 (21), 73 (18), 88 (5) 

whereto, to what purpose, 73 (6) 

Whetstone, Anne, Ixiv 

Whetstone, George, xvii, 1, Ivi, 268; sketch 
of, Ixiii f.; cited, 241, 263, 267; poems 
by, 108 (n, 12 n.), 119 (27) n.; quoted, 
1 82 f., 1 86 f., 194 ff., 240, 260 f. 

Whight, Nicholas, 189, 227 

White, Edward, xxvi-xxix, xxxi; his edi- 
tions of the Paradise, xli f. 

White, Edward (son of the preceding), xlii 

White, Sarah, xlii 

White, W. A., xxvii, Ixix, 185 

Whitney, Geoffrey, Emblems, xhv, 194, 
196, 199, 204, 219, 229, 234, 240, 245, 

Whitsunday, 14 (2) 

wight, 82 (10, 32), 86 (n), 89 (8), 94 (19). 

115 (* 6 ) 
Willobie His Amsa, 196 

willow, the, as a sign of bad luck in love, 

61 (14) n. 

Wilmot, John, Earl of Rochester, 257 
Wilson, Thomas, 189, 221, 258, 268 
wine, win the, 130 (28) 
Wingfield, Robert, 267 
wire, hair like, 42 (19) n. 
wise, of, 85(11)11. 

withal, cannot do, cannot help it, 75 (25) 

Wither, George, Emblems, 207, 218 

woe worth, woe be to, 1 1 (2, 3, 4), 69 (3 ff.), 

78 (16,24), 79 (3), 95 (6) 
Woelfflin, Edward, 215 
Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal, Ixiii 
wonts, is accustomed to, 49 (12) 
Wood, Anthony, his ballads, 199 
woodcock, 47 (13) n. 
work, write of, 86 (19) 
worn, spent, passed, 9 (15) 
worth, take in, 93 (18) n. 
Worthies, the Nine, 130 (8) n. 
wot, know, 46 (16), 47 (26), 120 (25) 
would, desiring, 18 (28); wish y 80 (9) 
wrack, 16 (29), 28 (2), 71 (32), 72 (n) 
wrest, wrist, 99 (27) 
Wright, Edward, xlii 
Wright, John, xlii 

Wright, Thomas, 181, 219, 227, 246 
Wyatt, Sir Thomas, Hi, Ix, Ixvii, 235; dis- 
cussed, Ixiv f.; poem by, 65 (23) n. See 
Wytton, John, 268 

Xanthus and ^Esop, 261 

Y.,S. (PYloop), xlvi, Hi, Ixv 

yalping (yelping), 23 (24) 

Yates, James, Ixv 

yearth (earth), 55 (9), 67 (TO), 82 (30), 

83(5), 84(14), 86(25), 87(13), 112 

(22), 132(11) 
ydde, yielded, 92(6) 
yernfull, mournful, 69 (2), 95 (30) 
yew ('cue'), 61 (10) 
Yloop (orYlope), Master, xlvi; discussed, 

Ixv; poems by, 8 (i) n., 96 (7) n. See 

Y. (S.) 

yongth,^M, 53(32) 
y, that (= what), 29(2), 112(2) 

Zaleucus and his son, poem on, 58 (12) n. 
Zell, C, 192, 243, 248 
Zenocrates and Lais, 220 
Zepheria, xxxiii 
Zupitza, Julius, 182,251